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Guatemala

Antigua Guatemala

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Overview

Huge social contrasts in Central America's biggest economy

With a population of about 17 million, Guatemala is the most populous country in Central America and has the biggest economy. In 2018, its economy grew by three per cent. The distribution of income, however, is extremely uneven. A large share of the country's economic resources is in the hands of a small number of influential families and these resources are increasingly also coming under the influence of organised criminals.

More than half of all Guatemalans live in poverty and indigenous communities are especially affected. The Human Development Index (HDI) currently ranks Guatemala only 126th out of a total of 189 countries. According to the Global Hunger Index, the food situation is serious: 16 per cent of the people are malnourished; some 46.5 per cent of all under-five-year-olds suffer from stunted growth.

Impact of the civil war

From 1960 to 1996 Guatemala was ravaged by a civil war which cost more than 200,000 lives. It was not until 1996 that a peace agreement was finally signed. It set out comprehensive reforms which were designed to help in a number of areas; these included establishing a state based on the rule of law, combating impunity and increasing the tax ratio to generate more public resources for health, social affairs and education. It also envisaged a land reform that was to enable indigenous communities in particular to get access to land titles once again and achieve food security. In addition, it made provisions for addressing the crimes committed by the military dictatorship and for strengthening civil society as part of the democratisation process.

So far, however, the ambitious goals of the peace agreement have only been achieved in part or not at all. The biggest obstacle was and still is the fact that the economically dominant groups of society, which are also the governing groups, show no interest in reforms. Most public institutions are weak. Corruption and impunity are still very common; the murder rate has been dropping for a few years but is still very high (22.4 killings per 100,000 inhabitants in 2018); the crime solving rate is low.

Cooperation with Germany

The main areas of cooperation between Guatemala and Germany are democratic governance with equity, education and vocational training, and environment and climate adaptation.

Straight to

Development facts and figures from Guatemala

  • National Palace in Guatemala City
    Political situation

    Weak public institutions

    Today, Guatemala is a country with democratic institutions; however, the impact of a civil war that lasted 36 years and ended only in 1996 is still having an effect on the country's social development.

  • A mother with her child
    Social situation

    Discrimination against women and indigenous people

    Guatemala is a country with tremendous disparities between rich and poor. A large part of the national income is in the hands of a small upper class, while some 60 per cent of people are living below the poverty line.

  • Coffee beans drying on a coffee plantation in Guatemala
    Economic situation

    Informal sector dominates the economy

    The stable economic growth experienced in recent years has done little to improve the lives of poor people. Guatemala has a Gini index of 48.3 (2014) and is one of the countries with the biggest social inequalities worldwide.

National Palace in Guatemala City
Political situation

Weak public institutions

Today, Guatemala is a country with democratic institutions; however, the impact of a civil war that lasted 36 years and ended only in 1996 is still having an effect on the country's social development. A weak government and a parliament dominated by vested personal interests have traditionally been a feature of the country's political landscape. The party landscape is fluid; so far, no governing party has ever been re-elected.

One of the biggest challenges the government is facing is the structural weakness of public institutions, which continues to threaten any progress that is achieved.

Jimmy Morales – a former TV comedian and economist – has been President since 2016; he has failed to introduce the changes he was expected to make. His election campaign message had been "Neither corrupt nor a thief". Yet he has been under investigation recently for allegations of illegal campaign funding. His attitude in dealing with the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG) caused a political crisis.

At the presidential elections in June 2019 not one of the 19 candidates in total achieved the required majority. The conservative candidate Alejandro Giammattei won the second ballot on 11 August 2019.

A mother with her child
Social situation

Discrimination against women and indigenous people

Guatemala is a country with tremendous disparities between rich and poor. A large part of the national income is in the hands of a small upper class, while some 60 per cent of people are living below the poverty line.

The government wants to reduce poverty by 50 per cent by 2032 and has enshrined this goal in its national development plan "K'atun 2032", which was drawn up in 2014 in cooperation with civil society actors and public institutions. The plan has since been refined and a strategy has been published on integrating the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda. In 2017 Guatemala's government presented its first national progress report on the implementation of the 2030 Agenda to the United Nations.

