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Pakistan

A young woman is trained as a customer service consultant at the iACT training institute in Karachi, Pakistan.

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Overview

Influential partner country in South Asia

Pakistan is a country torn apart in many ways. Its geographical position makes Pakistan very vulnerable to natural disasters. On the political front, it is wearing itself down through continuous conflicts with its economically stronger neighbour, India. Relations with the United States are tense, as the US has been accusing Pakistan of taking too little action against terrorism. In addition, Pakistan is increasingly affected by religiously and economically motivated conflicts between Saudi Arabia and Iran. As a result, Pakistan is trying to establish closer relations with China, both politically and economically.

There is an urgent need for social, economic and environmental reforms. Pakistan is a young democracy with a rapidly growing population (about 200 million at present). It is relatively stable politically; its economic growth rate has been increasing. This means that there is a lot of potential for Pakistan to launch such reforms. The country's internal dynamism and its global weight make Pakistan an important partner for Germany's development cooperation.

Development cooperation

Germany and Pakistan have engaged in development cooperation since 1961, the year that the BMZ was founded. Currently, Germany's development cooperation with Pakistan focuses on three priority areas: governance, energy and sustainable economic development.

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Priority areas of cooperation with Pakistan

Development facts and figures from Pakistan

Political situation

Political stability in a setting of extremism and weak institutions and infrastructure

Since gaining independence in 1947, Pakistan has spent long periods under military rule. With the parliamentary and presidential elections in 2008, the country completed a peaceful transition from military rule to democracy. In 2013, Pakistan managed, for the first time in its history, a handover from one democratically elected government to the next.

In 2010, a constitutional amendment was adopted. Among other things, it strengthened parliament, the position of the Prime Minister, the powers of the provinces vis-à-vis central government and the independence of the judiciary. The right to information and the right to education were also enshrined in the constitution. However, the military continues to have a great deal of influence, especially on foreign and security policy.

In May 2018, the constitution of Pakistan was amended again in order to make the previously Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) part of the Province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This reform was a decisive step towards completing Pakistan's unity and towards establishing the rule of law and democracy in the FATA region.

Terrorist attacks

Pakistan's internal security is threatened by terrorism, extremism and separatist movements. The security situation in the Province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in the tribal areas and in the Province of Balochistan is tense.

For quite a few years now, the Taliban and other extremist organisations have been committing terrorist attacks, targeting particularly military and police installations. But their victims also include their political opponents, representatives of the media, and religious minorities. Even though the security situation in significant parts of the country has improved, the government has so far not been able to enforce its monopoly on force throughout the country.

People in a poor district of Lahore, Pakistan
Governance

Deficits in the area of human rights

Pakistan's political sphere and administrative bodies are characterised by a lack of transparency, corruption, nepotism and a focus on tribal interests. While the separation of powers does exist, the parliament and the judiciary only play their oversight role to a limited extent. Repeatedly, restrictions have been imposed on the activities of civil society organisations.

A large proportion of the people only have limited access to public services. Accordingly, popular confidence in government entities is relatively low. In 2017, the Corruption Perceptions Index published by Transparency International ranked Pakistan 117th out of the 180 countries assessed.

There are anti-terrorism laws that have been tightened several times, suspending a number of fundamental rights. In 2015, the death penalty was re-established. According to the human rights organisation Amnesty International, more than 200 death sentences were passed in 2017, and more than 60 were executed.

Although Pakistan has ratified the main international human rights conventions, implementation is often inadequate. In rural regions in particular, women are largely excluded from public life. They also experience discrimination in judicial proceedings.

Freedom of religion and freedom of the press are subject to restrictions. In particular, there is an article in the criminal code that makes blasphemy a punishable offence. This article is frequently misused to discriminate against religious minorities. While Pakistan has a well-developed media landscape, government entities and extremist organisations frequently put pressure on critical journalists, threaten them and obstruct their work.

Pakistani displaced people are returning to their home villages.
Displacement and migration

A refuge for people from Afghanistan

Pakistan is the world's number one host of refugees from Afghanistan. Some 1.4 million people from the neighbouring country have been registered officially in Pakistan. Another one million refugees are estimated to be living in the country without having registered. They can be found in the region close to the Afghan border and in the larger urban areas around Lahore and Karachi – where some of them have been living for decades. Pakistan has repeatedly extended the residence permits for the refugees; land has been made available to build settlements for refugees and they have been granted access to public schools and health care facilities.

In order to reduce the potential for internal and international conflict, the Pakistan government has increased its efforts to get Afghan refugees to return home and to call for more financial support for returnees from the international community.

Pakistan also has to meet the needs of numerous internally displaced persons. More than a million people have been displaced by violent conflict in the past few years, especially in the tribal areas. Many are now returning to their home communities and have to be assisted in reintegrating in society.

