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Morocco

Mosque in Casablanca, Morocco

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Overview

A link between Europe and Africa

Morocco is an important link between Europe and Africa – politically, culturally and economically.

King Mohammed VI is both the head of state and the spiritual leader of this north African country, and has been since 1999.

Following the wave of protests that swept through many Arab countries starting in December 2010 (Arab Spring), demands for political and social reforms were also made in Morocco.

King Mohammed VI responded with steps to modernise the state. In July 2011, for example, a new constitution was adopted containing for the first time ever a list of fundamental rights and emphasising the country's pluralist identity.

Despite the reforms carried out in recent years, the King's key position has essentially remained unchanged.

The social challenges facing the country include, in particular, the high level of unemployment and the lack of job opportunities for its young population.

Relations between Morocco and Germany

Morocco is a key partner for Germany in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region. In their 2013 Rabat Declaration, the foreign ministers of the two countries agreed to engage in continuous cooperation and to deepen their dialogue on democratic development, the rule of law, civil society and human rights.

The focus of German-Moroccan development cooperation is on sustainable economic development and employment, renewable energies and water.

Morocco is part of the G20 Compact with Africa initiative to improve the enabling environment for private investment. Under the initiative German Development Minister Gerd Müller and the Moroccan Finance Minister Mohamed Benchaâboun agreed at the end of October 2018 to start negotiations for a German-Moroccan reform partnership.

Straight to

Development facts and figures from Morocco

  • Royal Guard at the Mausoleum of King Mohammed V and his sons in Rabat, Morocco
    Political situation

    A monarchy with democratic elements

    Morocco is a monarchy with elements of a parliamentary democracy. King Mohammed VI determines the political lines to be followed. In 2015, a territorial reform came into force, giving the regions more political responsibilities.

  • Beekeepers have formed a cooperative.
    Social situation

    Gap between town and country

    Living conditions are difficult for many Moroccans. There is a wide gap between rich and poor. The situation is particularly difficult in rural regions, where significantly fewer people have access to education and health services than in cities.

  • Food stall in Marrakech
    Economic situation

    Improved business climate, jobs in short supply

    Morocco is currently going through a far-reaching process of transformation from an agricultural country to an economy based on manufacturing and services. The economic environment and the business climate have improved significantly in recent years.

Royal Guard at the Mausoleum of King Mohammed V and his sons in Rabat, Morocco
Political situation

A monarchy with democratic elements

Morocco is a monarchy with elements of a parliamentary democracy. King Mohammed VI determines the political lines to be followed.

At the parliamentary elections in November 2011, which King Mohammed VI had brought forward because of protests around the country, for the first time ever a moderate Islamic party, the Parti de la Justice et du Développement (Justice and Development Party, PJD), won the most votes. 

In October 2016, the PJD once again emerged as the strongest party in the parliamentary elections.

In 2015, a territorial reform came into force, giving the regions more political responsibilities. 

In September 2015, the regional councils were elected directly for the first time ever.

Strategy for sustainable development

Government policy in Morocco is development oriented. The government's strategies and plans are aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals. In order to implement the SDGs, the government adopted a Stratégie Nationale de Développement Durable 2015-2020 (National Strategy for Sustainable Development) in June 2017.

Relations with the EU

Morocco has close relations with the European Union. An Association Agreement between Morocco and the EU has been in force since 2000. In 2008, the EU accorded Morocco what it calls "statut avancé", opening the way for even closer political and economic association. At present, negotiations are under way for a comprehensive agreement on trade and services to replace the Agreement of 2000.

Beekeepers have formed a cooperative.
Social situation

Gap between town and country

Living conditions are difficult for many Moroccans. There is a wide gap between rich and poor. The current Human Development Index (HDI) published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranks Morocco 123rd out of 189 countries.

The country's illiteracy rate of about 30 per cent of over-15-year-olds is still one of the highest in the Arab sphere.

The situation is particularly difficult in rural regions, where significantly fewer people have access to education and health services than in cities. The difficulties in reaching schools and hospitals are a particular problem for women and girls.

