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Nigeria

Pupils at a state secondary school in Abeokuta, Nigeria

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Overview

Extreme poverty despite vast raw materials

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, with a population of more than 190 million. It is also the continent's largest economy. Nigeria is one of the world's biggest oil producers. However, even though the government has been pursuing economic reforms, it has not yet succeeded in using the country's wealth of raw materials to foster economic and social development. In the latest Human Development Index (HDI), Nigeria ranks 158th out of 189 countries. The West African country has now taken over from India as the country with the largest number of people in extreme poverty worldwide.

Nigeria is facing social, ethnic, religious and political conflicts. Long phases of authoritarian military rule have contributed to domestic instability. In addition to widespread poverty, major challenges for policymakers include governance deficits, high levels of corruption, low economic growth, a run-down infrastructure, a tense security situation and regular terrorist attacks.

Development cooperation

Nigeria is one of the countries that Germany supports through thematic and regional programmes. Development cooperation with Nigeria focuses on sustainable economic development (including job creation and vocational training) and on renewable energy and energy efficiency.

Straight to

Development facts and figures from Nigeria

  • Gate in the Nigerian capital Abuja
    Political situation

    Deficits in the area of democracy and the rule of law

    Since gaining independence nearly 60 years ago, Nigeria has experienced numerous political crises. After three decades of military rule, a process of democratisation began in 1999.

  • Internally displaced persons who fled from Boko Haram in the eastern Nigerian city of Yola
    Security situation

    Conflict in many parts of the country

    Pronounced social inequality and the lack of opportunities are causing tensions within society and contribute to the recurrent violent conflicts that Nigeria has been experiencing.

  • Street scene in Sokoto, Nigeria
    Social situation

    Pervasive poverty and corruption

    Even though the Nigerian government generates high revenues from the raw materials industry and has undertaken its first economic policy reforms, it has so far not been able to achieve tangible improvements for the people.

  • Oil and fuel vendors in a village in the Niger delta
    Economic situation

    High dependency on oil

    Nigeria's economy is heavily dominated by the oil and gas sector. While the sector generates high levels of income for the country, it makes government revenue highly dependent on oil prices.

Gate in the Nigerian capital Abuja
Political situation

Deficits in the area of democracy and the rule of law

Since gaining independence nearly 60 years ago, Nigeria has experienced numerous political crises. After three decades of military rule, a process of democratisation began in 1999.

The country saw the first democratic change of power when Muhammadu Buhari became President in 2015. His campaign focused on security, anti-corruption efforts and economic stabilisation.

However, in spite of his readiness to pursue reforms, he was unable to achieve his goals during his first term in office. In particular, the security situation has deteriorated again in the recent past.

2019 elections

In February and March 2019, parliamentary and presidential elections were held in Nigeria, as well as gubernatorial and regional parliamentary elections at the state level. President Buhari was confirmed in office. However, since the election was postponed at extremely short notice, voter turnout was only 36 per cent.

During the gubernatorial and regional elections, observers identified many irregularities, such as logistical problems, technical deficits regarding biometric card readers, and violence and intimidation on the part of the military and the police, especially in states where opposition parties were in the lead. The opposition has lodged a petition challenging the results of the elections.

The European Union election observation mission considered the outcome of the elections to be credible notwithstanding the deficits but called for a reform of the voting system.

Foreign policy activities

Nigeria sees itself as an emerging economy, and is taking on responsibility in the international political arena, for instance in United Nations military and police missions. As a regional leader, it plays a significant role in determining the policies of the African Union.

Nigeria is also working to strengthen the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), with the goal of creating a single market for its 15 member states and engaging in joint efforts in the area of conflict prevention and management. Nigeria is the only member of ECOWAS that has not yet signed the Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union.

Human rights

The human rights situation in Nigeria has improved significantly since the end of military dictatorship in 1999. But citizens are still not adequately protected against arbitrary action by the government. Human rights organisations report, among other things, extrajudicial executions, systematic torture, inhuman prison conditions, and disappearances of boys and men who are suspected of being connected with the "Boko Haram" terrorist group.

Twelve of the northern states apply Islamic Sharia law. The death penalty continues to exist in Nigeria.

Many women and girls suffer from gender-based discrimination. An important step was taken in 2015, when female genital mutilation, which used to be widely practised, was banned.