Guatemala is a signatory to most of the international human rights treaties and conventions. In 2012, the country also joined the International Criminal Court. Basic civil and political rights and freedoms are formally guaranteed; in practice, however, the protection of these rights is seriously undermined.

Women and indigenous people

Both indigenous people and women in Guatemala continue to be severely disadvantaged. They are frequently subjected to discrimination, for instance in terms of access to justice or education, and land and resources are distributed extremely unevenly. The indigenous communities play virtually no part in political, economic or social decision-making processes.

With around 3,900 murders in 2018, Guatemala is one of the most dangerous countries in the world. This is due in no small measure to organised crime and the drug mafia, as well as to the largely absent and partly corrupt police and judicial officers in rural areas, who only ever manage to solve a small fraction of all violent crimes. In the case of killings of women, referred to as "feminicidios", the perpetrators largely go unpunished. So far, women and girls have also received little government support if they fall victim to family or sexual violence.

Coffee beans drying on a coffee plantation in Guatemala
Economic situation

Informal sector dominates the economy

The stable economic growth experienced in recent years has done little to improve the lives of poor people. Guatemala has a Gini index of 48.3 (2014) and is one of the countries with the biggest social inequalities worldwide.

The tax ratio is extremely low. Tax revenues only account for roughly 10 per cent of the country's GDP. Building sustainable development on such a slim tax base is just not possible.

Every year, more than 200,000 young people leave school or university; yet there are few vacancies in the labour market. In 2018, the official unemployment rate stood at 2.7 per cent.

About 70 per cent of the working population works in the informal sector – the mainstay of the economy. Almost one third of people work in the agricultural sector. Guatemala exports many of its agricultural products as well as textiles produced in maquiladoras (processing and finishing factories), precious stones and metals.

The country has signed various free trade agreements, including with the US, Chile and Peru. Since 2013, Guatemala has been a partner in a free trade agreement with the EU together with Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Costa Rica and El Salvador.

Activities by foreign investors are hampered by the poor security situation, inadequate infrastructure and the smallness of the market in Guatemala and even in Central America.

The almost 3 million Guatemalans living abroad – most of them in the US – are of major importance for Guatemala's economy. The remittances they send home are significant. In 2018, these remittances accounted for more than 10 per cent of the country's gross national product.

German development cooperation with Guatemala

Guatemala is one of the partner countries with which Germany enjoys close development cooperation based on intergovernmental agreements. Germany is one of Guatemala's main donors.

Cooperation between Germany and Guatemala focuses on three priority areas:

  • democratic governance with equity
  • education and training and skills development
  • the environment and adaptation to climate change

Joint government negotiations were scheduled to take place in September 2018. Shortly before the scheduled date, President Morales announced that he would not be extending the mandate for the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG) beyond September 2019. As a consequence, the German government postponed the negotiations until further notice.

To help the people in the country, 14.5 million euros was committed for Technical Cooperation in the priority areas of "democratic governance with equity" and "the environment and adaptation to climate change" in December 2018. These resources are earmarked for the continuation of existing projects.

In addition to bilateral development cooperation, Guatemala is benefiting from regional German development cooperation projects carried out within the priority areas of environment and energy, prevention of youth violence, and migration and employment promotion. These projects are largely being implemented by the regional organisations SICA and BCIE.

The German development cooperation activities are aimed at realising human rights, in particular the rights of indigenous people, women and young people.

Policemen in Guatemala

International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG)

The international community has been providing financial backing for the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (Comisión Internacional contra la Impunidad en Guatemala, CICIG) since 2007. CICIG is supporting the efforts of the Guatemalan police and judiciary to investigate criminal offences and contributing to strengthening government structures. It was established in 2006 by the United Nations at the request of the Guatemalan government.

Germany is supporting the work of CICIG by means of a Technical Cooperation project and via an EU intervention.

The latest CICIG mandate ended in September 2019. Ever since the judiciary brought charges against his son and a brother for illegal dealings and started investigations against the President himself for illegal campaign financing, President Jimmy Morales has been trying to limit CICIG's capacity to act. At the end of August 2018 he announced that the mandate would not be extended beyond 2019. At the same time he withdrew the visa of Iván Velásquez, head of the CICIG.