Many people from the countryside therefore migrate to the cities, exacerbating the problems which exist there.

Significant progress has been made with regard to drinking water and power supply. Almost the entire population now has access to electricity. About 95 per cent of households are connected to the mains water supply.

A farmer fetches water from a public well in Morocco.
Food stall in Marrakech
Economic situation

Improved business climate, jobs in short supply

Morocco is currently going through a far-reaching process of transformation from an agricultural country to an economy based on manufacturing and services. The economic environment and the business climate have improved significantly in recent years.

However, the economy is subject to huge fluctuations: between 2013 and 2017, economic growth rates ranged from 1.2 to 4.5 per cent. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is predicting growth of three to four per cent for the period starting from 2018. The fluctuating growth rates are due above all to the agricultural sector's dependence on rainfall.

The market liberalisation facilitated by the Association Agreement between Morocco and the European Union offers vast opportunities, but it also entails great challenges. The innovative capacity, product safety and quality standards of Moroccan businesses are gradually being brought in line with EU standards. Yet Morocco is still insufficiently integrated into the world market. One challenge is vocational training, with people's skill levels either being too low or failing to meet the needs of the market.

Lack of employment opportunities

The biggest challenge continues to be finding a way to manage the centrally controlled economy in such a way that all parts of the country and all population groups benefit equally, and new employment opportunities can be created for young people, particularly in rural areas.

Unemployment figures are around ten per cent overall and over 25 per cent among young people. Almost one third of all young people are neither in work nor in training.

More than 30 per cent of all Moroccans who are gainfully employed work in the agricultural sector. More than 95 per cent of private sector businesses are micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs); they are responsible for generating about 40 per cent of the country's gross domestic product.

Development and employment opportunities are to be found, for example, in the expansion of renewable energies, in tourism, and in the automotive sector and the aerospace industry.

The situation of women

The Moroccan government has started a national programme to promote gender equality; compared with other countries in the region, the legal situation for women has improved over the last ten years. However, their chances of getting on a training course or finding a job are still limited due to social and cultural restrictions. Only about ten per cent of businesses in the formal sector are owned by women.

A woman knotting carpets at the Centre for Arts and Crafts in Meknes, Morocco

German development cooperation with Morocco

At the government negotiations in October 2018, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) made a new commitment of 151.7 million euros for Morocco. Of this sum, 49.1 million euros is for Technical Cooperation and 102.6 million euros is for Financial cooperation. For the most part this funding is provided in the form of loans at near-market conditions.

The following were agreed as priority areas of cooperation:

  • Sustainable economic development and employment
  • Renewable energy
  • Water

In addition, the BMZ is promoting good governance in Morocco, for example with regard to migration and decentralisation (see below).

 

Tourism for the future
Priority area "Sustainable economic development and employment"

More jobs for young people in rural areas

The focus of German-Moroccan cooperation in this priority area is on both the demand side and the supply side of the labour market. On the demand side, the emphasis is on vocational training, particularly for young people in rural areas. On the supply side, cooperation activities are mainly concerned with access to finance and with improving business services for MSMEs and for the self-employed.

In addition to that, in line with the aims of the G20 Compact with Africa initiative, the BMZ is helping to improve the wider external environment in terms of creating a better business and investment climate for private companies. These efforts include a focus on addressing the various components of the World Bank's doing business indicators. To complement these activities, concrete obstacles to investment are being reduced via the BMZ's Special Initiative on Training and Job Creation, in order to facilitate more private investment and employment.

An employee of the solar power plant in Ouarzazate looks over a solar field.
Priority area "Energy"

Providing climate-friendly energy

The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) is assisting the Moroccan government in implementing a climate-friendly energy strategy. Important areas of cooperation are expanding renewable energies and improving energy efficiency, along with training, employment and research in the field of renewable energy.

One way in which the BMZ is achieving these aims is through the construction of solar power plants in Ouarzazate and Midelt. The complex in Ouarzazate alone will provide power from sustainable sources for more than 1.3 million people, thereby helping to avoid 800,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions a year.