Internally displaced persons who fled from Boko Haram in the eastern Nigerian city of Yola
Security situation

Conflict in many parts of the country

Pronounced social inequality and the lack of opportunities are causing tensions within society and contribute to the recurrent violent conflicts that Nigeria has been experiencing. Often, social and economic conflict is used as a pretext for pitting ethnic or religious groups against each other. Nigeria is home to more than 250 ethnic groups. The country's north is mostly inhabited by Muslims, while the south is mainly Christian.

The humanitarian and security situation in north-eastern Nigeria deteriorated again in 2018. In the Nigeria/Cameroon/Niger/Chad border region, the terrorist Islamist group "Boko Haram" continues to attack government institutions, markets, schools, churches and mosques. While an international mission was able to drive the group from large parts of Nigeria, the military has so far been unable to guarantee security in the region and protect the people from attacks.

According to the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR), the number of internally displaced persons in Nigeria at the end of February 2020 was more than two million. Aid agencies say that in Borno State, parts of which are no longer controlled by the government, 85 per cent of the people are dependent on humanitarian aid.

Conflict over resources

More recently, conflicts between pastoralists and farmers in central Nigeria have expanded to further regions. Nomad pastoralists traditionally move south from the northern part of the country to graze their cattle and bring meat to the slaughterhouses in the south. However, the old grazing corridors no longer exist. The land has either been built up or is being used for farming. Several hundred people have already been killed in the fighting.

The conflict over land and resources might lead to a rift between ethnic and religious groups, as the parties involved are mainly Muslim pastoralists and Christian farmers. Increasing desertification in northern Nigeria, population growth and economic difficulties are exacerbating the conflict.

High risk of escalation

The situation also remains tense in the oil field region in the Niger Delta. For many years, the region was the scene of fighting between various armed local groups, paramilitary criminal gangs and security forces. The situation only calmed down after the government launched an amnesty programme in 2009 which provided, among other things, for public transfer payments to former insurgents. A cease-fire was agreed in 2016. However, violent militias continue to be active in the region. Experts are warning that fighting might erupt again if visible progress on economic development in the region and on cleaning up the environmental damage caused by oil production fails to materialise.

Another simmering conflict can be found in the south-eastern part of the country, where separatist groups are fighting for an independent Biafra. Similar moves in the late 1960s had led to a civil war that lasted nearly three years.

Street scene in Sokoto, Nigeria
Social situation

Pervasive poverty and corruption

Even though the Nigerian government generates high revenues from the raw materials industry and has undertaken its first economic policy reforms, it has so far not been able to achieve tangible improvements for the people.

More than half of the people live in extreme poverty. At just 53 years, average life expectancy is one of the lowest in the world.

The health and nutrition status of many people is extremely poor, with problems beginning right at birth. According to World Bank data, one in ten children dies before the age of five.

Only about one fifth of the population has access to safe drinking water. The majority of the people have no adequate sanitation. Merely about 60 per cent of the people are connected to the power grid. The illiteracy rate is estimated to be around 40 per cent.

Nigeria's wealth of oil only benefits a small elite. Cronyism and corruption are part of everyday life. On Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index for 2019, Nigeria is ranked 146th out of 180 countries evaluated.

Rapid population growth

Nigeria's population is currently growing at a rate of 2.6 per cent, or about five million people a year. Over the last 30 years, it has more than doubled, from 88 million in 1987 to about 191 million in 2017. The United Nations expects that it will double again by the middle of this century, reaching a total of 400 million.

In view of this high level of population growth, the economic growth of the past few years was far too low to facilitate sustained progress on development. The young generation, whose numbers are constantly growing, has very little prospect of reliable jobs, housing or basic social protection. Youth unemployment is high, especially in rural areas.

Oil and fuel vendors in a village in the Niger delta
Economic situation

High dependency on oil

Nigeria's economy is heavily dominated by the oil and gas sector. While the sector generates high levels of income for the country, it makes government revenue highly dependent on oil prices.

Moreover, very few new jobs emerge in the sector. The main export commodity is crude oil. There is a lack of refineries within the country, which is leading to regular fuel shortages.

The slump in oil prices after 2014 plunged Nigeria into a severe economic crisis. In 2015, the growth rate was only 2.7 per cent, and in 2016 gross domestic product actually fell by 1.6 per cent. In 2017, there was positive growth again, but only at a rate of 0.8 per cent. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) expects that growth rates in the period of 2019 to 2021 will range from 2.1 to 2.5 per cent.

