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Bangladesh

A motorboat driving through the port of Khulna

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Overview

A dynamic country facing big challenges

Water shapes life in Bangladesh. The country's rivers, the Padma (Ganges), the Jamuna (Brahmaputra) and the Meghna, are essential to people's livelihoods. The abundant water and fertile soils of the country's plains, which lie only a few metres above sea level, allow farmers to produce several harvests a year.

But the same water also poses great dangers. Monsoon rains, swollen rivers and cyclones coming from the Bay of Bengal regularly cause flooding and have cost countless lives over the last few decades. Today special shelters offer the people greater safety when floods hit, but they cannot prevent the destruction of infrastructure and the loss of harvests.

In future, these weather-related phenomena are likely to become more extreme as a result of climate change. That is why Bangladesh is working hard to gain international support for its efforts to adapt to climate change. In fact, Bangladesh regards itself as a spokesperson for the countries that are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.

Bangladesh is the most populous of the "least developed countries" (LDCs). Over the last few decades, the country has made remarkable progress and its economy is developing at a dynamic rate. If Bangladesh continues to develop in this positive manner, it is likely to move up into the group of "moderately developed countries" (MDCs) by 2024.

Development cooperation

Bangladesh and Germany enjoy friendly relations. Germany is the second biggest market after the US for Bangladesh exports. As a long-standing and reliable partner in development cooperation, Germany is held in high regard in Bangladesh.

The development support provided to Bangladesh by Germany's Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) focuses primarily on the areas of renewable energies and energy efficiency, good governance, human rights and the rule of law, better social and environmental standards in the textiles industry, and climate change adaptation.

Straigth to

Development facts and figures from Bangladesh

  • Parliamentary building in Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Political situation

    Democratic structures under strain

    In 1971, Bangladesh separated from Pakistan. Following a period of political unrest marked by autocratic regimes and a number of coups, the country managed the transition back to a parliamentary democracy in 1991.

  • Street scene in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh
    Social situation

    Growth not reaching everyone

    In Bangladesh, around 160 million people live on only 148,000 square kilometres of land – equivalent to about 40 per cent of the area of Germany.

  • View of Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh
    Economic situation

    The economy is picking up

    The economy of Bangladesh has been growing since the 1990s. In the past ten years, annual growth has usually been around six per cent or slightly higher, and in 2018 it even reached 7.9 per cent.

  • Harvesting rice in Mongla in the Southwest of Bangladesh
    Environmental situation

    Natural resources under threat by economic growth and climate change

    The environment in Bangladesh is being progressively degraded, mostly as a result of natural disasters, a high population density and poverty. 

Parliamentary building in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Political situation

Democratic structures under strain

In 1971, Bangladesh separated from Pakistan. Following a period of political unrest marked by autocratic regimes and a number of coups, the country managed the transition back to a parliamentary democracy in 1991.

The country's electoral system of "first-past-the-post" voting has led to the emergence of two large party groupings: the Awami League (AL) and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP). The political climate in Bangladesh is marked by the highly confrontational style of politics of these two parties, who have so far shown no willingness to reach political compromises.

In the parliamentary elections held in December 2018, the Awami League won a majority of 96 per cent of the vote. The opposition voiced severe criticism of the way the elections had been held, accusing the government of rigging votes and menacing critics. There were violent clashes, in which at least 17 people were killed. Ahead of the elections, opposition leader and former prime minister Khaleda Zia of the BNP was found guilty of corruption and sentenced to ten years in prison.

Human rights

The freedoms of assembly, of association, of opinion and of the press are all guaranteed in the constitution of Bangladesh. In practice, however, these fundamental rights - and, as a consequence, civil society's scope for action - are increasingly being restricted. Non-governmental organisations and nature conservation groups are experiencing repressive action by state authorities more and more often. The 2020 World Press Freedom Index compiled by the non-governmental organisation Reporters Without Borders ranks Bangladesh 151st out of 180 countries evaluated. This is because, for example, Bangladesh has passed a law on information and communication technologies according to which it is punishable to express criticism of the government or of Islam in social networks.

It is estimated that, since 2009, more than 2,000 people – among them bloggers, journalists, homosexuals and avowed atheists – have been killed in Bangladesh in acts of political violence.

