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Tunisia

Tunisian national monument on the Place de la Kasbah in Tunis

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Overview

Country in transition

Tunisia is a beacon of hope in Northern Africa in political terms and after a long period of dictatorship is now peacefully transitioning into a state based on the rule of law. Despite some political and social tensions, the way democracy is developing in Tunisia is considered exemplary.

Political renewal

In 2010/2011 mass protests all across Tunisia started what has become known as the Arab Spring. The revolution enabled the country to make a new beginning.

The first free and democratic presidential elections in Tunisia in 2014 were won by Beji Caid Essebsi, the founder of the big tent secular conservative party Nidaa Tounes ("Tunisia's call"). Following his death in July 2019, a large majority of Tunisians voted for the independent constitutional lawyer Kaïs Saïed who was elected new head of state in the presidential elections in October 2019.

In the parliamentary elections held the same month, the Ennahda party became the strongest force by winning 24 per cent of the vote. The populist party Qalb Tounes ("Heart of Tunisia") of media magnate Nabil Karoui came second, securing 17.5 per cent. Expectations are that the new government will be formed in the first quarter of 2020.

German development cooperation with Tunisia

Germany has a vested interest in seeing a region that is so close to Europe become stable again; democratic Tunisia is a strategically important partner in this. That is why the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) significantly increased its support for Tunisia following the latter's political turnaround.

Development cooperation activities focus on sustainable economic development, administrative reform and decentralisation, and water. The BMZ and Tunisia are also cooperating in the critical field of renewable energies.

The centrepiece of Germany's involvement in Tunisia is the reform partnership under the Marshall Plan with Africa. The partnership was concluded in 2017 and is a bilateral contribution to the G20 Compact with Africa initiative; it provides support for reforms in the financial and banking sector; in 2020 support was extended to cover public administration as well.

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Development facts and figures from Tunisia

Image gallery

Minister Müller's trip to Tunisia in October 2018

German Development Minister Gerd Müller agreed a training and job package with companies and associations from the textile, automotive and tourism sectors in Tunisia. Here he is finding out about training opportunities at a supplier company for the automotive industry.

German Development Minister Gerd Müller agreed a training and job package with companies and associations from the textile, automotive and tourism sectors in Tunisia. Here he is finding out about training opportunities at a supplier company for the automotive industry.

Production of electronic elements for the automotive industry

Production of electronic elements for the automotive industry

A trainee at work

A trainee at work

An important topic of the meeting between Minister Müller and Prime Minister Youssef Chahed was the reform partnership with Tunisia.

An important topic of the meeting between Minister Müller and Prime Minister Youssef Chahed was the reform partnership with Tunisia.

The Centre for Career Guidance and Retraining of the GIZ in Bizerte helps young people to find their way around the Tunisian labour market.

The Centre for Career Guidance and Retraining of the GIZ in Bizerte helps young people to find their way around the Tunisian labour market.

Minister Müller informed himself about the work of the Centre for Career Guidance and Retraining.

Minister Müller informed himself about the work of the Centre for Career Guidance and Retraining.

Minister Müller with the Tunisian Minister for Vocational Training and Employment, Faouzi Abderrahmane

Minister Müller with the Tunisian Minister for Vocational Training and Employment, Faouzi Abderrahmane

Visit to a textile factory in Bizerte

Visit to a textile factory in Bizerte

A seamstress at work

A seamstress at work

Two women cut a cotton cloth to size.

Two women cut a cotton cloth to size.

Visit to a GIZ training centre for bricklayers in Tunis

Visit to a GIZ training centre for bricklayers in Tunis

Minister Müller informed himself about the work of the GIZ training centre in Tunis.

Minister Müller informed himself about the work of the GIZ training centre in Tunis.

  • Passers-by in the bazaar of Tunis
    Political situation

    Becoming a state governed by the rule of law

    The revolution in January 2011 offered Tunisia the opportunity to become a democratic country governed by the rule of law. Important steps in this direction have already been taken.

  • Counter of a café in Tunisia
    Social situation

    Unequal distribution of wealth and high levels of unemployment

    The living conditions of Tunisians have measurably improved in the last few decades. These developments notwithstanding, the wealth that has been achieved so far is unevenly distributed.