There is also demand for German expertise to assist with the development of an effective grid in the context of the growing share of energy from fluctuating renewable sources, with a view to transmitting energy to consumers effectively and at a low cost. Another area of intervention is improving energy efficiency in public buildings. In the construction sector, close cooperation is taking place with local companies with a view to providing training for local workers and creating new jobs.

Women are fetching water from a well in Morocco.
Priority area "Water"

Drinking water, wastewater and resource management

Over the last few decades, German support has helped to significantly improve drinking water supplies for the Moroccan population. Today, a special focus of this development cooperation is on rural areas and small and medium-sized towns.

Managing wastewater and providing sanitation continues to be a challenge. Public sanitation systems are inadequate and are often in a very poor condition. Germany is therefore supporting the maintenance and repair of facilities for the collection, purification and recycling of wastewater, and the construction of new facilities.

Integrated water resources management

In order to protect Morocco's scarce water resources and avert conflicts between different users, the ambitious and much-needed government programmes to expand the industrial and agricultural sectors must be designed so as to be economically and environmentally sustainable.

German activities in the water sector are thus part of a wider integrated water resources management (IWRM) strategy, which seeks to reconcile environmental protection and climate action with the imperatives of economic development and the needs of local people. The focus of this German support is on introducing IWRM in the Tensift water catchment area in south-western Morocco.

Woodcarving on a door at the Centre for Arts and Crafts in Meknes

Other areas of cooperation

Germany and Morocco also work together in areas outside the agreed priority areas. For example, the German government is assisting Morocco in implementing its national migration and asylum strategy, and in realising the legal provisions for decentralisation.

Morocco is both a country of origin for migrants and a country of transit and destination for refugees and migrants from the countries of sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East. People are constantly trying to get from Morocco into the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, in order to seek asylum on European soil. Growing numbers of migrants are deciding - often after years of travelling - to settle permanently in Morocco. This is causing social tensions in the country.

In 2014, the Moroccan government adopted a strategy of its own on migration and asylum issues. Germany is supporting Morocco in implementing this strategy at the local level and in creating opportunities for migrants to become culturally, socially and economically integrated. Care is being taken in particular to ensure that the support always benefits the host communities as well.

In ten partner municipalities, governmental and non-governmental institutions are receiving assistance in establishing - and coordinating with each other - programmes for migrants providing language lessons and legal advice. Furthermore, training in non-violent conflict resolution is being offered and campaigns are being organised with a view to encouraging local people to work for peaceful co-existence with newcomers, thus promoting a Moroccan culture of welcome. The needs of returnees from Germany and Europe are also being taken into account as part of these efforts, so as to ease their reintegration into Morocco. Another aspect is cooperation in the field of migration between Morocco and selected west African countries.

During his trip to North Africa in February 2016, Minister Müller visited an integration centre in Rabat which had been set up with German support and which is a contact point for immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Germany will extend such welcome centres to a further ten municipalities.

Regions and municipalities have a special role to play in the political reform process. The conditions of people's everyday lives are determined at this level, and this is where their faith in public institutions needs to be strengthened. However, local authorities and municipal service providers do not always have the requisite skills and financial resources to fulfil this role.

The BMZ is assisting Moroccan authorities in realising the legal provisions for decentralisation. For the success of the reform efforts, it is important to have better coordination between the central level of government and the regions, and also among the regions.

Furthermore, the BMZ is supporting the efforts of ten medium-sized towns to ensure that their local policymaking is more responsive to people's needs. To this end, central reception points are being set up where people can find out all about the services available and about administrative processes. Communication is being enhanced in order to improve transparency and accountability. Furthermore, people working in local government are being trained in ways of involving civil society more closely in projects, for example redesigning public spaces or reorganising socio-cultural facilities.

Map of Morocco

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Morocco Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Kingdom of Morocco Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Rabat, approximately 800,000 inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 446,550 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 123 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Sale of mussel soup - food stall on the square Djemaa el-Fna in Marrakech, Morocco

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Morocco

BMZ glossary

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