Corruption

Corruption and nepotism are widespread in Bangladesh. On the Corruption Perceptions Index published by Transparency International, Bangladesh is ranked 146th out of the 180 countries rated. The country's anti-corruption agency has neither sufficient staff nor financial resources, nor the political backing it needs, in order to be able to operate effectively.

The situation of the Rohingya people

Since 2017, several hundred thousand people belonging to the minority Rohingyas have fled from neighbouring Myanmar to Bangladesh. The number of Rohingya refugees there has risen to more than 860,000 (as at April 2020). Meeting the basic needs of the refugees is placing an enormous strain on Bangladesh in political and cultural terms, on its ability to provide financial and humanitarian assistance, and on its infrastructure. Most Rohingya live in basic camps near the border in the district of Cox's Bazar.

Negotiations regarding the repatriation of the Rohingya people have so far been unsuccessful. According to the United Nations, there is currently still no prospect of the refugees being able to return safely to Myanmar, if they so wish. The Bangladesh government is calling on the international community to exert greater pressure on Myanmar, to make more of an effort to bring about a solution to the crisis and to provide greater support for the communities hosting the refugees.

Rohingya displaced from Myanmar in the Kutupalong refugee camp in Bangladesh
Street scene in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh
Social situation

Growth not reaching everyone

In Bangladesh, around 160 million people live on only 148,000 square kilometres of land – equivalent to about 40 per cent of the area of Germany. It is the world's most densely populated country (if one leaves aside the city states). Recent annual population growth has been 1.1 per cent.

Poverty

Between 2000 and 2016, the proportion of people living below the national poverty line was halved, from 48.9 per cent to 24.3 per cent. 

Despite this success, poverty reduction remains one of the Bangladesh government's primary tasks. On the current Human Development Index (HDI), Bangladesh ranks 135th out of 189 countries.

Basic services

There are still considerable gaps in the provision of basic services for the people of Bangladesh. 

For example, only 55 per cent of the population have access to safe drinking water supplies. Merely two-thirds of pregnant women receive medical care, and only about half of all babies born are delivered by medically trained personnel. About a quarter of adults are unable to read or write, and only about 15 per cent of the population use the internet.

Situation of women

Women in Bangladesh still face many instances of discrimination. There are very few women in politics or business, in particular in rural areas. Domestic violence against women is widespread, and the country's legislation on marriage, separation and divorce places women at a legal disadvantage. Moreover, Bangladesh is one of the countries with the highest incidence of child marriages. Two out of three girls are under the age of 18 when they get married.

Ambitious development goals

In its Vision 2021 strategy paper, the Bangladesh government has set an ambitious goal: Bangladesh is to reach the status of a "middle-income country" by 2021, the 50th anniversary of the country's independence. If this goal is to be achieved, a great many fundamental development constraints will still have to be overcome, however. Nevertheless, the World Bank already ranks Bangladesh as a "lower middle-income country", and has done since July 2015.

And in early 2018, Bangladesh qualified to leave the group defined by the United Nations as the "least developed countries" (LDCs). Should the positive trend in the country's economic and social development continue, Bangladesh will probably leave the LDC group of countries completely by 2024.

View of Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh
Economic situation

The economy is picking up

The economy of Bangladesh has been growing since the 1990s. In the past ten years, annual growth has usually been around six per cent or slightly higher, and in 2018 it even reached 7.9 per cent. The World Bank expects this rate of growth to continue in 2019 and beyond. The main drivers of the country's economic upswing are its cities.

More than half of Bangladesh's gross domestic product (GDP) is generated by the country's services sector, and around 28 per cent by its industrial sector. Besides a growing textiles industry, Bangladesh also has new export-oriented sectors with further potential for growth, such as shipbuilding, ceramic wares, pharmaceuticals, bicycle manufacturing and the IT sector.

One of the most important sources of foreign exchange, in addition to export earnings, are the remittances of Bangladeshis working abroad – in particular in the Gulf states. In 2018, migrant workers from Bangladesh transferred more than 15 billion US dollars to their home country.

Obstacles to investment

A major cause of poverty in Bangladesh is underemployment. The government wants to create more jobs by fostering labour-intensive manufacturing industries, and is trying to attract foreign investors by offering them tax incentives and reduced customs tariffs. However, this reasonably favourable formal and legal environment must be set against inefficient bureaucracy, lack of transparency and corruption. The World Bank's Doing Business report for 2020, which analyses the business climate worldwide, ranks Bangladesh 168th out of 190 countries reviewed.

