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Uzbekistan

Detail of the Tillakori Medrese in Samarkand, an Islamic university from the 17th century. The building was long used as a mosque.

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Overview

At the heart of Central Asia

With over 32 million inhabitants, Uzbekistan is by far the most populous country in Central Asia. It plays a key role in both the economic development and the security of the region, and is thus an important partner country for Germany in terms of development cooperation.

Since 1991 Uzbekistan has been an independent republic, belonging to the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) along with other successor states to the Soviet Union.

In September 2016, Islam Karimov, who had been president of the country since it gained independence, died. That December, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, for many years the country's Prime Minister, was elected as the new president. The most important political powers are concentrated in the hands of the president. There is currently no parliamentary opposition, as none is permitted . At the parliamentary elections held in December 2014, only the four parties already represented in parliament – and close to the government – were allowed to stand for election.

Uzbekistan's economy has seen positive development in the past few years. Gold, cotton and natural gas are the country's key export products. However, only a small proportion of the population is actually benefiting from the economic upturn. Rural dwellers in particular are badly affected by poverty, unemployment and inadequate medical care.

Cooperation with Germany

Uzbekistan is one of the partner countries with which Germany is closely engaged in development cooperation based on intergovernmental agreements. Development cooperation focuses on improving health and on sustainable economic development. The aim of German involvement is to bring about tangible improvements in the living conditions of the Uzbek people.

Straight to

Development facts and figures from Uzbekistan

  • Metro station in Tashkent, Uzbekistan
    Political situation

    Reform drive following long period of stagnation

    On taking office, President Mirziyoyev embarked on an ambitious programme of reforms. The government's overall priority is to increase per capita income so as to achieve upper middle income levels by 2030.

  • Father and son in Tashkent, Uzbekistan
    Social situation

    Limited opportunities for young people

    So far, the government of Uzbekistan has not succeeded in allowing all sections of the population to share in the country's positive economic development. Only a small number of people can be counted as upper or middle class.

  • Indoor market in Uzbekistan
    Economic situation

    On the road to more openness

    The Uzbek economy is strongly dependent on world market prices for its main exports (gas, metals, cotton) and the economic health of its major trading partners, China and Russia.

  • Aral Sea: left 2014 and right 2000, 1960 extent black line
    Environmental situation

    Troubled legacy of decades of exploitation

    Although Uzbekistan faces many environmental problems, there is still little public awareness of the issues.
    For example, agriculture, one of the most important sectors of the country's economy, was for a long time limited mainly to the monocropping of cotton.

Metro station in Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Political situation

Reform drive following long period of stagnation

On taking office, President Mirziyoyev embarked on an ambitious programme of reforms. The government's overall priority is to increase per capita income so as to achieve upper middle income levels by 2030. That would mean trebling current per capita income.

According to its constitution, Uzbekistan is a presidential democracy with a bicameral parliament. In truth, however, the country's political course is determined in autocratic fashion by the State President. Political opposition is not permitted. Freedom of expression, freedom of the press and freedom of assembly are all restricted; access to the internet and social media is state-regulated. The 2019 World Press Freedom Index compiled by the non-governmental organisation Reporters Without Borders ranks Uzbekistan 160th out of 180 countries evaluated.

The people of Uzbekistan play no part in political decision-making processes. So far, not one of the parliamentary or presidential elections held in the post-Soviet era has been considered as either free or fair by the international community.

Thanks to the wide-ranging package of reforms introduced by President Mirziyoyev, Uzbekistan's human rights situation is gradually improving. Since late 2016, large numbers of political prisoners have been released and contacts with international human rights organisations intensified. Yet there are still some areas in need of improvement.

One area in which the rule of law falls short is the country's judiciary, which does not operate independently. Court rulings are frequently politically motivated and existing legal provisions are often not enforced.

Uzbekistan is working with the International Labour Organization (ILO) on preventing child and forced labour in the cotton harvest. Some considerable progress has already been made. The ILO concluded, for example, that no children or young people were involved in the 2018 cotton harvest. In 2017, Uzbekistan received its first ever visit from the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.