Primary education for girls and boys in the Tribal Areas (Pakistan)
Social situation

The long road to realising the Vision 2025

In the last two decades, Pakistan has managed to reduce income poverty significantly. According to World Bank figures, the share of poor people in the country's population has dropped from 57.9 per cent in 1998 to 29.5 per cent in 2013. About one fifth of the people are malnourished. Child mortality continues to be very high.

Pakistan's population grows by about two per cent per year. The average age is 22. Government spending on health and education is too low to ensure universal provision of services. Over the past few years, the education system has improved, including through support from Germany. However, too many children still drop out of school or do not go to school at all.

Every year, about six million young people enter the labour market. But there are hardly any job and income opportunities that are in line with international environmental and social standards and contribute to sustainable economic growth.

In its Vision 2025 development strategy, Pakistan considers stable and sustainable economic growth the basis for its development. The country's elites are becoming more and more aware that there is a need to invest in education, occupational development, social protection, environmental sustainability and innovation. The first signs of this are the vocational training reform that is being implemented nationwide, the introduction of health insurance in selected districts, and the efforts to expand financial services for private parties and enterprises.

Economic situation

Bleak outlook despite increasing growth rates

Up to 2017, a policy of cautious economic and tax reforms, a favourable global economic setting and a three-year support programme of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) contributed to the stabilisation of Pakistan's economy. However, the current account deficit, which is currently very high, along with increasing inflation and rapidly shrinking foreign exchange reserves, will likely make it necessary for the IMF to start a new programme.

Pakistan's tax ratio of 12.4 per cent is very low even by regional standards. This means that the government lacks the financial scope to invest sufficiently in vital social services. Private investors continue to be deterred by the tense security situation, widespread corruption, inefficient administrative bodies, a lack of legal certainty, and an inadequate energy supply.

In 2014, Pakistan was included in the European Union's Generalised Scheme of Preferences Plus (GSP+). This gives Pakistan's export sector better access to the European market for various products, especially textiles. Within the EU, Germany had spoken in favour of admitting Pakistan to the system.

Control centre of the hydropower plant Ghazi Barotha, Pakistan

Development potential

In 2014, the Government of Pakistan presented an ambitious and comprehensive development strategy, the Vision 2025. Its goal is for Pakistan to become an upper-middle-income country.
Pakistan has considerable economic potential: abundant resources, low labour costs, a young population and a growing middle class.

The development strategy also provides a clear definition of the prerequisites for sustainable development in Pakistan: social justice, the rule of law, peace and security, good governance and a national consensus on development. In order to reach its development goals, the government needs to launch fundamental reforms and implement them systematically.

Global warming is presenting a new challenge to Pakistan, which is suffering under rising temperatures, declining water resources and extreme weather events.

German development cooperation with Pakistan

Germany's development cooperation with Pakistan is geared towards supporting the country in consolidating democracy within the government and society and in achieving sustainable economic development. For the years 2017 and 2018, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) committed 83.87 million euros for this purpose. Bilateral cooperation focuses on the following priority areas:

  • ​Governance
  • Sustainable economic development
  • Energy

In addition, Germany is working in Pakistan to reduce push factors for migration and displacement by assisting the economically weak regions on the Afghan border in hosting refugees. Since 2009, the BMZ has provided a total of 30 million euros for these efforts. 10 million euros is being made available to support the reintegration of internally displaced persons in the tribal areas. As far as possible, all projects support the empowerment of women and climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Geographically, the programme of development cooperation is concentrated on the north-west of the country. Germany is one of the few donors working in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the tribal areas with their own structures and staff. Another focus is on the populous Province of Punjab. Among other things, it is home to a large number of textile companies.

  • A shepherd in Naran Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (Pakistan)
    Governance

    More participation in the municipalities

    In 2013, new local government systems were introduced in Pakistan, with many tasks being handed over to municipal authorities, some of which were newly founded on that occasion. Germany assists provincial and local governments in improving local governance, increasing tax revenue and improving the dialogue with citizens.

  • Textile factory in Faisalabad, Pakistan
    Sustainable economic development

    Vocational training, promotion of employment, social protection

    Germany is supporting Pakistan in reforming vocational training and introducing a health insurance system. Another important field of work is improving working conditions and social and environmental standards in the textile industry.

  • With the support of GIZ, solar systems are installed in Sindh, Pakistan.
    Energy

    Solar, wind and hydropower instead of oil

    Pakistan is expanding the use of renewable energy. Germany supports these efforts, assisting the country with the use of alternative sources of energy such as solar, wind and hydropower.