The poor state of the country's infrastructure also puts off potential investors. Many roads and railway lines are congested and in a state of disrepair. Silted-up rivers and ports also hamper the transport of goods. A further brake on economic development is the inadequate power supply. The government has pledged to achieve full electrification of the country by 2021.

The textiles industry

Bangladesh is the world's second largest textiles and clothing manufacturer after China. The industry generates more than 80 per cent of the country's export earnings and employs around four million women and men. The main export customers of these textile goods are Germany and the USA. Therefore, Bangladesh is a focal point of German initiatives relating to the garment industry, such as the Textiles Partnership and the "Grüner Knopf" (Green Button) certification mark.

However, because the health and safety standards in Bangladesh textile factories are very poor, there are frequent health and safety incidents. The most severe accident at a manufacturing facility in the history of the country occurred in 2013, when the Rana Plaza building, a nine-storey factory and business premises near the capital of Dhaka, collapsed. More than 1,100 people were killed and over 2,000 were injured.

In response to international pressure, fire safety and other building safety regulations were introduced in the textiles sector and are now widely established. The initiatives started in Bangladesh could have an impact well beyond the country's borders. However, in many places, the implementation of such safety standards is progressing more slowly than had been hoped.

As one of the world's "least developed countries" (LDCs), Bangladesh enjoyed tariff-free access to markets within the EU. When it graduates to the status of "middle income country", it will no longer be granted these preferential trading terms. Bangladesh will then not only face stiffer price competition, but will have to comply with tougher standards on human rights, labour rights, environmental protection and good governance if it wants to continue to export its goods into the EU without having to pay duty on them.

Workers at the Zaber und Zubair Fabrics Ltd. textile company in Tongi, Bangladesh
Harvesting rice in Mongla in the Southwest of Bangladesh
Environmental situation

Natural resources under threat by economic growth and climate change

The environment in Bangladesh is being progressively degraded, mostly as a result of natural disasters, a high population density and poverty. Soil erosion and deforestation are destroying forests, wetlands and farmland. The rise in industrial production is also taking its toll on the environment – for instance because untreated wastewater is being dumped into the country's rivers. In addition, a proportion of the country's drinking water is contaminated by natural deposits of arsenic. Drinking the contaminated water over long periods of time can cause serious illnesses.

Bangladesh is particularly severely affected by the impacts of climate change. Experts predict that the frequency and intensity of natural disasters there will continue to increase.

Agriculture

Although agriculture in Bangladesh contributes only about 13 per cent of the country's value creation, some forty per cent the working population is employed in the agricultural sector. Rice is the most important crop. The fertile lowlands regularly flood, enabling them to produce several harvests a year.

So far, food production has kept pace with population growth. However, the unstable climatic conditions increase the risk of food shortages. Floods are becoming more severe, with the result that harvests are wiped out and improvements in infrastructure are washed away. Experts reckon that climate change is likely to exacerbate these problems even further in the future, and that agricultural production will decline as a result.

Chimney stacks of brick kilns in Savar, Bangladesh

German development cooperation with Bangladesh

Having contributed around three billion euros in development support to date, Germany is an important bilateral donor for Bangladesh. The German government pledged 221.4 million euros for development cooperation to Bangladesh for the years 2017 and 2018. And for 2019, it made an interim commitment of 85 million euros.

Cooperation between the two states currently focuses on the following three priority areas:

  • Renewable energy and energy efficiency
  • Good governance, the rule of law and human rights
  • Adaptation to climate change in urban areas
Solar system powering a groundwater pump
Priority area "Renewable energy and energy efficiency"

Ensuring an environmentally friendly but cost-effective power supply

Increasing industrial production in Bangladesh is exacerbating the already serious energy crisis facing the country. Shortages result in frequent power cuts. The over-stretched and out-dated infrastructure in Bangladesh's energy sector is holding back economic development. At the same time, however, Bangladesh has made a commitment under the Paris Agreement to reduce its carbon emissions. To meet its commitment, Bangladesh intends to scale up the use of renewable energies and plans to modernise and extend its power supply infrastructure accordingly.

