Core area “Climate and energy, just transition” Solar, wind and hydropower instead of oil
Heat waves in the cities, which are characterised by rapid and not very sustainable growth, and extreme weather events and natural disasters affect both rich and poor Pakistanis, but the poor suffer particularly under climate change. For instance, if glaciers in the Himalayas melt, it must be feared that first there will be floods and then severe drought. Millions of people will have hardly any drinking water and will no longer be able to irrigate their fields.
That is why Germany is using its development cooperation in Pakistan to help improve people's capacity for adaptation to climate change and to build administrative capacity to manage climate-related risks. The focus is on topics such as reforestation and disaster risk management, tapping of international climate finance, and continuation of the NDC Partnership facilitation process.
For example, Germany supports Pakistan's Ten Billion Tree Tsunami Programme, which envisages the planting of ten billion trees by 2023 to help mitigate carbon emissions.
Energy consumption will rise in Pakistan in the coming years – not least because of rapid population growth. Resource-efficient growth and a sustainable energy supply that mitigates greenhouse gas emissions are key factors for Pakistan's development. Sufficient and sustainable power supplies for the people remain one of the main challenges that Pakistan's government is facing.
Pakistan has great potential for the generation of renewable energy. In order to ensure sustainable energy supplies and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, the BMZ thus focuses on the increased use of renewable energy. This includes solar installations and micro hydropower plants to serve as off-grid solutions, advice on strategies for sustainable energy supplies, and efforts to connect renewable generation capacity (wind, solar, hydropower) to the grid.
For example, BMZ funding for five small hydropower stations and solar installations in remote communities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province enables 13,000 households to be provided with power from renewable sources. They have been able to reduce their spending on energy by 48 per cent. These measures avoid the emission of 1,600 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per year.
In May 2016, the Pakistan-German Renewable Energy Forum was established in Lahore. It fosters the exchange of information and experience as well as cooperation between government entities and the private sector, offers training, and serves as a point of contact for the German energy industry, industry federations and non-governmental organisations.
Pakistan-German Climate and Energy Initiative
The Pakistan-German Climate and Energy Initiative was agreed in September 2021 through a joint declaration of intent and presented to the public at the COP26 climate conference.
The purpose of the Initiative is to strengthen cooperation between Pakistan and Germany in the fields of adaptation to climate change and energy transition. This includes policy dialogue, increased bilateral development cooperation, and engagement with the private sector and academic and science institutions as well as civil society organisations, with a special focus on mobilising young people.
The current bilateral portfolio, which comprises more than 465 million euros, will be expanded under the Initiative. Germany is assisting Pakistan in meeting its commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change, adapting to climate change, getting better access to climate finance, and implementing its energy transition.