Jordan: Cooperation in action Analyses and policy reforms for evidence-led implementation of the Nationally Determined Contributions

Jordan is one of the most water-scarce countries in the world – and climate change will further reduce water availability. There is an acute risk to the public drinking water supply and adequate water provision for agriculture, particularly affecting vulnerable groups within society. According to the World Bank, around 16 per centof the Jordanian population lives in poverty. Jordan is also hosting several million refugees, many of whom live in poor urban districts and temporary housing which are particularly exposed to climate shocks.

View of the Jordanian capital Amman

In response to these challenges, Jordan has produced ambitious plans which support climate-responsive economic growth and national adaptation to the predicted impacts of climate change, in order to ensure that its citizens are able to benefit from long-term sustainable development. Although Jordan is a relatively low emitter of greenhouse gases, it aims – with international support – to cut its emissions by 31 per cent by 2030 compared to the “business as usual” scenario.

As a member of the NDC Partnership, Jordan is working with the World Bank’s Climate Support Facility (CSF). This programme, which receives funding from the BMZ, assists the Jordanian government with various analyses that support the preparation and implementation of Jordan’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and the fulfilment of climate and development targets.

The Climate Support Facility pursues a holistic approach in which individual actions achieve cross-sectoral impacts. The CSF advised the Jordanian government on the development of a Policy Reform Matrix in compliance with NDC targets; this Reform Matrix prioritises political reforms and investment in NDC implementation. In parallel, a monitoring system was set up to measure Jordan’s progress on adaptation to climate change. The resulting data provide the basis for evidence-led national adaptation policy and investment planning for a climate-resilient economy.

In a review of the municipal waste management infrastructure, the CSF’s support was instrumental in enabling pathways towards climate neutrality to be identified, including actions that are required in the short, medium and long term. In view of Jordan’s water scarcity and in order to progress energy efficiency and renewable energy use in the water sector, the CSF also assessed opportunities for investment in concurrent energy- and water-saving measures. Climate-smart solutions such as these reduce emissions in the energy generation sector while conserving precious water resources for the public supply.

With the CSF’s support, Jordan is overcoming political obstacles and economic challenges on the path towards an inclusive, low-carbon energy transition while simultaneously creating sustainable jobs and reducing fossil fuel use. The implementation of Jordan’s NDC must be based on a cross-sectoral approach in order to lower emissions and facilitate the country’s sustainable development.

As at: 01/11/2023