Content

Sri Lanka

Auto rickshaw on a coastal road in Sri Lanka

more

Overview

Hope for peace and reconciliation

"Resplendent land" – that is what the name Sri Lanka means. Yet, in its recent past the island state in the Indian Ocean was marked, more than anything else, by a civil war that lasted almost three decades.

​The conflict ended in 2009 and, since then, Sri Lanka has made huge progress. Hundreds of thousands of internally displaced persons have been able to return to their home communities in the north and in the east of the country; large areas have been cleared of mines and other warfare agents; important parts of the infrastructure have been restored.

However, the peace and reconciliation process has not yet been completed; the possibility that violence and conflict may erupt remains high. That was made very apparent when attacks on several churches and hotels on Easter Sunday 2019 left more than 250 people dead.

The government and society are faced with the challenge of stabilising the situation in the country and creating an environment in which Singhalese and Tamils, Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims and Christians can all live together in peace and equality.

German development cooperation with Sri Lanka

Germany and Sri Lanka have been involved in development cooperation since 1958. Sri Lanka is one of the countries that Germany supports through thematic and regional programmes.

Cooperation between Germany and Sri Lanka is focused on the priority area of peacebuilding and crisis prevention. The emphasis is on projects concerned with vocational training, promoting SMEs and peace education. The regional focus of the cooperation is on the former conflict areas in the north and east of the island.

Straight to

Development facts and figures from Sri Lanka

  • Relatives of people who have been missing since the civil war demonstrate with banners on the occasion of the visit of Pope Francis to Sri Lanka in 2015.
    Political situation

    Sri Lanka still is susceptible to crises

    In 2015, the country experienced a peaceful change of power. The new government has taken important steps to once again strengthen democracy and the rule of law.

  • Customer at a retailer in the district of Kotahena in Colombo, Sri Lanka
    Social situation

    Society is still divided

    The share of poor people has significantly decreased over the last 15 years. However, income is very unequally distributed between urban and rural populations and between the different regions.

  • Textile factory in Colombo, Sri Lanka
    Economic situation

    Huge potential, huge contrasts

    In recent years, the economy of Sri Lanka has been growing steadily by three to five per cent. One of the country's most important sectors is the textile and garment industry. It is benefitting greatly from the trade preferences granted by the European Union to Sri Lanka.

Relatives of people who have been missing since the civil war demonstrate with banners on the occasion of the visit of Pope Francis to Sri Lanka in 2015.
Political situation

Sri Lanka still is susceptible to crises

For almost three decades, Sri Lanka was torn by severe conflicts between its two largest ethnic groups, the Sinhalese and the Tamils. Tamil separatists in the north and east of the country began an armed struggle for an independent Tamil state in 1983. According to UN estimates, the conflict claimed up to 100,000 lives.

The civil war ended in May 2009 with the defeat of the Tamil rebels by the Sri Lankan army. The state of emergency declared in 1983 was officially lifted in September 2011.

Peaceful change of government

Under President Mahinda Rajapaksa, Sri Lanka's head of state from November 2005 to January 2015, the government became increasingly authoritarian.

In 2015, the country experienced a peaceful change of power. The new government under President Maithripala Sirisena (Sri Lanka Freedom Party, SLFP) and Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe (United National Party, UNP) has taken important steps to once again strengthen democracy and the rule of law.

A constitutional amendment has given the Parliament greater authority, cut presidential powers and restored the independence of the judiciary. In the former civil war areas, President Sirisena has appointed civilians to replace military governors. And, what is more, the new government has announced that anti-corruption efforts will be stepped up.

Other reforms, however, such as greater decentralisation and the introduction of new electoral laws, were not completed by 2018 as planned.

