Worldwide, there are more than 100 million displaced people (source: UNHCR (External link), May 2022). They all were forced by war and violence or human rights violations or political, ethnic or religious persecution to flee their homes and face the risk of heading into the unknown.
And there is no end in sight to this dramatic situation. Worldwide, millions of children and adults are in the midst of a humanitarian disaster.
On 24 February 2022, Russian armed forces launched an assault on Ukraine. Since then war has been raging throughout Ukraine. More than six million people have already fled to the Republic of Moldova and the EU. Another 8 million people have been displaced within Ukraine. (As at 23 May 2022)
The civil war in Syria continues. Throughout the region, there are hundreds of thousands of displaced people who have fled from the fighting and from political repression. And there are further countries where conflict has caused an increase in the number of refugees and internally displaced people over the last few years, for example Ethiopia, Afghanistan, Yemen, and countries in the Sahel region.
Supporting displaced people and their host countries is a matter of top priority in Germany's development policy. In 2020 alone, the German Development Ministry (BMZ) provided some 5.5 billion euros to address the causes of displacement and irregular migration, assist displaced people, stabilise host regions and support the reintegration of returnees in their home regions.
Displacement and migration are huge global challenges. This is not, let me emphasise, about adopting a xenophobic attitude on displacement and migration. There is a difference between wanting to keep people out and wanting to support them in their home countries and communities so as to enable them to lead a good life there.
Svenja SchulzeFederal Minister for Economic Cooperation and Development
In severe emergency and crisis situations, the humanitarian assistance provided by the international community is a measure that ensures the survival of displaced people. Within the German government, the Federal Foreign Office is responsible for this type of emergency relief.
Development cooperation, on the other hand, is geared towards medium-term and long-term assistance. Whenever the BMZ is active in crisis regions, it coordinates its work closely with the Federal Foreign Office in order to ensure the best possible combination of humanitarian work and long-term development cooperation.
The task and mission of the BMZ is to assist people in developing countries in their efforts to live their lives in dignity and to build a future for themselves and for their children. The Ministry pursues a broad range of activities in order to work towards that goal.
Germany is helping countries in crisis to stabilise their political and economic situation and rebuild institutions that have been destroyed. It also helps partner countries to pursue conflict prevention policies that take account of the national situation, local culture and potential sources of conflict, and to foster economic development so as to give people the prospect of a viable future in their home countries, with a view to preventing displacement from happening in the first place.
The majority of refugees find shelter in neighbouring countries. However, the infrastructure of these countries is often not very robust. In order to ensure that refugees have access to basic services in their host countries, and to simultaneously help stabilise these countries, Germany is investing in developing local infrastructure, among other things.
Germany supports displaced people and host communities in emergency situations and helps people to help themselves in various ways, especially with regard to education and employment. This gives refugees a chance to lead largely self-determined lives in their host countries. The idea is to enable returnees to make the best possible use of the skills they have learned while living in a foreign country.
Preventing crises, resolving conflicts, building peace
War and conflict are among the main drivers of displacement. Thus, preventing violence from erupting in the first place is an important objective of German and international development policy for peace. For such crisis prevention to be successful, actors need to change the causes and factors in the general environment that may lead to conflict in the countries concerned. Simultaneously, it is important to increase peaceful conflict resolution capacity. The BMZ provides more than two billion euros a year to support projects geared towards building peace, preventing crises and resolving conflicts.
Giving direction to migration and using it for the benefit of development
The German Development Ministry not only seeks to reduce the dangers of irregular migration, it also works towards using the potential offered by regular migration for the benefit of development. In these efforts, it works together closely with other policy fields, such as foreign policy, domestic policy, labour market policy and education policy. The BMZ also plays an active role in defining migration policies at the EU level. From a development point of view, it is important to give direction to migration in such a way that positive effects (a triple-win situation) are achieved for all those involved – host countries, countries of origin and the migrants themselves.
Initiatives and programmes
In 2020, the BMZ provided about 5.5 billion euros to tackle the root causes of displacement and to support refugees, internally displaced persons and host communities.
A large proportion of this amount was used for traditional bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental development cooperation.
