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Brazil

River in the federal state of Amazonia, Brazil

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Overview

Land of superlatives

Brazil is the biggest country in South America and, in terms of size and population, it is the fifth largest country on earth. Brazil's gross domestic product (GDP) of 1,908 billion dollars (in 2018) makes it the world's ninth biggest economy. Its per capita income is about 9,126 US dollars.

The country has the greatest wealth of biodiversity anywhere in the world, the biggest remaining rainforest and the river carrying the most water: the Amazon.

In the spheres of international peace and security policy, world trade, and global climate and environmental protection, Brazil is an important player. In Latin America the country is an example for others to follow and an opinion leader. Brazil builds a bridge between the industrialised countries and the Group of 77 (G-77), an association of developing and emerging countries.

Development cooperation

Brazil is one of the global development partners of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), and is cited in the German government strategy paper Shaping Globalisation – Expanding Partnerships – Sharing Responsibility as one of the new players in globalisation.

Development cooperation with Brazil was given a new basis in recent years, in order to reflect the level of development the country has achieved and its increased global and regional importance.

Germany and Brazil agreed to focus their cooperation on two of the biggest global challenges: climate protection and conservation of biodiversity. The focus of this cooperation is on the protection of tropical forests and the promotion of renewable energies and energy efficiency.

Straight to:

Development facts and figures from Brazil

  • Cleaning worker at the bus station in São Paulo
    Political situation

    Crisis leads to political change of direction

    After a "golden decade" of growth (2003 to 2013) accompanied by success in reducing poverty, Brazil is currently going through an economic, political and social crisis.

  • Children on a playground in the Favela Mangueira in Rio de Janeiro
    Social situation

    Big development progress and big challenges

    Since 2003, social policies have led to big progress being made in Brazil, with more than 15 million new jobs being created, minimum wages and pensions rising continuously, and incomes growing.

  • Cityscape of São Paulo
    Economic situation

    Dip in growth overcome

    In 2014, after a long period of stable growth, Brazil slipped into an economic crisis. In both 2015 and 2016, gross domestic product (GDP) sank by 3.5 per cent.

  • Rainforest in Jaraqui, Brazil
    Environment and climate

    Reconciling ecological, social and economic interests

    The vast majority of the Amazon rainforest lies in Brazil. As a water and carbon reservoir, it plays a central role for the global climate and for economic development in South America.

Cleaning worker at the bus station in São Paulo
Political situation

Crisis leads to political change of direction

After a "golden decade" of growth (2003 to 2013) accompanied by success in reducing poverty, Brazil is currently going through an economic, political and social crisis.

In recent years, widespread corruption involving leading personalities from the worlds of politics and business has come to light. Numerous politicians and government officials have been accused of corrupt dealings while in office and are under investigation. The corruption scandal and a difficult economic crisis have caused a surge in discontent among the population.

The presidential elections in 2018 were won by the conservative politician Jair Bolsonaro, who became the country's president on 1 January 2019. President Bolsonaro has announced a comprehensive programme of measures to address the urgent problems the country is facing. Jair Bolsonaro has appointed seven former members of the military forces to serve in his cabinet. The new president has named fighting corruption and crime, and boosting the economy as his political priorities.

 

Children on a playground in the Favela Mangueira in Rio de Janeiro
Social situation

Big development progress and big challenges

Since 2003, social policies have led to big progress being made in Brazil, with more than 15 million new jobs being created, minimum wages and pensions rising continuously, and incomes growing.

Brazil launched the world's biggest poverty reduction programme and a large-scale social housing programme. In addition, large parts of the country have been connected to the power grid and a reform of land rights has been pushed through.

Whereas, in 1992, one fifth of the Brazilian population was still living in extreme poverty, in 2014 that figure was only 2.8 per cent. However, in recent years the number of poor people has risen again.

Young, well-educated adults living in the cities, who have seen their jobs go in the wake of the most recent economic crisis, are particularly affected. Considerable regional disparities also remain. What is more, Brazil is still one of the countries with the biggest disparities in income development. Its Gini co-efficient, which measures income inequality, is still one of the biggest in the world.

Human rights

On the international stage, the Brazilian government acknowledges its obligation to protect human rights. There is considerable need for action with regard to ensuring all the rights of the individual inside the country. The level of violence in Brazil and the country's murder rate are among the highest in the world. For many people living in the megacities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, in particular, drug- and gang-related crime are part of everyday life. The police often respond with excessive force. Human rights observers regularly dispatch reports that point to extra-judicial killings by police officers.