  • Employee in a call center in Tunis
    Economic situation

    High dependency on Europe

    Tunisia is a middle-income country with a fairly well diversified economy. Around sixty per cent of the country's gross domestic product are accounted for by the services sector, and more than twenty per cent by industry.

Passers-by in the bazaar of Tunis
Political situation

Becoming a state governed by the rule of law

After gaining independence in 1956, Tunisia was ruled autocratically for over five decades: by Habib Bourgiba from 1957 to 1987, and then by Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.

In the winter of 2010/2011, mass protests erupted against the corrupt regime and against social inequality and high levels of youth unemployment. In mid-January 2011 President Ben Ali and his family left the country; he died in exile in Saudi Arabia in September 2019.

The road to democracy

The revolution in January 2011 offered Tunisia the opportunity to become a democratic country governed by the rule of law. Important steps in this direction have already been taken. For example, international observers described the elections to the constituent assembly held in autumn 2011, the first municipal elections in May 2018 and the parliamentary and presidential elections held in 2014 and 2019 as free, fair and transparent.

Freedom of the press and freedom of opinion, which were previously severely curtailed, are largely being upheld. Several new political parties and civil society organisations have been founded. An important milestone on the road to democracy was reached in January 2014 with the adoption of a new constitution. It is to ensure that neither the president nor parliament have the power to unilaterally suspend the fledgling democracy.

Interim crisis

In 2013, Tunisia was thrown into severe turmoil when two opposition politicians were assassinated and terrorist attacks were carried out on Tunisian security personnel. The democratisation process looked about to founder, and many people saw the country on the brink of civil war.

In this sensitive situation, the "National Dialogue Quartet" – a coalition made up of the trade unions congress, the federation of employers, the bar association and the human rights league – intervened as a mediator. The government and the opposition then agreed to constitute a caretaker government consisting of non-partisan experts. In recognition of its "decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011", Tunisia's quartet was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in October 2015.

Current political situation

Tunisia's peaceful transition is under threat from an unstable party system, deficits in building state institutions and a tense security situation. The state of emergency that was imposed after two terrorist attacks on tourist targets in 2015 has been extended several times to date and is still in place (as at February 2020).

The frequent government reshuffles in recent years have led to important decisions being postponed and reforms not being implemented promptly. This may have been a reason for the traditional parties seeing their shares of the vote plummet at the 2019 parliamentary elections while new parties were elected into the parliament. Germany will continue to actively support the country on its road to democracy. 

Counter of a café in Tunisia
Social situation

Unequal distribution of wealth and high levels of unemployment

The living conditions of Tunisians have measurably improved in the last few decades. Almost the entire population has access to safe drinking water and electricity, and there is now a large middle class. On the latest United Nations Human Development Index (HDI), Tunisia is ranked 91st out of 189 states – behind Algeria (at 82), but significantly ahead of Egypt (at 116) and Morocco (at 121).

These developments notwithstanding, the wealth that has been achieved so far is unevenly distributed. Inland regions, in particular, are not yet benefiting sufficiently from the country's economic development. The government has therefore produced an ambitious programme, which is meant to foster primarily private investment in rural areas.

One of Tunisia's biggest problems is the high level of unemployment. According to official figures, unemployment stands at around 15 per cent (22 per cent for women, almost 35 per cent for 15- to 24-year-olds, reaching up to 40 per cent in some inland regions. Even among young people with a university degree roughly 30 per cent are without a job. Tunisia's annual economic growth is not nearly strong enough to ease the pressures on the labour market.

Another reason for discontent is the marked drop in purchasing power. The Tunisian dinar has seen a massive loss in value in recent years while living costs have gone up, because energy and water prices, for instance, have increased. People are expressing their dissatisfaction with frequent protests and strikes.

Employee in a call center in Tunis
Economic situation

High dependency on Europe

Tunisia is a middle-income country with a fairly well diversified economy. Around sixty per cent of the country's gross domestic product are accounted for by the services sector, and more than twenty per cent by industry.

The revolution had a considerable impact on Tunisia's economy. The country's uncertain political future, as well as the unstable security situation there, made many foreign investors wary of doing business in Tunisia. Tourism slumped, and frequent strikes and blockades crippled many Tunisian-based businesses over many months.