Street scene in Guatemala City
Priority area "Democratic governance with equity"

Supporting reform forces in the public sector and society

Poverty, corruption and violence in Guatemala are symptoms of a weak state. The difficult security situation and widespread lack of prospects, especially in rural regions, is one factor pushing many Guatemalans to leave the country.

That is why Germany is aiming through its development cooperation to support the efforts of reform forces in the public sector and in society to consolidate democracy and the peace process, strengthen equality of opportunity and build capacities for non-violent conflict management.

On behalf of the BMZ, GIZ is supporting governmental and non-governmental players in implementing policy guidelines and reforms in the area of conflict prevention and peaceful conflict management. Support is being provided for instance for projects in areas such as reconciliation and reparations, peaceful conflict transformation and public security.

Further support is being provided for the implementation of the standards of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).

Support for reform measures in the sectors of cooperation comes from a fund for structural and regulatory policy. The main focus here is on reforms in the judiciary, because that is where the need for reforms is especially great.

A regional project in the field of good financial governance is aimed at helping Guatemala raise its tax revenue and create transparency in budget management.

Children in their classroom in El Renacimiento school, in Villa Nueva, Guatemala
Priority area "Education"

Sustainable development through solid basic and secondary education

Education is one the most important prerequisites for social and economic development in Guatemala and for reducing racism and discrimination. The aim of German development cooperation is to enable children and young people from poor, mostly indigenous families to access the basic education they need. With support from Germany mandatory academic training for primary school teachers has been set up.

Through support for building new and extending existing primary and secondary schools and for improving their equipment and through developing learning and teaching materials, the quality of primary and in particular secondary education is being improved. This is because, the social and economic development Guatemala is hoping for will fail to be achieved unless there are good secondary schools. Germany is also providing support through its development cooperation activities to strengthen school and education authorities.

The programme "Educación para la Vida y el Trabajo" (education for life and employment, EDUVIDA) advises the Guatemalan ministry of education on reforming secondary education. The focus is on providing expert support and advice for skills development for teachers, curricula development and education management. The aim is to improve the quality of secondary education.

Through regional programmes the BMZ is promoting employment and vocational training for marginalised young people. The aim is to prevent youth violence and contribute towards (re)integrating children and young people who are vulnerable to displacement.

The ancient Mayan city of Tikal lies in the rainforests of northern Guatemala.
Priority area "Environment and adaptation to climate change"

Protecting biodiversity and forests

In 2013, Guatemala adopted a framework law on adaptation to climate change. Building on this, a national climate adaptation plan (PANCC) was drawn up to implement nature and climate protection measures at the national level. Germany is assisting Guatemala in meeting its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) under the Paris climate agreement. And Guatemala is also a member of the NDC Partnership.

Through its programme for rural development and adaptation to climate change Germany is supporting the government in its efforts. The purpose of cooperation in this area is to protect natural resources in rural areas and manage them in a sustainable and climate-smart manner.

The purpose of the project for adaptation to climate change in the dry zone (corredor seco) is to assist local communities in managing their land, forests and water in a climate-smart and sustainable manner and thus better safeguarding their livelihoods.

Even though it is a comparatively small country, Guatemala boasts immensely rich biodiversity, for instance in the cloud forests in the country's highlands. The Life Web project includes setting up a network of up to 50,000 hectares of communal conservancies to protect biodiversity and natural resources. This also constitutes a significant contribution towards creating a system of protected areas in Guatemala.

There are also a number of regional forest protection projects for which support is being provided in Guatemala. The Selva Maya biosphere reserve (in cooperation with Mexico and Belize), the Trifinio project in the region bordering El Salvador and Honduras, and the REDD regional project are concerned with protecting forests and biodiversity.

Karte von Guatemala

Development facts and figures

  Guatemala Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Guatemala Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Guatemala City, greater area approx. 5 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.75 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 108,890 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 126 of 189 (2018) 4 of 189 (2018)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

A market in Guatemala

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Guatemala

BMZ glossary

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