 

Cityscape of São Paulo
Economic situation

Dip in growth overcome

In 2014, after a long period of stable growth, Brazil slipped into an economic crisis. In both 2015 and 2016, gross domestic product (GDP) sank by 3.5 per cent. The country is heavily indebted and unemployment has risen massively (2018: 12 per cent).

In 2017, a slight economic recovery was recorded, with GDP growing by one per cent. For the period from 2018 onwards, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) expects this growth to continue. The strong domestic market of more than 200 million inhabitants, which accounts for over 80 per cent of GDP, remains the main driver of the economy.

Two major concerns are the low competitiveness of local industry and Brazil's budget deficit, which recently rose quite sharply. At the same time, however, the country remains an attractive destination for foreign investment, as shown by the clear increase in direct investment of about 60 billion US dollars in 2018.

Brazil's long-term economic potential is considerable: the country is rich in natural resources and has a large, well-trained workforce. Although agriculture now only contributes a bare five per cent to the country's gross domestic product, it makes an important contribution towards global food security. Brazil is one of the world's biggest producers of coffee, sugar, meat and soya products.

 

Rainforest in Jaraqui, Brazil
Environment and climate

Reconciling ecological, social and economic interests

The vast majority of the Amazon rainforest lies in Brazil. As a water and carbon reservoir, it plays a central role for the global climate and for economic development in South America. Yet every year, extensive areas of forest are cut down – sometimes illegally – in order to acquire new land for farming or grazing.

Striking a balance between ecological, social and economic interests is one of the most important tasks of German-Brazilian cooperation for sustainable development.

Energy

Brazil has considerable potential for harnessing wind and solar energy. The country needs a stable energy supply and efficient power distribution for its economic development.

Climate action

Brazil was one of the first countries to ratify the Paris Agreement and made a commitment to bring about a cut in its greenhouse gas emissions, compared to 2005 levels, of 37 per cent by 2025 and 43 per cent by 2030. Ambitious implementation plans have been prepared with a view to further increasing the share of renewables in the energy mix and improving energy efficiency. Furthermore, emissions from agriculture are to be reduced and illegal logging in the rainforests is to be stopped.

 

 

German development cooperation with Brazil

Brazil, as an emerging country that is richly endowed with natural resources and has a large population, has a key role to play in resolving global environmental and development problems. The country is actively involved in the BRICS association of countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) and in the G20, and is seeking admission to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Because of its important role in international politics, Brazil is one of the BMZ's six global development partners. A strategic partnership was established between Germany and Brazil in 2015. The core of this partnership consists of joint efforts to promote economically, socially and environmentally sustainable development.

The main thrust of German-Brazilian development cooperation is towards measures concerned with climate protection and preserving biological diversity. Cooperation therefore focuses on the following areas:

  • Conservation and sustainable use of the rainforest
  • Renewable energy and energy efficiency

In view of the country’s own capacity, German support concentrates on reduced-interest loans, in addition to technical advice and financial contributions to Brazilian programmes and funds. To that end, the BMZ made available a total of 332.4 million euros at the end of 2017. Of this, 313 million euros was for Financial Cooperation and 19.4 million euros for Technical Cooperation.

Amazonia's Flying Rivers
Priority area "Conservation and sustainable use of tropical forests"

Stopping deforestation, securing farmers' incomes

The area covered by tropical forests in Brazil measures 4.8 million square kilometres; this is ten per cent of the total area in the world covered by tropical forests. With 2.5 million different species of animals and plants, Brazil is the most biodiverse country in the world. The BMZ is providing a range of support to assist the Brazilian government in protecting the rainforest and using it in a responsible way. Germany has been working with Brazil to preserve the country's tropical forests since the 1990s. The measures being supported include the management of protected areas, handling issues around land rights and promoting the sustainable use of natural resources.

One example is the support provided by the BMZ for efforts by the Fundação Nacional do Índio (FUNAI) to preserve and effectively manage indigenous protected lands. About twelve per cent of the land area of Brazil is now officially designated as territories belonging to the indigenous population and is legally protected.

Furthermore, the BMZ is supporting the setting-up of a rural environmental land register. Since 2014, it has been mandatory for all land owners to inform the authorities about the size of the properties they are managing. They are required by law to conserve or restore protected areas.

The BMZ is a participant in the Amazon Fund of the Brazilian development bank BNDES. Fund resources are disbursed based on proven achievements in protecting the rainforest. The money is invested in measures for reforestation and sustainable development in the Amazon region. Germany is the second biggest contributor to the Fund after Norway.

