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Ethiopia

City view of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia

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Overview

A rising nation facing big challenges

Ethiopia is making good progress on achieving sustained improvements in the living conditions of its people. This has become possible thanks to the enormous development efforts undertaken by the Ethiopian government, support from donor countries, and the level of economic growth that has been achieved in recent years. At present, Ethiopia still belongs to the group of the world's least developed countries. Its status as a strong stabilising force in the region and its enormous support for refugees are all the more remarkable.

Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed's government launched a comprehensive and far-reaching process of reform in 2018 in order to democratise the country and further advance economic development. The government's policy is very development oriented and is characterised by great determination to implement the country's ambitious national development strategy.

Germany supports this course. Negotiations are under way between Ethiopia and Germany on a reform partnership – a deepened form of development cooperation with reform-minded African partner countries within the framework of the G20 Compact with Africa initiative.

Development cooperation

Germany is currently supporting programmes in Ethiopia in the priority areas of sustainable economic development and vocational education, agriculture and food security, and conservation and sustainable use of natural resources (biodiversity).

The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) also assists Ethiopia in its efforts to meet the needs of displaced persons. At the end of August 2020, the East African country was hosting more than 770,000 registered refugees, mainly from neighbouring South Sudan, Somalia and Eritrea.

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Development data for Ethiopia

German Development Minister Gerd Müller and Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed visiting a construction site in Addis Ababa on 24.08.2018

Press release 11.10.2019

Minister Gerd Müller congratulates Abiy Ahmed on Nobel Peace Prize: "Abiy Ahmed is an example of courage for us all"

Wind energy laboratory in Ethiopia

Press release 30.10.2018

German Development Ministry expands reform partnerships: Launch of negotiations with Ethiopia, Morocco and Senegal

Federal Minister for Development Gerd Müller, Tobias Fischer (H&M) and M.A. Rahim (DBL Group) at the signing of a letter of intent to create a TVET centre for the textile industry in Ethiopia

Press release 04.04.2017

Development Minister Müller launches TVET centre for the textile sector in Ethiopia

Minister Müller visiting Ethiopia: villagers in the Somali region

Press release 03.04.2017

Catastrophic drought in the Horn of Africa – Development Ministry pledges further 100 million euros

  • 13-year-old Momina Ali has to take a day off from school to look for water.
    Political situation

    Impressive pace of reforms

    When Abiy Ahmed, a reform-oriented policymaker, was appointed Prime Minister in April 2018, a sense of a new beginning emerged across the country. Abiy has been pursuing a fundamental transformation of domestic, economic and foreign policies at an impressive pace. 

  • Women workers in a textile factory in Ethiopia
    Social situation

    Focus on development is bearing fruit

    The Ethiopian government has extremely ambitious reform plans for modernising the state and reducing poverty. On the current Human Development Index (HDI), Ethiopia ranks 173rd out of 189 countries.

  • Ethiopian nomads who have settled in a village in the Somali region because of the prolonged drought
    Economic situation

    Focus on industry and agriculture

    From 2007 to 2017, Ethiopia saw economic growth rates between 8.6 and 12.6 per cent. Ethiopia wants to achieve the status of a middle-income country by 2025.

13-year-old Momina Ali has to take a day off from school to look for water.
Political situation

Impressive pace of reforms

With the exception of its occupation by the Italian Fascist regime from 1936 to 1941, Ethiopia is the only African state never to have come under colonial rule. The country was a monarchy until 1974, and subsequently a communist military dictatorship. Today the country is a federal democratic republic and plays a key role for regional stability in the Horn of Africa.

Since the 2015 elections, all members of parliament have been part of the governing coalition, the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). This means that there is no parliamentary opposition. In response to anti-government protests, the government declared a state of emergency (October 2016 to August 2017 and February to June 2018), suspending many of the people's constitutional fundamental rights.

Sense of a new beginning

When Abiy Ahmed, a reform-oriented policymaker, was appointed Prime Minister in April 2018, a sense of a new beginning emerged across the country. Abiy has been pursuing a fundamental transformation of domestic, economic and foreign policies at an impressive pace. Among other things, all opposition parties that had previously been considered illegal or terrorist have been made legal, and thousands of political prisoners have been released. Abiy declared an amnesty for opposition leaders who had fled abroad, and invited them to return to their home country. He has announced free and fair parliamentary elections for 2020.

