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Uganda

Children in Uganda

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Overview

Renewable energy, climate action and economic potential in East Africa

In recent years, Uganda has evolved into a stabilising political force in East Africa. Within a region that has been one of the conflict hotspots of Africa and continues to experience armed conflict and large-scale displacement, Uganda is actively working for peace, security and regional cooperation. Uganda's economy, too, has developed soundly, in spite of considerable challenges such as widespread corruption and a high rate of population growth.

The Ugandan government is pursuing development-oriented policies. In the last two decades, it has been able to achieve visible results in reducing poverty. Notwithstanding these positive developments, Uganda is still considered a least developed country (LDC).

Uganda has become the number one host country for refugees in Africa, with some 1.4 million refugees staying in the country, of whom more than 880,000 came from South Sudan (as at end of August 2020). Uganda's government pursues a very generous policy on refugees, which is internationally considered to be exemplary. However, that policy is now reaching its limits, as host communities' capacity to provide food, shelter and basic services is nearly exhausted.

Development cooperation

Uganda is one of Germany's development cooperation partner countries, meaning that there is a programme of close cooperation based on intergovernmental agreements. Germany is one of the most important donors for this East African country.

German development cooperation focuses on the priority areas of agriculture / rural development and renewable energy / energy efficiency. The German Development Ministry (BMZ) also provides support to Uganda in the area of good governance and respect for human rights. Moreover, the BMZ pursues activities in Uganda as part of its special initiatives "ONE WORLD – No Hunger" and "Tackling the root causes of displacement, reintegrating refugees".

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Development facts and figures from Uganda

  • View of Kampala, the capital of Uganda
    Political situation

    A partner country that is committed to development

    Uganda is considered a partner that is committed to reforms and to development. It has been playing a positive role in regional peace initiatives, for instance in South Sudan and Somalia.

  • Water supply in Kinsenyi, an informal settlement in Kampala
    Social situation

    Development progress less effective due to population growth

    Since the early 1990s, Uganda's social situation has improved a great deal. The government has been particularly successful in reducing poverty and cutting the rate of HIV infection.

  • A geranium farm in Kampala, Uganda
    Economic situation

    Attractive location for business

    Compared with other countries in the region, Uganda is characterized by an economy that is very market-oriented and liberal. The country is considered an attractive location for private sector investment. Economic growth is stable, averaging about four to six per cent over the past five years.

View of Kampala, the capital of Uganda
Political situation

A partner country that is committed to development

Since 1986, Uganda has been governed continuously by President Yoweri Museveni, who was confirmed in office most recently in 2016. The country is considered a partner that is committed to reforms and to development. It has been playing a positive role in regional peace initiatives, for instance in South Sudan and Somalia. The government has launched significant reforms in the energy sector and in public financial management. It is a leader when it comes to implementing the global goals of the 2030 Agenda and of the Paris Agreement.

Governance and human rights

Uganda is a partner country with development-oriented policies and a good natural resource base, and there is a sound basis for continuous improvement of the economic environment. There is also a positive environment in terms of democracy and the rule of law.

It must be said that in practice President Museveni is increasingly governing the country in an autocratic and repressive manner. The work of the political opposition is being obstructed, especially before elections, and the space for civil society activities is partly restricted.

However, it is positive that the Uganda Human Rights Commission (which is supported by the BMZ) very actively plays its role of a monitoring and complaints body for human rights violations. Moreover, parliament, the highest courts and the supreme audit institution (which is also supported by the BMZ) take their roles seriously and take care to act independently, thus strengthening the principle of the separation of powers. The media and civil society play an active part in the political debate.

Homosexuality has been banned in Uganda. A law to make relevant legislation even tighter was struck down by the Constitutional Court in 2014. At the end of 2019, the government strongly rejected calls for stricter legislation that had been raised in individual instances. Human rights defenders who also work for the rights for sexual minorities are confronted with challenges in their work, all the way to cases of assault. Germany is providing strong support in this field.

Deficits in the area of anti-corruption pose a challenge. In the Corruption Perceptions Index compiled by the non-governmental organisation Transparency International, Uganda ranked 149th out of the 180 countries evaluated in 2018. However, the government is pursuing ambitious efforts to address the issue. It has made good progress on transparency and accountability, for example with regard to public financial management.

Refugee policy

Since the renewed escalation of violence in South Sudan in 2016, Uganda has become the country with the largest number of refugees in East Africa. According to figures from UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, some 1.3 million people have found refuge in Uganda.

Uganda's government pursues an extremely liberal policy: refugee status is accorded across the board to refugees from specific countries, including South Sudan; that is, they do not need to apply for asylum individually. They are granted right of residence and the right to work, and they are allowed to move freely throughout the country. They receive a piece of land and are given access to education and health services.