Society is rigorously controlled by the state. An active civil society, such as exists in western Europe, is unknown in Uzbekistan. For one thing, there is no tradition or culture of civil society activity; for another, independent political activity is often prohibited by the government, since it is regarded as a threat to the stability of the country. Yet here, too, change is taking place. International non-governmental organisations are able to operate more freely than before. And the government is openly addressing the country's failings.

Father and son in Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Social situation

Limited opportunities for young people

So far, the government of Uzbekistan has not succeeded in allowing all sections of the population to share in the country's positive economic development. Only a small number of people can be counted as upper or middle class. A large gulf exists between the rural and the urban population. According to figures from the Asian Development Bank (ADB), some eleven per cent of the population lives below the national poverty line. Of these, three quarters are rural dwellers.

One major challenge is the country's rapid population growth (2017: 1.68 per cent). The economy is unable to keep pace with such rapid growth. This is leading to problems in terms of education provision and employment, which is ultimately driving poverty. Every year, 500,000 more people come onto the labour market. And an inadequate medical and social security safety net are leading to tensions within the population and an exodus of people seeking work elsewhere. Although remittances from Uzbeks abroad have fallen sharply in recent years, in 2018 they still amounted to 5.1 billion US dollars.

Whilst reforms have been launched to modernise Uzbekistan's education system, which had remained unchanged since the Soviet era, there is still a lack of trained teaching staff and modern teaching material. The switch from Russian to Uzbek as the country's official language is slowing down the reform process, not least because there is very little specialist literature in the Uzbek language.

Uzbekistan currently ranks 108th out of 189 countries on the Human Development Index (HDI).

Indoor market in Uzbekistan
Economic situation

On the road to more openness

According to official figures, Uzbekistan's economy has grown steadily by at least five per cent per annum in recent years. This was the level of growth achieved in 2018; for 2019 and 2020 the World Bank forecasts growth rates of 5.1 and 6 per cent respectively. The Uzbek economy is strongly dependent on world market prices for its main exports (gas, metals, cotton) and the economic health of its major trading partners, China and Russia.

The Uzbek government has recently implemented a large package of measures aimed at improving the investment climate. These include liberalising its system of foreign exchange control and privatising state-owned enterprises, for example in finance, the chemical industry and the energy sector. Uzbekistan's Development Strategy for 2017 to 2021 has identified a number of priority areas for development. Alongside reforms of the governance and public management system and of the law and the judicial system, important areas identified are economic development and liberalisation and improvements in social infrastructure and social services.

Yet the general environment for private sector activity remains difficult. Potential investors are deterred by the strict state controls on the banking system, limited access to credit, lengthy approval procedures, lack of legal certainty and an inadequate infrastructure.

Widespread corruption is another major problem. In the 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index drawn up by the non-governmental organisation Transparency International, Uzbekistan ranked 153th out of the 180 countries assessed.

Development potential

Thanks to its central geographical position and its mineral deposits (including gold, copper, uranium, coal and natural gas), Uzbekistan has good potential for development. Already, companies from Russia, China, Korea and Malaysia are investing in the development of the natural gas and oil deposits that can be found there.

The fuel industry, mechanical engineering, metal processing, transport manufacturing and electrical engineering are key pillars of the Uzbek economy. The textile industry, electricity sector, and the mobile telecommunications industry also offer potential for development.

The country's young population can be regarded as another asset. Almost 60 per cent of the population is under the age of 30. If educational opportunities are improved, the Uzbek economy would be able to draw on a plentiful supply of relatively well-trained labour.

Aral Sea: left 2014 and right 2000, 1960 extent black line
Environmental situation

Troubled legacy of decades of exploitation

Although Uzbekistan faces many environmental problems, there is still little public awareness of the issues.

For example, agriculture, one of the most important sectors of the country's economy, was for a long time limited mainly to the monocropping of cotton. These cotton plantations required massive amounts of water, most of which was diverted from the country's rivers, primarily the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya. Both rivers flow into the Aral Sea. Formerly the fourth largest body of inland water in the world, it is now almost completely salinised and desiccated.

