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South Africa

Sunrise in Johannesburg

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Overview

Global development partner in southern Africa

South Africa calls itself the Rainbow Nation, in reference to its ethnic and cultural diversity. In the past, South Africa had been shunned by the international community due its policy of apartheid, under which it systematically repressed the black majority population. The impact of those decades of political, economic and social isolation can still be felt today. Since apartheid ended in 1994, South Africa has developed into a stable democracy. The constitution it adopted in 1997 is regarded as one of the most progressive anywhere in the world. It contains, among other things, a comprehensive catalogue of human rights. The country has a free media and an active civil society. Despite its status as an upper middle income country, South Africa is currently ranked just 113th out of 189 countries on the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI).

Development cooperation

In view of South Africa's regional and international significance, Germany has selected it as one of its group of six "global development partners". Cooperation between the two countries focuses on four priority areas: energy and climate ("Green Economy"); good governance and public administration; technical and vocational education and training and skills development; HIV prevention.

Straight to:

Development facts and figures from South Africa

  • Traffic on the N1 between Pretoria and Johannesburg in South Africa
    Political situation

    Reform process under way

    The African National Congress (ANC) has been in government since 1994. Whilst its share of the vote fell at the country's sixth round of free parliamentary elections in May 2019, it still emerged with an absolute majority.

  • People in a slum on the outskirts of Cape Town
    Social situation

    Rift between rich and poor

    South Africa's policy of apartheid has left a profound mark on the country. Whilst a black middle and upper class has indeed emerged, there are still large sections of the population for whom conditions have not yet improved to any noticeable degree.

  • Orange processing plant in South Africa
    Economic situation

    Großes Potenzial, schwaches Wachstum

    In recent years, the country has lost a lot of its economic momentum. Since 2014, growth rates have been below two per cent, with expansion of just 0.6 per cent being recorded in 2018

Traffic on the N1 between Pretoria and Johannesburg in South Africa
Political situation

Reform process under way

The African National Congress (ANC) has been in government since 1994. Whilst its share of the vote fell at the country's sixth round of free parliamentary elections in May 2019, it still emerged with an absolute majority. On 22 May 2019, ANC President Cyril Ramaphos was reelected President of South Africa. He had already been interim president since February 2018, following the resignation of Jacob Zuma in reaction to pressure from within his own party.

In the same year in which he assumed office from Zuma, Ramaphosa put forward an ambitious package of reforms. Plans included investment in infrastructure and rural areas. Yet regaining the confidence of potential investors has proved a slow process for the government. Reforms are making slow progress and any economic upswing is still to be seen.

International involvement

South Africa today plays a leading political and economic role within Africa. It has been involved in efforts to resolve Africa's internal conflicts and to strengthen regional organisations like the African Union (AU) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC).

Within the global economy, South Africa acts as a bridge between industrialised and developing countries. In international organisations such as the United Nations, the G20 and the World Trade Organization (WTO), the country sees itself as a champion of African interests.

People in a slum on the outskirts of Cape Town
Social situation

Rift between rich and poor

South Africa's policy of apartheid has left a profound mark on the country. Whilst a black middle and upper class has indeed emerged, there are still large sections of the population for whom conditions have not yet improved to any noticeable degree. Social structures are unstable and crime is alarmingly high compared with other countries. South Africa has one of the world's highest rates of murder and rape.

Poverty and unemployment

More than half the population of South Africa continues to live below the national poverty line. Poverty affects the black population worst. Few other countries have such pronounced disparities of wealth and income as South Africa. According to World Bank statistics for 2014, almost 70 per cent of total income is in the hands of the richest 20 per cent of the population. The poorest 20 per cent own less then three per cent.

Unemployment has reached a record 29 per cent. And almost half of young people aged between 15 and 24 are out of work, according to the World Bank.

Land ownership unevenly distributed

Despite remarkable progress being achieved on water, energy and basic housing provision, there are still areas where public services fall below standard. This is particularly true of areas where the black population lives, the former homelands and townships. The country has been striving for many years to carry out comprehensive land reforms that will benefit the majority black population; the plan, however, is making slow progress. Most fertile farm land is still in the hands of white farmers. The private sector, in particular, has been unsettled by the current debate on expropriation of land without compensation.

High HIV prevalence

The spread of HIV and AIDS is a major problem for South Africa's society and economy. Around 7.9 million of the country's 58 million people have HIV. One fifth of people aged between 15 and 49 are HIV-positive. Tied in with this is a tuberculosis epidemic. The infectious disease is one of the biggest killers of AIDS patients in South Africa.

Shortcomings in medical provision and the indecisive HIV/AIDS policy the government pursued for many years are felt to be jointly responsible for the massive social and health policy challenges. Serious efforts to tackle HIV only began a few years ago.

The benefits of improvements in prevention and treatment can already be seen. New cases of HIV fell by 40 per cent between 2010 and 2018 and there were 50 per cent fewer deaths from HIV.

Sign of an AIDS prevention campaign at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University in Port Elizabeth, South Africa
Orange processing plant in South Africa
Economic situation

Great potential, slow growth

South Africa displays all the typical characteristics of an emerging economy. The country is seen as a pioneer on the continent, with its highly developed economy, a world-class financial sector, a wealth of raw materials, a comparatively good infrastructure, some excellent academic facilities and an independent and reliable legal system. Yet social development has not kept pace with economic progress. Ultimately, therefore, South Africa must be viewed as a developing country.

Momentum has declined

In recent years, the country has lost a lot of its economic momentum. Since 2014, growth rates have been below two per cent, with expansion of just 0.6 per cent being recorded in 2018. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is predicting a similar level of growth in 2019 and expects the economy to continue recovering slightly over the next few years. This will depend, however, on the government actively pursuing its programme of reforms.