In order to strengthen fundamental civil rights, the new government announced that it would carry out a comprehensive reform of the justice system, and it has started to revise legislation on media and on combating terrorism. The laws governing the work of non-governmental organisations have already been liberalised. Now political debates are taking place in public, and they include critical voices. In the World Press Freedom Index published by the organisation Reporters Without Borders, which covers 180 countries, Ethiopia improved its score by 40 positions, from 150 (2018) to 110 (2019).

Prime Minister Abiy also pursues targeted action to foster women's rights. Half of his cabinet members are women. In October 2018, Sahle-Work Zewde became the first woman to assume the post of President of Ethiopia.

Ethnic conflict

Ethiopia is characterised by vast ethnic diversity. The constitution gives the various ethnic groups the right to self-determination. Alongside Amharic, more than 70 regional languages are official recognised and enjoy equal status. However, ethnic tensions have increased in the past few years in various parts of the country, and have in some cases led to violence. The southern regions of Oromia and Somali are particularly affected.

The number of people who have been internally displaced by conflict has risen significantly in the recent past. At the end of 2018, there were some 2.9 million registered IDPs in Ethiopia.

Relations with Eritrea

One major step in the field of foreign policy was the peace agreement with Eritrea. A mere three months after assuming office, Abiy issued a joint declaration with Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki that the state of war had ended. In September 2018, the two countries signed a peace agreement. The former adversaries resumed diplomatic relations and re-started bilateral trade. As a consequence, many people from Eritrea used their new freedom to leave the country. In the first half of 2019, the Eritrean government closed the borders with Ethiopia again.

In October 2019, Abiy received the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his efforts for peace with Eritrea and his role as a mediator in regional conflicts.

Women workers in a textile factory in Ethiopia
Social situation

Focus on development is bearing fruit

The Ethiopian government has extremely ambitious reform plans for modernising the state and reducing poverty. On the current Human Development Index (HDI), Ethiopia ranks 173rd out of 189 countries.

In the past few years, Ethiopia has already been able to make enormous progress on development. According to World Bank figures, the proportion of people in extreme poverty dropped from 71.1 per cent (1995) to 30.8 per cent (2018). Child mortality fell by almost 70 per cent between 1995 and 2017. The school enrolment rate was 85 per cent in 2015 (1995: 22 per cent).

Yet there continue to be vast challenges. About one fifth of the population is considered to be undernourished. Only about ten per cent of the people have access to safe drinking water, and less than 30 per cent of all births are attended by skilled medical personnel.

Population growing rapidly

The high level of population growth is putting pressure on the environment and the country's resources. Over the past 20 years, Ethiopia's population has grown by 2.8 per cent a year on average, from 62.5 million (1998) to approximately 109 million (2018). If this trend continues, Ethiopia will be one of the ten most populous countries in the world by 2050.

In order to reduce youth unemployment, the government wants to improve training opportunities and create new jobs through economic development.

Tramway in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Ethiopian nomads who have settled in a village in the Somali region because of the prolonged drought
Economic situation

Focus on industry and agriculture

From 2007 to 2017, Ethiopia saw economic growth rates between 8.6 and 12.6 per cent. In 2018, the rate was slightly lower (6.8 per cent). The International Monetary Fund (IMF) expects rates between seven and eight per cent for the following years as well (as at October 2019).

Ethiopia wants to achieve the status of a middle-income country by 2025. Through its five-year Growth and Transformation Plan II (2016 to 2020), the government is following a course for growth with clear objectives: the development of manufacturing industries, export orientation, and efforts to modernise and commercialise the agricultural sector.

Reform programme

In order to boost economic development and strengthen the local private sector, the government of Prime Minister Abiy is implementing structural reforms. They include the introduction of competition in industries that were previously dominated by state-owned enterprises; an increase in the number of public-private partnerships; and the (partial) privatisation of state-owned enterprises in the spheres of logistics, transport, aviation, telecommunications and electricity.

In order to reduce the level of public debt, the government is pursuing policies for responsible debt management. It wants to increase the mobilisation of domestic resources and has made a commitment to the IMF to take out no new loans at market terms for the time being. The Prime Minister is also taking determined action against inefficiency and corruption in state-owned enterprises and against illegal land grabbing, which is widespread. The country's negative trade balance continues to be a problem. Ethiopia imports considerably more goods than it exports.