The intensive use of chemical pesticides and fertilisers is also contaminating the soil and drinking water in many regions. Furthermore, the increased demand for food, generated by Uzbekistan's rapid population growth, is leading to overgrazing, soil degradation and uncontrolled deforestation.

Lax controls of pollutant emissions caused by industry and traffic, and inadequate treatment of sewage and refuse, are all having a very detrimental environmental impact on Uzbekistan's cities.

Moving towards more sustainability

The issue of environmental sustainability is beginning to attract more political attention in Uzbekistan. The government is planning, among other things, to invest more in the use of renewable energies and, in particular, to make better use of the potential for generating solar power.

The country has also started diversifying its agriculture and taking steps to prevent land degradation. These steps include making better use of available water resources, replanting forests and managing pastureland more sustainably. Uzbekistan has formed a knowledge network with its neighbours Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan to share successful solutions in this area.

German development cooperation with Uzbekistan

At government negotiations in May 2019, the German government committed to the Uzbek government a total of 123.8 million euros for the period 2019 and 2020 for Technical Cooperation and Financial cooperation.

The aim of all Germany's support is to bring direct and tangible improvements to the lives of the people living in Uzbekistan and to ensure that the reforms currently being undertaking are irreversible. The priority areas are health and sustainable economic development.

Efforts in the health sector are mainly concentrated on improving health in rural areas. One focus is on modernising regional hospitals. Other important areas are reproductive health, maternal and child health, tuberculosis control and training for doctors and other medical and technical staff.

Cooperation in the second priority area, sustainable economic development, was suspended for a number of years but has now been resumed. The focus here is on creating jobs and income opportunities for people in Uzbekistan.

Uzbekistan is also covered by some of the regional programmes being implemented as part of Germany's development cooperation. These focus on areas such as the rule of law, quality infrastructure, trade, sustainable use of natural resources, vocational training and drug prevention. These regional programmes are intended to provide a forum for the exchange of experience and to encourage closer cooperation between the countries of Central Asia.

Mother and child ward in the hospital in Almalik, Uzbekistan
Priority area "Health"

Tangible progress made

The quality of health care in Uzbekistan has worsened since the country gained independence. The medical infrastructure suffers from outdated technology and inefficient systems.

Germany is helping Uzbekistan's government in its efforts to implement its programme of reforms in the health sector. The aim is to provide comprehensive access to healthcare services for all people in Uzbekistan in a system that discriminates against no-one. Work is underway, for example, on transforming the hospitals in the provincial capitals into modern medical centres. The technical equipment is being upgraded and staff are being trained.

Further important priority areas of Germany's and Uzbekistan's development cooperation are increasing the use of digital technology in healthcare, reducing the incidence of tuberculosis and improving maternal and child health. Activities are focused on the Aral Sea region.

Textile workshop in Uzbekistan
Priority area "Sustainable economic development"

Removing barriers, creating jobs

In Uzbekistan, Germany is funding programmes in the areas of technical and vocational education and training, agricultural value chains, the development of the finance sector and support for small and medium-sized businesses. All activities are aimed at creating long-term jobs and better income opportunities in Uzbekistan.

At the same time, trade barriers are to be dismantled so that Uzbek products can be supplied more easily and quickly to the world market. Germany is providing support to Uzbekistan and three other landlocked states in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) in their efforts to implement the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement, which entered into force in February 2017. The focus is on such issues as customs and border procedures, which have often been inefficient in the past. This has meant delays of days or weeks in the shipping of goods, adding to the cost of doing business.

Map of Uzbekistan

Development facts and figures

  Uzbekistan Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Uzbekistan Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Tashkent, approximately 2.5 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.75 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 447,400 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 108 of 189 (2018) 4 of 189 (2018)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

In the Kyzylkum Desert near Nukus, Uzbekistan

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Uzbekistan

BMZ glossary

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