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Philippines

Terraced rice paddies near Batad, Luzon Island

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Overview

The gap between rich and poor

The Philippines is one of Asia's poorer countries. It is currently ranked 106th out of the 189 countries assessed in the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). The island state's development is hindered, among other things, by violent conflict between the government and rebel groups and between rival family clans.

Over the last decade, the economy of the Philippines has grown by more than six per cent almost every year. However, this economic progress has not led to major social progress yet. There is still a large gap between the small number of rich people and the many who are poor. Political and economic power is in the hands of a few hundred families, while the vast majority of the country's more than 100 million people has few opportunities to exert influence or improve their social status.

Development cooperation

The Philippines is one of the countries with which Germany is engaged in cooperation on the basis of thematic and regional programmes. In view of the internal conflicts that exist within the Philippines with separatist Muslim and Maoist groups, this cooperation focuses on the issues of peacebuilding and conflict transformation. In regional terms, Germany's activities focus on the island Mindanao.

Straight to

Development facts and figures from the Philippines

  • A security guard is guarding an empty shop in Manila, Philippines.
    Political situation

    A small elite with great influence

    Virtually no other Asian country has been as strongly influenced by the West during its history as has the Philippines, which was named after King Philip II of Spain.

  • Women wash clothes near a small-scale gold mining site. Gold mining is still the family’s main source of income, as it is for the rest of the community in the province of Camarines Norte in Bicol, Philippines
    Security situation and human rights

    Drugs war and armed conflict

    Separatist groups in the Philippines have been fighting for an independent Muslim state for decades.

  • Slum area in Manila, Philippines
    Social situation

    Still great need for reform

    The positive economic developments have so far brought no lasting improvements to the lives of the overwhelming majority of Filipinos.

  • Workers harvesting sugar cane
    Economic situation

    Underemployment and migration

    In the past few years, the Philippine economy grew by more than six per cent each year. Economic development is mainly driven by the electronics industry, the services sector and the telecommunications industry.

A security guard is guarding an empty shop in Manila, Philippines.
Political situation

A small elite with great influence

Virtually no other Asian country has been as strongly influenced by the West during its history as has the Philippines, which was named after King Philip II of Spain. After some three hundred years as part of Spain's colonial empire, followed by almost five decades of American rule, the island state finally achieved independence in 1946.

In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos was elected President and ruled the country until 1986, his regime becoming increasingly dictatorial over time. After he was ousted from office, a new constitution came into force. Since then, the country has been a presidential democracy along the lines of the US model. However, the democratisation process is being hampered again and again by political unrest, attempted coups, violent conflict, politically motivated murders and terrorist attacks.

The population has only few opportunities for political participation. Since there is no such thing as public election financing and elected representatives earn very little, only wealthy individuals have the financial means to run for office. There are still cases of elections taking place without opposing candidates, collusion between influential families and illegal purchasing of votes.

On the 2018 Corruption Perceptions Index published by Transparency International, the Philippines is ranked 99th out of the 180 countries rated.

In May 2016, Rodrigo Duterte, was elected President of the Philippines. He outlined his government's goals in a 10-Point Agenda. These goals include cracking down on corruption and mismanagement, reducing poverty, expanding infrastructure, bringing peace to Mindanao and moving the country towards a federal system.

Women wash clothes near a small-scale gold mining site. Gold mining is still the family’s main source of income, as it is for the rest of the community in the province of Camarines Norte in Bicol, Philippines
Security situation and human rights

Drugs war and armed conflict

Separatist groups in the Philippines have been fighting for an independent Muslim state for decades. The government has reached a ceasefire with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and agreed to grant partial autonomy to the Bangsamaro Region. However, other groups are continuing to fight and have now joined the "Islamic State" terrorist group. Following months of fighting over Marawi City, the island of Mindanao was put under martial law in May 2017.

Another unresolved conflict is that between the government and the armed Communist New People's Army (NPA), which is active throughout the country. Following repeated attacks on soldiers by the NPA, the government broke off peace negotiations and, at the end of 2017, both the NPA and the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) were designated as terrorist organisations.

Human rights

Since the end of the Marcos dictatorship in 1986, the human rights situation in the Philippines has improved significantly. The country has ratified all the most important agreements under international law on the protection of basic rights. However, serious human rights violations keep occurring. The army and police have been accused of arbitrary arrest and murder; violence has been regularly directed towards journalists, judges, lawyers, human rights and environmental activists and trade unionists. The judiciary is stretched beyond capacity, underfunded and seen as corrupt.

The 2019 World Press Freedom Index compiled by the non-governmental organisation Reporters Without Borders ranks the Philippines 134th out of 180 countries evaluated.

The "Philippine Drug War"

The "Philippine Drug War" announced by President Duterte at the beginning of his term of office has resulted in massive human rights violations.

According to official figures, about 5,000 people have been killed in police interventions to date; however, human rights organisations believe that the death toll is much higher and far more people have in fact been killed by security forces and death squads. Only few of these extrajudicial executions have been fully investigated and prosecuted.

Slum area in Manila, Philippines
Social situation

Still great need for reform

The positive economic developments have so far brought no lasting improvements to the lives of the overwhelming majority of Filipinos.

The emergence of an active middle class is hindered by the influence of powerful family clans and by the emigration of well-educated skilled workers and people with higher education degrees.

According to official figures, about 20 per cent of the Philippine population is living below the national poverty line. Approximately one in five children under five suffer from chronic malnutrition.

Poverty levels differ greatly between regions; development in rural areas lags well behind that in the region around the capital of Manila. Poverty is most severe in the southern parts of the island state, where many Muslims live.