Agriculture

The highest levels of economic growth can be found in the industrial and services sectors. However, it is agriculture that is the mainstay of the Ethiopian economy. It employs about two-thirds of the workforce and provides raw materials for the textile, garment and leather industries. Ethiopia is also one of the biggest coffee producers in the world.

So far, the agricultural sector has been characterised by small-scale farming. It is also heavily dependent on rainfall. Drought periods have repeatedly caused severe crop failure. Achieving long-term food security for the growing population is thus one of the big challenges the country is facing.

Development potential

Ethiopia has great development potential. Among other things, there is enormous scope for boosting agricultural productivity. The country also has mineral reserves such as gold, tantalum ore, phosphorus, iron, salt, potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate, gemstones and coal. Great hopes are being placed in the exploitation of the natural gas deposits that have been discovered in the Ogaden Basin.

Ethiopia also has good conditions for the use of environmentally friendly energy sources such as hydro, solar, wind and geothermal power. The country already exports power to its neighbours Djibouti, Kenya and Sudan. Improvements in power generation and infrastructure are intended to benefit tourism among others, a new sector with growth potential.

German development cooperation with Ethiopia

Ethiopia is one of Germany's development cooperation partner countries, meaning that there is a programme of close cooperation based on intergovernmental agreements. 

In 2017, the German Development Ministry (BMZ) pledged a total of 215.6 million euros in new commitments to Ethiopia. This includes funding under transitional development assistance, the special ONE WORLD – No Hunger initiative and the special initiative on displacement. 

In 2018, a further commitment of 158.5 million euros was made.

Development cooperation focuses on the following three priority areas:

  • Sustainable economic development and vocational education
  • Agriculture and food security
  • Conservation and sustainable use of natural resources (biodiversity)

In addition, Germany is providing assistance for displaced persons living in Ethiopia and for local people in host communities. In order to improve the living conditions and economic opportunities of both groups, support is being provided, in particular, for activities concerned with food security, preventive health care, water and sanitation, and vocational training.

Reform partnership

In order to support Ethiopia's course of reform, the German government entered into negotiations with the government in Addis Ababa on the establishment of a reform partnership. Through the reform partnerships, Germany is making a contribution to the G20 Compact with Africa initiative, which has the purpose of increasing private investment and creating jobs in participating African countries.

Based on close interministerial consultation within the German government, the BMZ wants to focus on the following areas of cooperation with Ethiopia:

  • Financing of reforms in cooperation with the World Bank and France so as to improve the political, legal and economic environment
  • Support for the private sector through activities under the Special Initiative on Training and Job Creation, support for Ethiopia's industrialisation strategy, improvement of environmental and social standards in the textile industry
  • Transformation of the agricultural sector, efforts to strengthen selected value chains
  • Governance – support for fair parliamentary elections in 2020, support for sustainable land use, regulation of land rights
Priority area "Sustainable economic development and vocational education"

Skilled workers for Ethiopia's economy

The purpose of Germany's development cooperation with Ethiopia is to support the government's reform policy, strengthen the private sector, especially Ethiopia's SMEs, and improve opportunities for young people.

Skilled and educated workers are urgently wanted in the technical and engineering fields in particular. So far, candidates often do not have the right skills or qualifications. Germany is helping Ethiopia improve the quality of vocational education and make it more practice-oriented. For instance, with Germany's support the government put in place a legal basis for a "dual" (industry-based and school-based) vocational education system modelled on the German system. In the construction sector and in various technical training courses, trainees are now able to gain accreditation as a master craftsman or craftswoman.

Germany is also providing assistance to the education ministry and its downstream authorities as they systematically use labour market data for the planning of education programmes and work closely with the private sector. And advice is being provided to the industry ministry on the development of a strategy for targeted support for small and medium-sized enterprises.