Constitutional crisis in 2018

The relationship between President Sirisena and Prime Minister Wickremesinghe has become increasingly difficult since 2015. In October 2018, the situation escalated, when Sirisena unilaterally ended the government coalition between the UNP and the SLFP, dismissed the Prime Minster and dissolved parliament. A ruling by the Supreme Court put an end to the political crisis. It denounced the President's actions as unconstitutional. Prime Minister Wickremesinghe was reinstated in office on 16 December 2018 and has been leading a minority government since then.

The crisis has proven the resilience of the country's democratic institutions and the effectiveness of the judiciary. It remains to be seen, however, whether the country will be able to return to political stability and whether the President and parliament will manage to get back to working together in an orderly manner. The next presidential elections are due to be held at the end of 2019.

Human rights

Since the change of government in 2015, the human rights situation has improved significantly and non-governmental organisations have much more space to operate. Freedom of opinion, freedom of assembly and freedom of the press, which were severely curtailed during President Rajapaksa's time in office, are once more being upheld.

Progress on investigating the human rights violations that occurred during the civil war is slow however. In 2015, the Government of Sri Lanka agreed at the UN Human Rights Council to set up an office of missing persons, an office for reparations, a commission on truth and a special tribunal on war crimes and human rights violations. These plans have so far only been partially implemented.

The UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism found in 2017 that the Tamil population continues to be severely under-represented in all public institutions, in particular in the security sector and the judiciary.

Sale of magazines and newspapers in Colombo, Sri Lanka
Customer at a retailer in the district of Kotahena in Colombo, Sri Lanka
Social situation

Society is still divided

In 2017, the population in Sri Lanka had an average annual GNI per capita equivalent to 3,850 US dollars. According to the World Bank classification system, that makes Sri Lanka a lower middle-income country. The country is ranked 76th out of 189 on the current UN Human Development Index (HDI).

The share of poor people has significantly decreased over the last 15 years. According to official figures, in 2016, 4.1 per cent of the population was living below the national poverty line. In 2002, it had been 22.7 per cent.

However, income is very unequally distributed between urban and rural populations and between the different regions. In the central highlands and the former civil war areas in the north and north-east of Sri Lanka many people are living at subsistence level. About 10 per cent of the population is considered to be undernourished.

In 2018, the rate of unemployment was 4.1 per cent. Of great concern is the very high level of unemployment among young people: among 15- to 24-year-olds, almost one every in five is without a job.

High potential for conflict

The defeat of the Tamil rebels by government troops in 2009 ended the military conflict. Yet it did not resolve the underlying ethnic conflicts. Many Tamils still feel disadvantaged in political, economic, social and cultural terms. And Muslim and Christian minorities have repeatedly been the victims of violent attacks.

Peace and reconciliation are only possible if all population groups enjoy equal participation and if the human rights violations committed during the civil war are dealt with in a transparent manner.

Situation of women

Despite having equality before the law, women in Sri Lanka face discrimination in political, economic and social life. Traditional role models often prevent women from starting a career. The majority of women are employed in the informal sector, especially in agriculture.

The situation is particularly challenging for Tamil and Muslim women in the former conflict regions. There are approximately 75,000 war widows, who are subjected to strong social exclusion and can hardly find any paid employment. Often, their only option is to engage in dangerous tasks such as demining; or they fall victim to economic exploitation, for instance in textile factories.

Women's political participation has improved with the introduction of a gender quota of 25 per cent. The quota was first applied at the municipal elections in 2018, and 29 per cent of all members of local councils are now women (2011: 2 per cent).

Textile factory in Colombo, Sri Lanka
Economic situation

Huge potential, huge contrasts

In recent years, the economy of Sri Lanka has been growing steadily by three to five per cent. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates that growth in the next few years will be similar.

One of the country's most important sectors is the textile and garment industry. It is benefitting greatly from the trade preferences granted by the European Union to Sri Lanka (Generalised Scheme of Preferences, GSP+). GSP+ status, however, is tied to good governance and can be withdrawn at any time in the event of violations of the constitution. Other important export commodities in addition to textiles are tea and rubber. Since the end of the civil war, the country has also seen an increase in the number of tourists visiting.