Following growth rates of three to four per cent from 2012 to 2014, economic growth slowed to under two per cent in the following three years. In 2018, the economy expanded by 2.5 per cent, and for 2019 the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is expecting economic growth of 1.5 per cent.

Trade agreement with the European Union

The Tunisian economy is heavily dependent on the economic situation in Europe. Around two thirds of the country's foreign trade is with the European Union, and the major share of foreign investment comes from there.

Tunisia was the first country in the Maghreb region to conclude an Association Agreement with the EU, which it did in 1995. In autumn 2012, the country achieved the status of "privileged partnership" and it is now benefiting from wide-ranging programmes designed to enhance its competitiveness.

The EU and Tunisia began talks on a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA) in 2015. This agreement is aimed at further opening up markets on both sides, in particular for agricultural and fishery products and for services.

Development potential

Investors are attracted to Tunisia because of its proximity to Europe, its high level of industrialisation in comparison with other countries in the region, its competitiveness in terms of prices and its well-developed infrastructure. There is potential for growth in its services sector, in particular, for instance, in information technology, logistics and health care services. German businesses are also aware of this potential: there are approximately 260 German companies employing more than 62,000 people in Tunisia.

However, the sector that will have a major impact on the development of the economy in the future is tourism. The government is aware that the facilities and attractions on offer to tourists need to be further diversified and modernised in order to attract more and new visitors. Therefore, Tunisia plans to invest not only in hotels offering ever-popular beach holidays but also in ecotourism and cultural holidays. (See also: Tourism - an opportunity for sustainable development)

German development cooperation with Tunisia

Germany and Tunisia have engaged in development cooperation since the 1960s. After the revolution in Tunisia, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) raised its funding for the country considerably, in order to support the process of peaceful transformation. In 2019, the BMZ newly committed a total of 294.8 million euros, with 139.4 million euros of that amount being allocated under the reform partnership.

The BMZ is systematically calling for the implementation of reforms in Tunisia. Cooperation focuses on the following priority areas:

  • sustainable economic development
  • administrative reform and decentralisation
  • water

The BMZ is also providing support for the expansion of renewable energies and for increasing energy efficiency, for instance by offering advice on transforming the energy system, by upskilling staff and providing financial contributions for the construction of photovoltaic and wind power stations.

Employment promotion is a topic that is mainstreamed across all development activities. Projects in these areas are being promoted especially in structurally weak regions further inland, in order to create opportunities for people there and reduce the pressure to migrate.

In addition, Tunisia is also benefitting from the BMZ's special initiative for stability and development in the MENA region.

The reform partnership

The reform partnership that was agreed with Tunisia under the G20 Compact with Africa initiative in 2017 was expanded in 2019. Increased support will go not only to the banking and financial sector, but will also be provided for the modernisation of the administration.

Interventions under the reform partnership in the banking and financial sector are already bearing fruit. With assistance from Germany, for instance, Tunisia has set up an investment agency and passed a basic law for increased transparency in the public budget. After reform steps had been successfully implemented, Germany pledged a loan in 2019 to fund the new bank "Banque des Régions" that will support small and medium-sized companies.

Priority area "Sustainable economic development"

Creating opportunities

Given Tunisia's high unemployment rate among young people, it is particularly important to create jobs and thus give the young people prospects for the future. Until now, a shortage of training opportunities, a lack of access to financial services and excessive bureaucracy have been acting as a curb on entrepreneurial activities.

German development cooperation activities therefore focus on promoting SMEs and business start-ups, export activities, innovation, and vocational education and training.

Financial cooperation measures primarily benefit micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs). KfW, for instance, provides reduced-interest loans to Tunisian banks, which they in turn can use to give loans to micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. And Tunisia is receiving support to help it establish sovereign guarantee mechanisms with a view to protecting the banks against the risk of default. Technical Cooperation measures are focused on supporting the implementation of the investment act that was passed in 2016. For instance, the country's new investment authority is receiving support.

Agricultural measures and a Green Innovation Centre are helping small farmers join together to create producer groups and thus tap into new earning opportunities.

Center for Digital Transformation

A new Center for Digital Transformation has been established which is to pool German-Tunisian cooperation activities in the field of digital technology. It supports companies in the development of customised digital solutions and promotes the creation of jobs in the IT sector. It also provides advisory services for the Tunisian government with regard to digital transformation, thus also creating a link with activities in the priority area of administrative reforms.