Supporting smallholder agriculture

Since the absence of clearly defined land ownership in the Amazon region often leads to violent conflicts over land, the BMZ is supporting the regularisation of land tenure. Under the national programme "Terra Legal", 55 million hectares of state-owned land is to be transferred to about 160,000 smallholder families. The land titles give people the legal certainty that they can farm their land on a long-term basis and thus secure a livelihood for themselves.

Germany also supports Brazil's approach of harnessing the sustainable use of rainforest resources as an incentive for protecting the rainforest. Investments are therefore being made in various value chains based on products derived from natural forest management. The way is being opened for small farmers and indigenous communities to market produce that is grown organically. Furthermore, with German support, the public sector extension system for farming cooperatives is being improved.

Results

Between 1992 and 2009, the BMZ made available more than 300 million euros for the G7 "pilot programme to conserve the Brazilian rain forest" (PP-G7). Overall, Germany was Brazil's most important partner during that period and was also the biggest contributor to the World Bank's "Rain Forest Trust Fund".

Under the pilot programme, significant areas of the Amazon and of the Atlantic coastal forests were declared protected zones, and indigenous zones were established. Important methods for monitoring the protected areas and for fighting illegal logging were developed further.

Brazil's Amazon Fund was the first national forest and climate protection fund to be established worldwide. In the period from 2004 to 2018, the annual rate of deforestation in the Amazon region declined by about 72 per cent.

In 2002, the Brazilian government, supported by the BMZ, launched an international alliance to ensure effective protection of more than 60 million hectares of tropical forest in the Amazon region. This target was achieved in 2017. The Amazon Region Protected Areas (ARPA) Programme is the world's largest programme for the protection of important habitats.

Video: Using tropical forest sustainably – simply explained
Football stadium in Salvador da Bahia equipped with solar panels
Priority area "Renewable energy and energy efficiency"

Generating electricity from the wind and the sun

Germany is assisting Brazil in decentralising its energy supply and expanding the share of electricity from wind and solar power in its energy mix.

The Energy Ministry and other authorities and agencies responsible for energy are being advised on how to put in place the technical conditions necessary for the use of renewables. Among other things, the rules for the construction of wind power plants have been improved. Furthermore, a tariff scheme has been developed that will allow decentralised energy generating facilities to be linked up to the grid without too much bureaucracy.

Together with the Brazilian development bank BNDES and the energy supplier Eletrosul, financing programmes have been set up to create incentives for investing in climate-friendly wind power. Ten wind farms with a total generating capacity of 500 megawatts have been funded, accompanied by advisory services for technology and for operating the plants. This way, pioneering model projects have been implemented at an early stage, thereby helping to establish wind energy in Brazil.

Solar power

In the run-up to the 2014 World Cup, football stadiums such as the Mineirão stadium in Belo Horizonte were equipped with solar panels as flagship projects. In Rio de Janeiro, solar-thermal plants have been installed in a social housing complex. Installing such power plants is now a mandatory component under the national funding programme for social housing ("Minha Casa Minha Vida").

Through German development cooperation, the development and construction of the biggest industrial plant for generating solar energy is currently being promoted in the north-east of the country. Furthermore, universities and vocational training centres are receiving support to help them train up teachers and technical experts in the field of wind and solar power.

Energy efficiency

Improving energy efficiency is another goal of the Brazilian government. One area that Germany is engaged in is supporting the public and the private sector in increasing energy efficiency in the field of urban mobility, thereby reducing emissions of pollutants that harm the climate. The BMZ is financing advisory services, expert exchanges in Germany and joint research projects and, via KfW Development Bank, is making development and promotional loans available for developing renewable energy sources. Pilot projects are to be used to raise awareness of new technologies and make sure they are more widely used.

Wind energy turbine in Brazil
Triangular cooperation

New forms of cooperation

Brazil is an important partner of the BMZ when it comes to promoting development programmes in third countries, i.e. as part of triangular cooperation. Such programmes focus on exchanges of experience between an emerging economy, an industrialised country and a developing country.

For instance, Germany and Brazil are jointly supporting programmes in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean – in fields such as photovoltaics, energy efficiency, agriculture and managing protected areas.

 

Map of Brazil

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Brazil Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Federative Republic of Brazil Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Brasilia, 450,000 inhabitants, Federal District approx. 2.4 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 8,515,770 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 79 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Brazil

BMZ glossary

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