A shepherd in Naran Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (Pakistan)
Governance

Decentralisation facilitates more participation by the people

In 2013, new local government systems were introduced in Pakistan's four provinces, with many tasks being handed over to municipal authorities, some of which were newly founded on that occasion. This administrative reform enables municipalities to align public services more closely to people's needs and to make them more effective and transparent, and to give citizens a greater say in decision-making processes, for instance on local development planning and budget planning.

Germany assists provincial and local governments in the Provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab in delivering their new tasks, improving local governance, increasing tax revenue and improving the dialogue with citizens. Since 2017, nearly 2,300 local government representatives in the two provinces have received training on various topics. Almost 180 municipalities in Haripur District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, have drawn up development plans with German support.

Advice is being provided to both provinces' tax authorities to help them improve their administrative regulations and processes. In both provinces, tax revenues have already increased significantly.

In order to enforce the right to information and participation that has been laid down in the constitution, there are training sessions on citizen participation and participatory development planning. In the tribal areas, which have so far not had any local government institutions, more than 340 community-based organisations were set up in the period up to 2017, and nearly 2,000 members of such organisations received training on project planning, budgeting, implementation and monitoring.

In communities that host large numbers of Afghan refugees, Germany supports the development of social and economic infrastructure.

Textile factory in Faisalabad, Pakistan
Sustainable economic development

Vocational training, promotion of employment, social protection

In 2015, Pakistan and Germany agreed to make "Sustainable economic development" a new priority area of their cooperation. Since then, they have linked their successful cooperation on vocational training and employment promotion with work on issues such as private sector development and social protection. One focus in this field is the improvement of labour, social and environmental standards in the textile industry.

Vocational training

In cooperation with the European Union and Norway, Germany is assisting Pakistan to fundamentally reform its vocational training system, with a view to aligning vocational training more closely with the needs of the labour market.

During a first programme phase, more than 100 vocational careers advice and job centres have been established throughout the country. Uniform standards and material for examinations have been developed for 70 occupations. Thanks to 18 e-learning centres, 8,500 vocational teachers have so far been able to take courses on teaching methodology.

The second programme phase is focusing on policy development, engagement with the private sector, implementation of the reformed vocational training system, and human resource development and teacher training.

In parallel, Germany provides microfinance services for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises and for poor households and contributes to the refinancing of local microfinance institutions.

Social and environmental standards

The textile sector is Pakistan's most important manufacturing industry. Most textiles are produced in small and medium-sized enterprises operating in the informal sector. Significant weaknesses in occupational health and safety and environmental protection still persist in these companies. That is why the BMZ is funding a range of projects aimed at improving working conditions and social and environmental standards.

Among other things, training has been provided to labour inspectors in Punjab Province in cooperation with the German Statutory Accident Insurance (DGUV). Thanks to advisory services and training, working conditions for more than 13,000 workers in eleven textile and garment companies have been improved. Simultaneously, the companies have become much more productive.

In view of increasing water scarcity, Germany is also assisting Pakistan's textile industry in using water more efficiently.

Health insurance

About 30 per cent of Pakistan's people live below the national poverty line. 70 per cent of all job holders are working in the informal sector without any social protection. This means that illness can quickly jeopardise their livelihoods.

Germany therefore supports the introduction of a health insurance system that gives poor people access to health services. As part of a national health insurance initiative of the Pakistan government, some 745,000 poor families in 15 districts have so far been registered.

With the support of GIZ, solar systems are installed in Sindh, Pakistan.
Energy

Solar, wind and hydropower instead of oil

Pakistan's development is being impeded by a protracted energy crisis. In order to improve the situation and become less dependent on imported oil, Pakistan is expanding the use of renewable energy. Germany supports these efforts, assisting the country with the use of alternative sources of energy such as solar, wind and hydropower.

Measures to increase energy efficiency are being implemented in cooperation with the private sector. For instance, energy management systems have been introduced successfully in the textile sector, which now are to be expanded to other industries.

In order to encourage investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) is providing advice to the State Bank of Pakistan with a view to developing suitable financing instruments. Moreover, Germany is assisting Pakistan in putting in place the legal basis for providing feed-in tariffs for the owners of solar installations.

In May 2016, the Pakistan-German Renewable Energy Forum was established in Lahore. It fosters the exchange of information and experience as well as cooperation between government entities and the private sector, offers training, and serves as a point of contact for the German energy industry, industry federations and non-governmental organisations.

Map of Pakistan

Afghan refugees living in Karachi (Pakistan) make rugs by hand.
Pakistan

Development facts and figures

  Pakistan Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Islamic Republic of Pakistan Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Islamabad, approximately 2 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 796,100 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 150 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Pakistan

BMZ glossary

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