However, transitional development assistance, which involves efforts to strengthen the resilience of people and of societies in countries affected by short-term or protracted crises, is another important instrument which the BMZ uses in the field of displacement and migration.
And in the years since 2014, the BMZ has created special initiatives to complement its traditional development cooperation.
The Ministry has launched a number of programmes to give people in crisis regions and host countries a better future.
BMZ special initiatives
Special initiative "Tackling the root causes of displacement, (re-)integrating refugees"
This special initiative enables the BMZ to respond in a targeted manner to the challenges emerging from global refugee movements. Since 2014, the BMZ has supported about 245 projects in 65 countries under the initiative, reaching more than 11.3 million people.
The initiative involves a broad range of activities which address, among other things, the fields of education, employment, health, psychosocial support and infrastructure.
The efforts in question also foster gender equality and address discrimination.
Special initiative "Stability and development in the MENA region"
Through this initiative, the BMZ has been responding to the political transformation in the region, supporting activities that help to foster economic development, create new and better jobs, foster democracy, and stabilise the humanitarian situation in crisis regions.
In 11 countries in North Africa and the Middle East, the initiative helps to improve young people's opportunities in the job market. Examples of results achieved through the initiative include the participation of citizens in political decision-making and better access for people in crisis regions to food, drinking water and health care.
The goal of the special initiative is to eradicate hunger and malnutrition and to lay the foundations so that a growing world population will still have sufficient and healthy food in the future.
Activities supported under this initiative are geared, for example, towards creating awareness of a healthy diet, generating jobs and income in rural areas, giving people fair access to land and protecting natural resources.
The Special Initiative on Training and Job Creation, under its Invest for Jobs brand, supports German, European and African companies and investors as they pursue activities in Africa that contribute to the creation of jobs.
The purpose of these efforts is to give people – especially young people – in African partner countries better prospects for the future. The goal of the initiative over the next few years is to create up to 100,000 jobs and 30,000 training places, to improve local working conditions, and to foster sustainable economic growth.
At the Syria conference in February 2016, the German government announced that it would launch an employment drive for the Middle East entitled "Partnership for Prospects" so as to support people on the ground through job and income opportunities. Through cash-for-work activities, the programme provides quickly available income opportunities for refugees and for local people from host communities.
Not all migrants who have come to Germany are able, or indeed want, to remain there permanently. The BMZ's Returning to New Opportunities programme assists returnees as they make a fresh start in their home country and seeks to give local people in countries of origin a better future.
Civil Peace Service (CPS) experts work in crisis regions, helping to build a basis for lasting peace. They foster the non-violent resolution of conflicts between host communities and displaced people, provide space for dialogue to reduce prejudice and stereotypes, make the concerns of disadvantaged people heard, and help former combatants to return to civilian life.
The BMZ's work in the field of tackling the root causes of displacement currently focuses on the countries neighbouring Syria, which are reaching the limits of their service provision capacity because they are hosting so many Syrian refugees, and on African countries that are hosting many refugees and internally displaced persons or that are countries of origin of large numbers of displaced people.
Further focuses of Germany's efforts are countries in other regions with high numbers of displaced people, such as Pakistan, Colombia and Ukraine.
The German government's support for refugees, internally displaced persons and host communities are part of an international effort. In that context, Germany works closely with international organisations: the United Nations and its Children's Fund (UNICEF), its World Food Programme (WFP) and its Development Programme (UNDP), the International Labour Organization (ILO), and the International Organization for Migration (IOM). Together with the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR), Germany is working to improve the mutual coordination and integration of humanitarian assistance and long-term development cooperation.
The German government also works together with German civil society organisations. The BMZ supports the work of these organisations through considerable financial contributions, which are increased in times of severe crises.
On 17–18 December 2019, the first Global Refugee Forum took place in Geneva. At the Forum, about 800 pledges were made by governments, international organisations, non-governmental organisations and the private sector with a view to implementing the Compact. As an important refugee host country and as an international supporter of refugee protection, Germany played an important role as a co-organiser of the Forum. In the future, the Forum will be held every four years.
The humanitarian-development-peace nexus in practice
A literature review
Date of status