The Philippines has made marked progress in recent years in terms of improving literacy levels, access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and gender equality. However, there is still a great need for reform in the social sector.

Health care and family planning

There is still no comprehensive access to health care, for example. Under President Duterte, government spending on defence and domestic security have been scaled up significantly, whilst the budgets for education and health care have seen drastic cuts.

The Philippine population is growing by 1.5 per cent every year. For a long time, the influence of the Catholic Church prevented a public debate about contraception and family planning issues. Therefore, the new law on reproductive health, including free access to contraceptives, is regarded as a major step forward in strengthening women's rights. The law was declared constitutional by the Supreme Court in 2014.

Workers harvesting sugar cane
Economic situation

Underemployment and migration

In the past few years, the Philippine economy grew by more than six per cent each year. Economic development is mainly driven by the electronics industry, the services sector and the telecommunications industry. A large-scale national infrastructure programme is currently spurring growth in the construction sector.

Since many people in the Philippines have a good command of English, a large number of businesses there offer telephone-based services to companies in the United States (call centres). Continued strong growth rates are expected in this industry in the coming years. Experts assume, however, that in the medium term the Philippines will lose its important role in the call centre business since such tasks will increasingly be performed by computers.

Agriculture

About one quarter of the population works in agriculture, but the agricultural sector accounts for only around 10 per cent of gross domestic product. People engage in farming and animal husbandry mainly for their own consumption (subsistence farming). As a consequence, agricultural productivity is low.

Shortage of jobs and skilled workers

Unemployment and underemployment are amongst the most pressing problems in the Philippines. Given the country's strong population growth, at least one million new jobs would have to be created every year to integrate all young adults into the labour market. According to government statistics, 13 per cent of the workforce is unemployed.

Only just over half of the workforce have a secure job with a fixed income. The others work in the informal sector, which means that most have neither a regular income nor any social protection.

About 10 per cent of the working population is employed abroad. Their remittances are a major factor for in strengthening the Philippine economy. However, labour migration is causing a lack of skilled workers in the Philippines itself, especially in the education and health sectors.

Environmental situation

The Philippines archipelago, with over 7,000 islands, is still one of most species-rich ecosystems in the world. But that biodiversity is being severely threatened by deforestation, overfishing, the destruction of coral reefs and extreme air and water pollution. The overexploitation of nature can be explained in part by the extremely inequitable distribution of land, high population growth and vested financial interests of political decision-makers. Whilst there is environmental and resource protection legislation in place, its implementation is sluggish.

Sunrise through the smog in Manila, the Philippines

German development cooperation with the Philippines

German development cooperation with the Philippines concentrates on peacebuilding and conflict transformation on the island of Mindanao.

In addition, the Philippines is involved in various regional programmes of German development cooperation. These include, among others, the "Fit for School" programme for improving drinking water supply and sanitation and hygiene education in schools, and a regional programme to promote pro-poor insurance schemes in Asia.

GIZ video on the regional programme "Fit for School"
A fisherman preparing his boat on Mindanao
Peacebuilding and conflict transformation

Mindanao: defusing conflict, developing non-violent solutions

The Mindanao region is regarded as the most structurally weak and least developed region of the Philippines. Land and resources are unevenly distributed, large parts of the population – especially members of indigenous groups – are disadvantaged, and armed force is being used in response to political and social conflicts.

Land management

The public authorities' land management systems have major shortcomings. The population has no access to reliable data on land rights or land use and people are quite often not aware of their own rights. As a result of these shortcomings, private companies are continuing to appropriate public land illegally and use it for mining or major agro-industrial projects ("land grabbing"). This unsustainable land use has severe impacts, including deforestation and loss of biodiversity.

Germany is supporting the competent authorities at national, regional and municipal level in improving the management of publicly owned land and making it conflict- and gender-sensitive. The aim is to improve governance, promote the exchange of data and information and increase participation of the local population.

Peacebuilding

For decades, there has been armed conflict between state security forces and various rebel and separatist groups. On behalf of the BMZ, experts of the Civil Peace Service (CPS) are advising governmental and civil society partners in Mindanao on developing and implementing projects aimed at promoting peace. One priority of German activities is to promote the peace process in the majority Muslim Bangsamoro region; an agreement on the region's autonomy was signed in 2014 after years of fighting.

At local information events and in dialogue forums, the local population has an opportunity to discuss contentious issues with representatives of government, the security forces and NGOs. This helps to identify any potential areas of conflict at an early stage and develop non-violent solutions. Disadvantaged population groups, especially women and members of indigenous communities, are empowered to defend their interests and assert their rights.

The consequences of displacement

Armed conflict over the use of land and resources is repeatedly causing violent displacement. Up to now, state authorities have primarily been providing humanitarian aid to IDPs. On the other hand, the long-term effects on the population and on the communities of origin and host communities are not yet being adequately taken into account.

As part of its special initiative on displacement, the BMZ is supporting the Office of the Presidential Advisor on the Peace Process (OPAPP) and other partners in dealing with the consequences of forced displacement at regional and local level. Among other things, the topic is to be included in peace talks and municipal development plans with a view to providing appropriate support to the people affected.

Karte der Philippinen

Development facts and figures

  Philippines Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of the Philippines Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Manila, Greater Manila approximately 13 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.75 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 300,000 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 106 of 189 (2018) 4 of 189 (2018)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

The Mayon on the main island of Luzon is a 2,462 meter high volcano in the Philippines and lies about 330 kilometers southeast of the capital Manila.

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on the Philippines

BMZ glossary

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