If the economic indicators remain unchanged, the country will not be able to permanently resolve its social problems. Private companies in particular are reluctant to invest. They are put off by uncertainties about the government's economic policy, the country's skills shortage, energy supply problems, frequent industrial action and high crime levels.

Skills shortage

Under the apartheid regime, people from the disadvantaged sections of the population did not generally receive any form of vocational training that actually met the needs of the modern labour market. Job seekers are now also facing competition from millions of migrant workers from neighbouring countries, who hope to find income opportunities in South Africa. Repeated outbreaks of anti-foreigner protests in recent years are a sign of growing social tensions.

Development potential

South Africa has great development potential. The best prospects for economic growth are in manufacturing, mining, tourism and solar and wind energy.

German development cooperation with South Africa

The development partnership between Germany and South Africa is aimed at helping the country overcome the development challenges that still persist, especially in the areas of governance, health, education and prevention of violence. The other aim of the partnership is to support global climate protection efforts and strengthen South Africa in the important role it plays for democracy, peace and stability on the African continent.

Official governmental development cooperation with South Africa began with the end of the apartheid regime. Since then, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development has provided bilateral funding of around 1.6 billion euros.

At the government negotiations in November 2018, new commitments of 253.6 million euros were made for bilateral projects in 2017 and 2018. Since South Africa has already reached an advanced level of development, support was mainly provided to this particular partner country in the form of loans. Of the total sum, 224 million euros was allocated to Financial cooperation and 29.6 million euros to Technical Cooperation. The priority areas of cooperation are as follows:

  • Energy and climate ("Green Economy")
  • Governance and public administration
  • HIV and AIDS prevention.
  • Technical and vocational education and training and skills development
Wind turbines in South Africa
Priority area "Energy and climate"

Generating more electricity from wind and sun

South Africa has been caught up in an energy crisis for years. And at the same time the government will have no other choice but to switch to different forms of energy if it wants to meet international climate goals. Currently, South Africa is largely using domestic coal reserves to meet the growing demand for energy. This has made the country one of the world's largest emitters of greenhouse gases.

Germany is assisting South Africa with the modernisation of power generation and with climate protection. Together with the private sector, GIZ (on behalf of the BMZ) is advising South Africa's Department of Energy, the national power utility and South African districts and municipalities on how to promote the use of renewable energies and improve energy efficiency. It is supporting the construction of large-scale wind farms and decentralised rooftop photovoltaic installations.

As part of Financial Cooperation, low-interest loans are being offered via South African financial institutions to small and medium-sized businesses wishing to invest in renewable energies and energy efficiency measures. In addition, KfW Development Bank (on behalf of the BMZ) is promoting measures to modernise the transmission and distribution grids so that renewable energy sources can be linked to the grid.

View of the government building in Pretoria
Priority area "Good governance"

Establishing an efficient public administration

German development cooperation is helping South Africa to create an efficient public administration system that is open to and serves all its citizens equally and that provides reliable and transparent basic public services. Germany is advising South Africa, for example, on human resource and financial management, public participation, anti-corruption and cooperation with the private sector.

Community violence prevention

Germany is also supporting measures aimed at preventing violence in communities. These include improving the social and economic infrastructure (safe footpaths, public spaces, sports grounds, community and youth centres).

Public bodies and civil society organisations are also being encouraged to swap knowledge and experience with each other, with a special focus on involving young people. Training programmes and social media enable them to play an active role in preventing violence in their communities.

Woman holding an AIDS awareness campaign in South Africa
Priority area "HIV and AIDS prevention"

Informing young people about the risks

In no other country in the world are there as many people living with HIV as in South Africa. The spread of HIV and AIDS is jeopardising not only the country's economic development but also its social stability. The immunodeficiency disease is a threat to the lives and livelihoods of countless families. Many children are caring for sick relatives. Some 1.2 million children have lost their parents to AIDS, putting them at heightened risk of economic and sexual exploitation.

German activities

Germany is supporting, among other measures, programmes to encourage voluntary HIV and tuberculosis testing in severely affected provinces, with a view to reducing the number of new cases. New community centres offer a range of care and training services for children who have lost their parents to AIDS and for other vulnerable children.

Technical Cooperation concentrates particularly on prevention efforts and health education for young people. The aim is for HIV and AIDS to become an integral part of the school curriculum. Teaching materials are provided and primary, secondary and vocational teachers are given training.

In cooperation with various non-governmental organisations, the BMZ is also supporting innovative prevention programmes that target those sections of the population that are not making use of the official HIV advisory services on offer.

Priority area "Vocational training"

Creating opportunities

More than half of young people in South Africa under the age of 25 are unemployed. Yet, at the same time, companies are having difficulties filling vacant posts because of a lack of skilled workers. Although the government is investing a considerable amount of funding in education, training at public TVET schools is of a poor standard and trainers themselves have little or no training at all. There are no properly developed systematic cooperation arrangements between companies and public TVET colleges.

Dual training pilot project

That is why Germany is supporting a pilot project on dual vocational training. Four TVET colleges are piloting training programmes for electricians and plumbers based on the dual system. The courses combine periods of practical training in companies with classroom training at a TVET college. The college curricula and examination procedures were developed in collaboration with companies and trade associations. The aim is for the trainees to be offered permanent jobs by the companies involved once they have completed their training. There are plans to expand the scheme to other vocational colleges.

In 2016, an agreement was reached with the South African government to use funds from Financial Cooperation to also upgrade the standard of training for trainers. The aim is to develop training facilities and improve their skill level.

Map of South Africa

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  South Africa Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of South Africa Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Pretoria, Greater Pretoria approximately 2 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 1,219,090 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 113 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Aerial view of South Africa's coastline

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on South Africa

BMZ glossary

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