However, Uganda's host communities are now stretched to breaking point – there is a shortage of available land, food, and municipal infrastructure. All these things are needed if the newcomers are to integrate successfully in economic and social terms. The German Development Ministry therefore provides targeted support to host communities, for example in the areas of water and sanitation, energy, education, health, and job creation, thus also contributing towards conflict prevention.

Water supply in Kinsenyi, an informal settlement in Kampala
Social situation

Development progress less effective due to population growth

Since the early 1990s, Uganda's social situation has improved a great deal. The government has been particularly successful in reducing poverty and cutting the rate of HIV infection.

Poverty

The proportion of people living below the national poverty line has been reduced significantly, from 56 per cent in 1992 to 21 per cent in 2016. However, some 40 per cent of the people still have to live on less than 1.90 US dollars a day. Extreme poverty affects, in particular, women, people in rural areas and the population of the northern part of the country, which is structurally disadvantaged. There, the poverty rate is significantly above the national average. That is why Germany focuses its development cooperation activities primarily on Uganda's northern regions.

More than one third of the people are undernourished. Less than ten per cent have reliable access to safe drinking water. Nearly 80 per cent of the people have no electricity. Average life expectancy is 63 years. On the latest United Nations Human Development Index (HDI), Uganda ranks 159th out of 189 countries.

Many development achievements have been cancelled out by the effects of the high rate of population growth (3.7 per cent in 2018). The population nearly doubled between 1998 and 2018, from 22.3 to 42.7 million.

Uganda is among the countries with the youngest populations in the world. Nearly half of all people are below the age of 15 – a vast challenge for the country. Among other things, hundreds of thousands of young job seekers are added to the labour market every year. The BMZ is responding to this challenge by addressing vocational training and employment promotion as overarching cross-cutting issues in all sectors of bilateral cooperation.

HIV and AIDS

The HIV infection rate, which, at the beginning of the 1990s, was about ten per cent of the sexually active population, has been significantly reduced thanks to an extensive prevention programme implemented by the government. According to figures published by UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, some 1.4 million people in Uganda are currently infected – 5.7 per cent of all 15-to-49-year-olds. It is estimated that in 2018 some 23,000 people died of AIDS in Uganda. And of the country's children and young people below the age of 18, around 950,000 are AIDS orphans.

A geranium farm in Kampala, Uganda
Economic situation

Attractive location for business

Compared with other countries in the region, Uganda is characterised by an economy that is very market-oriented and liberal. The country is considered an attractive location for private sector investment. Economic growth is stable, averaging about four to six per cent over the past five years. However, there is a marked gap in prosperity between the North and the more prosperous South.

Some 70 per cent of Ugandans work in agriculture, with the majority of them only practising subsistence farming. Agriculture merely accounts for 24 per cent of GDP. Nevertheless, the agricultural sector is the most important foreign exchange earner for the country. The main export has traditionally been coffee. Other export products are fish from Lake Victoria, flower cuttings, tea, cotton, tobacco, fruit and vegetables. The country is hampered by its landlocked position: for international trade, Uganda has to rely on the transport infrastructure of neighbouring Kenya and Tanzania with their ports.

The planned oil extraction in the west of the country could bring about change if oil prices stabilise. The revenue could significantly reduce Uganda's dependence on external support and enable the country to reduce its high levels of public debt. The government has also made provision for the bulk of future new jobs in the raw materials sector and in supplier industries to go to local workers. However, it must be expected that commercial oil extraction will not start before 2022 at the earliest.

German development cooperation with Uganda

At the government negotiations in November 2018, the German government pledged a total of 79.5 million euros for development cooperation with Uganda in 2018 and 2019. In addition, Uganda is benefitting from funding under the BMZ special initiatives "ONE WORLD – No Hunger" (28 million euros) and "Tackling the root causes of displacement, reintegrating refugees" (30 million euros).

Bilateral cooperation focuses on the following priority areas:

  • Agriculture and rural development
  • Renewable energy and energy efficiency

Moreover, Germany provides support and advice to the Ugandan government in the area of good governance (reform of public financial management, human rights, civil society, anti-corruption). The BMZ also supports programmes in northern Uganda to assist refugees from South Sudan.

Vocational training and employment promotion

One cross-cutting issue that is addressed in all projects under Ugandan-German development cooperation is the promotion of employment. Based on close partnership with the private sector, the two sides work towards creating job opportunities for young people. Support is provided for practice-oriented vocational training, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises, and for start-up projects. There is a special focus on support for young women.

Onion fields on a hillside in southern Uganda
Priority area "Agriculture and rural development"

Increase productivity and create jobs

The main focus of cooperation in this priority area is on enhancing value addition in agricultural production. In northern Uganda in particular, impetus is to be lent to the growth of the rural economy. Increased productivity is to lead to sustained improvements in food and nutrition security and to the creation of new jobs in rural areas. So far, some 11,700 farmers have taken part in the training provided under the new programme, which was started in 2018.