Contrasts between town and country, north and south

Sri Lanka's economy is still marked by structural and regional differences. On the one hand, there are many small companies, especially in the agricultural sector, that continue to use outdated technology and depend on manual labour. On the other hand, the country also has state-of-the-art businesses and industries. The region around the capital, Colombo, is the economic centre of the country. The north-eastern regions, by contrast, are still suffering the effects of the civil war. Poor transport infrastructure is a big issue that hampers economic development.

Extreme weather events are becoming more and more of a risk for agricultural production. Droughts, flooding and landslides have repeatedly led to failed harvests in recent years.

High levels of debt

The reform course of the government led by President Sirisena is market-oriented. The government has set itself the goal of creating new jobs, improving incomes, offering more incentives for foreign investors and expanding its trade and business relations both in the Asian region and with western countries.

The high level of public debt is a challenge. Seeking to make Sri Lanka a regional trading hub in South-East Asia, Sirisena's predecessor Rajapaksa launched large infrastructure projects, such as the construction of a deep-water port and a new international airport. These projects were financed by foreign loans, leaving the current government with very little financial scope. The IMF is assisting the country by providing loans amounting to 1.5 billion US dollars.

Tea picker on a plantation in Sri Lanka

German development cooperation with Sri Lanka

The primary goal of German development cooperation with Sri Lanka is to foster political stability in the country and to promote a process of national reconciliation.

Cooperation is therefore concentrated on the priority areas of peacebuilding and conflict prevention, with a regional focus on the former conflict areas in the north and east of the country.

Owing to the political crisis, a funding commitment by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development which was scheduled for 2018 was postponed until 2019. Among other things, funds are to be made available for the construction of a new vocational training centre (as at April 2019).

 

Peacebuilding and conflict prevention

Creating opportunities, strengthening social cohesion

In order to create lasting peace in Sri Lanka, enhance social cohesion and prevent new conflicts from arising, special attention needs to be paid to developing the regions in the north and the east of the country which, so far, have been severely disadvantaged. German development cooperation is focused in particular on the following areas:

Promoting small and medium-sized enterprises

Germany is helping to improve the business environment for small and medium-sized enterprises in the former conflict regions so as to enhance the competitiveness of these regions and help them create new jobs. Entrepreneurs receive assistance that helps them use new financial products, invest in modern technologies and run their businesses in ways that are ecologically sustainable. The main focus is on agriculture, information technology and tourism.

Vocational training

Germany is supporting a network of 15 vocational training centres in the north and east of Sri Lanka. The purpose of these efforts is to improve the quality of vocational training and offer practice-based training to more young people. The key element of the project is the Sri Lanka-German Training Institute (SLGTI), which opened in 2016 and offers training in automotive trades, food processing, information and communication technologies, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and construction in close cooperation with the private sector. Another vocational training centre is being planned in the south of the country.

Peace education

Pupils in Sri Lanka should learn how to live together peacefully in a country with many different ethnic, religious and linguistic communities. That is why peace education and values have been incorporated into the curricula. Teachers are being specially trained. And there is special support for learning Sinhala or Tamil as a second language. Furthermore, the young people are being offered psychosocial support. School networks have been established so as to enable the 200 schools piloting the project to share their knowledge and experience with other schools.

Vocational students at the opening of the Sri Lanka-German Training Institute (SLGTI) in Kilinochchi, Sri Lanka

Map of Sri Lanka

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Local train in the hills near Nanu-Oya, Sri Lanka

Development facts and figures

  Sri Lanka Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 official: Sri Jayewardenepura, about 100,000 inhabitants; de facto: Colombo, about 2.3 million in the metropolitan area Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 65,610 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 76 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Numerous colourful yarn reels in a tailor's workshop in Sri Lanka

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Sri Lanka

BMZ glossary

Close window

 

Share page