Special Initiative on Training and Job Creation

The BMZ's special initiative is aimed at promoting private investment in Africa and thus creating job and training opportunities. To this end, the BMZ is working closely with German businesses and is promoting practice-oriented partnerships between universities and businesses. The focus in Tunisia is on the automotive and aviation industry and the digital economy.

Results – selected examples

Between 2011 and 2019 some 88,000 people benefited from support from projects funded by the BMZ which helped them find work, either employed or self-employed. Germany's development cooperation activities also helped to secure or create new jobs in some 600 MSMEs with up to 200 workers each. In addition, by 2019 some 95,200 people had benefited from training or upskilling.

Tunisian-German Centre

The Tunisian-German Centre for Jobs, Migration and Reintegration in Tunis was opened in March 2017 by German Development Minister Gerd Müller. It is an important provider of advisory services regarding employment, further training, legal migration and voluntary return. It supports for instance Tunisian migrants returning from Germany by helping them to find jobs and training courses, providing information on further training opportunities and assisting them in starting their own business. In addition, the centre provides information about legal options for labour migration to Germany and about the dangers involved in irregular migration. In September 2019, a branch office was opened in Sfax.

A man sells flowers to a passer-by in the old town of Tunis.
Priority area "Administrative reform and decentralisation"

Greater political participation

The constitution adopted in 2014 envisages the restructuring of administrative authorities at the regional and municipal level in Tunisia and a transfer of responsibilities to lower administrative tiers. The BMZ is supporting selected cities and municipalities in fulfilling their new tasks with a view to enabling the delivery of services that are more reliable, more transparent and more responsive to people's needs, and with the aim of ensuring greater political participation.

Among other things, Germany's support is helping to set up citizens advice bureaus and repair municipal buildings. Municipal authorities are receiving advice on the organisation of their administrative procedures and on financial management; staff are receiving training on how to ensure that services are more responsive to citizens' needs.

There is a special focus on improving the opportunities for young people to get involved at the local level, for instance through community youth councils. An important goal of German-Tunisian cooperation activities is to foster people's trust in public institutions and thus strengthen the political system.

The participation of people in municipal policy-making has already been significantly increased. By 2018, access to municipal services had been improved for 530,000 people.

German activities to be expanded

Expanding the reform partnership with Tunisia to include good governance and modernising public administration will result in even greater German engagement in this priority area. The focus will be on efficiency, transparency and accountability.

Priority area "Water"

Shortage of water is a threat to livelihoods

A basic prerequisite for peaceful political and social change in Tunisia is the noticeable improvement of living conditions. Increasing water scarcity poses a challenge in this respect. Drinking water is scarce in Tunisia. At the same time, demand is constantly increasing, especially in the country's irrigation-intensive agriculture. The situation is further aggravated by climate change. Tunisia is experiencing higher temperatures in summer and declining rainfalls.

Since surface water resources are not sufficient to meet this demand, more and more groundwater is being consumed. In some regions, this has led to a dramatic drop in groundwater tables. At the same time, the authorities in charge are unable to recover costs - water charges are often not paid.

Germany is promoting the sustainable use of water resources. Germany and Tunisia have drawn up a reform catalogue together, which is comparable to the approach taken under the reform partnership. Germany awards additional support in the form of promotional loans in recognition of reform objectives that are achieved.

Advice and investments in infrastructure

On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, GIZ is providing advisory services to the Tunisian government for the implementation of central reforms in the water sector, for instance with regard to water rights and tariff structure. Awareness-raising campaigns help people to understand the value of clean drinking water. Financial Cooperation projects involve measures to repair existing irrigation systems and introduce new, more efficient irrigation techniques.

Results

Access to drinking water and the quality of drinking water have been improved for some 2.1 million people in disadvantaged regions. Better irrigation techniques have improved the living conditions of some 100,000 people in rural areas.

 

Seepage water treatment at a landfill site in Bizerte, Tunisia

Map of Tunisia

Development facts and figures

  Tunisia Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Tunisia Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Tunis, approximately 2 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.75 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 163,610 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 91 of 189 (2017) 4 of 189 (2018)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further reading

BMZ publications

Recommended links

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Tunisia

BMZ glossary

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