Results

The number of vocational schools nearly tripled between 2011 and 2018, reaching a total of more than 1,300. More than 8,200 vocational teachers have received training, and 58 vocational schools have been equipped with workshops for the practical aspects of training. Over 5,100 vocational education workers and small-scale entrepreneurs have received training on topics such as business management, technology transfer and teaching methods. 560 specialists have received in-service training on health technology. They now train other trainers, passing on their knowledge to their colleagues. More than 50 German and Ethiopian enterprises have received advice on openings for cooperation. Support has been provided to more than 30 technology start-ups.

One focus of Germany's activities is on fostering decent employment conditions and compliance with environmental and social standards in Ethiopia's textile industry. To that end, the BMZ works together with more than 100 textile companies, which employ a total of about 64,000 workers. Among other things, a national guideline on the sustainable use of sewage sludge was developed, and new rules have been introduced for the registration and administration of industrial chemicals.

Coffee and Honey from the Forests of Ethiopia
Priority area "Agriculture and food security"

Soil protection and better harvests

The Ethiopian government has set itself the goal of guaranteeing long-term food security for the country's people. To achieve this, land management will need to be improved. The conservation and sustainable use of land, forests and water, improved cultivation methods and effective erosion control are helping to reduce the widespread soil degradation that exists in the country, i.e. the loss of soil fertility. This will enable farmers to significantly increase the size of their harvests.

Farmers are being helped to diversify their production and use water resources responsibly. New crop varieties and improved seeds are being introduced; farmers are being taught methods of biological erosion control; and tillage, harvesting and irrigation methods tailored to Ethiopia's soils are being developed.

A Green Innovation Centre has been set up in Ethiopia with funding from the ONE WORLD – No Hunger initiative. The Centre provides training on ways of increasing productivity.

Results

Germany's support has so far helped restore some 600,000 hectares of degraded land. The productivity of the farms involved has increased by 40 per cent. Another 900,000 farmers and nomadic pastoralists now have access to water. 95,000 farmers have taken part in training courses on modern farming techniques and mechanisation.

Soil fertility management systems have been introduced for 34,000 hectares of land. The area under irrigation has increased by about 5,500 hectares. Women's cooperatives have planted about 100,000 tree seedlings in the Ethiopian lowlands, which are particularly arid. The trees serve multiple purposes. They prevent erosion, help regulate the water cycle and provide building material, fertiliser and food.

Better resilience

In the Somali and Afar regions, Germany assists people in coping with the consequences of the droughts of the past few years and enhancing their resilience. Some 28,000 people in the regions now benefit from improved drinking water services. More than 8,000 medical workers have been trained in the prevention of malnutrition. The financing provided for mobile health clinics has enabled them to offer some 247,000 medical consultations to women and children. And more than 17,000 children suffering from acute malnutrition have received therapeutic feeding.

Priority area "Conservation and sustainable use of natural resources (biodiversity)"

Using natural resources responsibly

Ethiopia is home to a great variety of animals and plants, and lies within two areas which are considered biodiversity hotspots of global significance (Horn of Africa hotspot and Eastern Afromontane hotspot). However, biological diversity has dwindled dramatically. As the population is growing rapidly, natural resources are overexploited, protected areas are used as pastureland, and forests are cut down for firewood.

In order to protect the remaining biodiversity, the government has designated 14 per cent of the country's territory as protected areas. However, so far the responsibility for managing these areas has been fragmented across different authorities, leading to a lack of efficiency.

Germany is assisting Ethiopia in redistributing responsibilities in a transparent manner and harmonising the protection of natural resources with their sustainable use. To that end, there are capacity building activities for administrative agencies responsible for selected national parks and biosphere reserves, and assistance is provided for the development of sustainable park use strategies and forest management plans, which are drafted with the participation of local people.

Results

In total, the German programme reaches 4.5 million people living near eleven protected areas. As part of reforestation campaigns, two million seedlings are being planted – mainly by young people. The development of sustainable value chains for coffee, honey and myrrh is creating alternative sources of income for local people. Some 20,000 farmers have been able to increase their incomes by growing coffee, and about 9,000 farmers are making additional money by producing honey.

Activities in this priority area are closely linked with the projects on sustainable land management and improved drought resilience.

See also

Map of Ethiopia

Ethiopia

Development data

  Ethiopia Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Addis Ababa, approximately 3.6 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.75 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 1,104,300 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 173 of 189 (2018) 4 of 189 (2018)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

Here you can find a selection of websites with development policy background information on Ethiopia.

BMZ glossary

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