Activities in the agricultural sector also address adaptation to climate change. Based on cooperation with local farming communities, action plans for climate-smart agriculture are developed and implemented. This involves, for example, the combination of crop cultivation and forestry, intercropping, and the sustainable use of water resources. The target is to provide training to 25,000 farmers by 2022.

ONE WORLD - No Hunger

Under its special "ONE WORLD – No Hunger" initiative, the BMZ supports responsible land policies. Some 50,000 people have already taken part in training on land rights. 26,000 parcels of land have been surveyed in order to secure people's land and use rights. Other areas addressed under the initiative are support for sustainable fisheries and the expansion of potato production, processing and marketing.

Soroti solar power plant in Uganda
Priority area "Renewable energy and energy efficiency"

Better services for households and businesses

Not least thanks to Germany's support, Uganda has made considerable progress in the field of power generation and with regard to the development of relevant institutions. There are still deficits in the area of grid development. So far, only a little over 20 per cent of the people have access to electricity. In rural regions, the rate is significantly lower.

In order to establish country-wide electricity supply, the Ugandan government is looking to exploit environmentally responsible sources of energy (hydropower, biomass, thermal power and solar energy).

German activities

Germany is helping Uganda to develop renewable energies on a sustainable basis, supporting actions designed to raise energy efficiency and helping with the electrification of rural areas. Ugandan-German cooperation is thus also making a significant contribution towards climate change mitigation. The BMZ is supporting both the construction of hydropower stations and the establishment of small off-grid photovoltaic systems for households and small enterprises. Local power grids are being expanded in order to improve the electrification of rural areas. Uganda is a pilot country for the BMZ's "Green people's energy" initiative, which supports the participation of local citizens, companies and municipalities in the provision of energy.

So far, some 50,000 off-grid solar systems have been set up with German support. Some 600,000 people have been given access to electricity, and 8,500 jobs have been created.

In order to encourage private investment in the development of renewable energy generation, Germany supports, among other things, development partnerships with the private sector and provides advice to the regulatory authority responsible for defining tariffs. Advice is also offered to business federations to help them build technological knowledge and improve their expertise on quality standards and organisational matters.

The Rhino settlement for refugees from South Sudan in Uganda
Other areas of cooperation

Public financial management, human rights, civil society, displaced persons

Good governance

The German Development Ministry supports the Ugandan government in making public administration more transparent, meeting accountability requirements, increasing domestic revenue, and fighting corruption. In order to ensure that public funding is used efficiently and for the benefit of development, the BMZ supports the modernisation of Uganda's financial administration system and efforts to build the capacity of the supreme audit institution (SAI). The number of audits carried out by the SAI has already increased by more than 35 per cent.

Germany is increasing its activities in the field of governance in order to foster compliance with human rights standards and strengthen Uganda's civil society. The BMZ supports government institutions and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that advocate for compliance with human rights standards, report on human rights violations and help victims to get access to justice. The BMZ also provides advice to the government on how to incorporate a human rights approach in national development planning.

Moreover, Germany is providing support so that local legal advice programmes can be expanded. Some 5.5 million people are now able to use a free telephone hotline to learn about their rights. In that context, digital tools are being deployed on a pilot basis, such as the verification of online video material on human rights violations, which is pursued in cooperation with civil society organisations. Furthermore, training is being provided for journalists in rural areas of Uganda based on cooperation with Deutsche Welle Akademie.

The BMZ also encourages the Ugandan government to engage more with civil society within the framework of national planning processes. The government has identified more than 180 organisations that could be partners for such endeavours, and has already made agreements to work together with 120 of them. Germany supports the development of new civil society networks at the district level. Minority rights play an important role in that context. The BMZ supports human rights defenders, including with regard to the human rights of gay, lesbian, intersex and transgender people.

Displacement

With about 30 million euros from its special initiative Tackling the root causes of displacement, reintegrating refugees, the BMZ has been supporting the work of the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) in Uganda since 2016. Assistance is also provided through bilateral projects to support refugees from South Sudan and host communities in northern Uganda, with a focus on building municipal capacity in the fields of water and sanitation, education, and employment generation.

The target of the programmes is to provide 570,000 people with safe drinking water, to give 25,000 people access to education, and to help some 8,000 women and men to find jobs through training in vocational and business start-up skills. Moreover, 2,000 farmers' households in displaced people's settlements and host communities are to be enabled to increase their agricultural output by about 30 per cent by the end of 2022.

Map of Uganda

Development facts and figures

  Uganda Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Uganda Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Kampala, approximately 2 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.75 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 241,550 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 159 of 189 (2018) 4 of 189 (2018)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

The equator in Uganda

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Uganda

BMZ glossary

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