Fostering agriculture, improving the business climate

In the first half of 2017, President Muhammadu Buhari presented a comprehensive economic development plan, the Economic Recovery and Growth Plan. It provides for economic diversification, efforts to improve the investment climate, and investment in infrastructure.

Another important goal that the government has set itself in the Plan is the modernisation and expansion of the agricultural sector in order to meet domestic demand for food and create additional jobs.

However, Buhari's economic policy has so far produced hardly any lasting results. The inadequate electricity and transport infrastructure, the low level of education among the people, a lack of legal certainty, the lack of access to financial services and the unstable security situation prevent the economy from developing more dynamically and deter investors from stepping up their involvement.

German development cooperation with Nigeria

Development cooperation between Nigeria and Germany dates back to the country's independence in 1960. During the military dictatorship of Sani Abacha (1993 to 1998), bilateral cooperation was more or less suspended. Since the country's return to democracy in 1999, German development cooperation has focused on supporting the reform efforts of the government with a view to reducing poverty, achieving economic growth and fostering regional stability. In 2017, Germany committed a total of 72.1 million euros for development cooperation programmes.

Nigerian-German development cooperation focuses on the following priority areas:

  • Sustainable economic development
  • Renewable energy and energy efficiency

The BMZ also supports an immunisation programme of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to eradicate polio. The support focuses on vaccination campaigns in the north.

Special initiatives

A Green Innovation Centre was set up in Nigeria with funding from the "One World – No Hunger" initiative. It supports the reform of the agricultural sector, with a special focus on food security.

The lack of education and job opportunities and longer-term prospects in general is causing many young Nigerians to leave the country. With funding from the German Development Ministry (BMZ), migration advice centres have therefore been set up in Lagos, Abuja and Benin City. At the centres, people receive information and advice, learn about alternatives to migration and get assistance in finding a job, which gives them prospects of a viable future in their own country.

The centres also provide assistance to refugees and migrants who are returning to Nigeria from Germany. As part of its Returning to New Opportunities programme, the BMZ has increased its funding for vocational training and employment promotion programmes in Nigeria.

Workers at a small rice mill in Jega, Nigeria
Priority area "Sustainable economic development"

Access to loans and to vocational training

Successful poverty reduction requires, among other things, a significant expansion of job and income opportunities for the country's growing population. However, the private sector, which could provide a great many jobs, is still underdeveloped. German development cooperation therefore focuses on creating a better environment for private sector activities, addressing the following aspects:

  • Improvement of the business and investment climate: establishment of advice centres for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs); efforts to foster dialogue between the government and business; and reforms in the areas of land acquisition/registration, building permits and tax administration
  • Support for microfinance institutions in order to give MSMEs and low-income households access to loans
  • Assistance for Nigeria's banking sector, for instance through the establishment of an agricultural fund in support of rural small and medium-sized enterprises
  • Support for financial system development, for example with regard to regulating microfinance banks and developing consumer protection regulations in the financial sector
  • Training programmes for small entrepreneurs and farmers to build their business skills
  • Support for high-quality, relevant vocational training in the areas of construction, agriculture and industrial mechanics in order to improve the job prospects of young women and men
  • Programmes to teach basic financial literacy in primary and secondary schools; career guidance for young people based on close cooperation with local enterprises
Solar-powered water reservoir in Ikot Ada Udo in the Niger delta
Priority area "Renewable energy / energy efficiency"

Expanding the use of solar energy

Despite much investment, many parts of Nigeria have power for only a few hours a day. Nearly 60 per cent of rural people are not connected to the grid but rely on environmentally harmful, expensive diesel generators for their power. Germany supports the Nigerian government in boosting investment in renewable energy so as to develop a resource-friendly and environmentally sound electricity supply.

An advisory programme that is co-financed by the European Union is aimed at improving the legal environment for the energy sector, For example, standards are being developed for better energy efficiency in buildings and in industrial facilities, and advanced training is being provided for specialists. A decentralised power supply based on photovoltaics is being developed with German support in specific rural regions. The programme will benefit up to 100,000 people.

This cooperation is part of the Nigerian-German energy partnership set up in 2007, which focuses on encouraging German private companies to get involved in the sector. This is an active effort to intertwine development cooperation efforts and private sector activities.

Map of Nigeria

Development facts and figures

  Nigeria Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Federal Republic of Nigeria Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Abuja, approximately 2.5 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.75 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 923,770 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 158 of 189 (2018) 4 of 189 (2018)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Women threshing rice in Sunu

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Nigeria

BMZ glossary

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