Germany is closely involved in supporting Bangladesh efforts to reform its energy sector. One particular concern is to improve the energy supply in rural areas that are not yet connected up to the national electricity grid. Renewable energy sources such a solar energy and biogas play an important role here. Germany is also supporting measures to improve energy efficiency, for example through the use of energy-efficient stoves, through the global programme "Energising Development" (EnDev). By December 2017, Germany's contribution to these measures had helped to provide around two million people with electricity and some four million people with access to energy-efficient and healthy cooking techniques. Another development focus is investment in improving the electricity network and avoiding transmission losses.

Measures also include advising enterprises on ways of saving energy. Germany's development cooperation activities in the energy sector are helping to bring about a change in awareness throughout society.

A man transporting jeans on a rikshaw
Priority area "Good governance, human rights and the rule of law"

Strengthening social safeguards and an independent judiciary

The human rights situation in Bangladesh is cause for concern. Violations of basic rights are not prosecuted systematically or effectively enough. Furthermore, Bangladeshi citizens are not yet sufficiently aware of their rights.

The general framework, though, has improved: Bangladesh has now ratified all international human rights conventions. In 2010, it was the first South Asian state to ratify the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Supervisory bodies, including a national human rights commission and an anti-corruption commission, have been put in place. However, these bodies still lack sufficient numbers of staff and funding.

Justice

Germany is supporting Bangladesh in its efforts to fully reform its justice system and its prisons. Thus, for example, the Justice Ministry is being given advice on overhauling outdated legislation. The aim is to ensure that all citizens, whether male or female, have equal access to a fair trial.

One focus of cooperation is on providing legal support to people who have been imprisoned and on assisting in their rehabilitation. With Germany's support, a paralegal service, consisting of legal counsels provided by non-governmental organisations, was set up. These paralegals were able in the period from 2012 to 2019 to obtain the release of more than 22,000 people who had been imprisoned without trial. 

Based on these positive experiences, the paralegal service was rolled out to other districts.

Social and environmental standards

Germany is actively calling for Bangladesh's textile manufacturers to comply with social and environmental standards so that the work and safety conditions for their employees improve. To achieve this, Germany is helping Bangladesh to train state-approved health and safety inspectors and to ensure the safe disposal of industrial waste and sewage produced by the textiles industry.

Furthermore, Germany, with support from the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the Netherlands, is advising the Government of Bangladesh on how to put in place a system of accident insurance for people working in the manufacturing of textiles, clothing and leather goods. In addition, financial institutions and textiles factories are being helped to invest in occupational and environmental safety measures and are being given advice on how best to make use of the offers of information and advanced training now available.

Under a regional programme, producers in several Asian countries are being helped to network with each other, so that they can exchange information about initiatives and activities relating to sustainability standards and their experiences with, or the need for, action in this area. Moreover, Germany has helped to set up a regional network of non-governmental organisations which is campaigning for and defending women's rights in the textiles industry. In addition to these latest efforts, the Partnership for Sustainable Textiles, launched by the BMZ in 2014, provides a platform for activities to improve environmental and social safeguards within the entire supply chain. More detailed information can be found here.

Workers building a new dam road in Khulna
Priority area "Adaptation to climate change in urban areas"

Preparing for climate risks

Bangladesh is one of the countries worst affected by the impacts of climate change. For example, if the climate continues to warm, the Bay of Bengal is likely to see a considerable rise in sea levels and the loss of about ten per cent of the adjoining land area by the year 2050. Experts forecast that this could lead to some 15 million people migrating, with most moving into the country's larger cities.

Given this possible scenario, Germany is helping the Bangladesh government to take climate risks into greater account in its development and investment planning. The Bangladesh government is also receiving help to improve its capacity to coordinate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures and to apply for funding from international assistance programmes.

As part of one of Germany's Financial Cooperation measures, selected towns and cities are receiving support in preparing for climate change, also so that they can offer the people living there decent economic and social prospects. Thus, these towns and cities are receiving help with the construction of secure trunk roads, so that public buildings such as hospitals and schools can still be reached during floods or storms. In addition, Germany is investing in the paving of roads in urban slum areas and in improved drinking water supply and sewage disposal systems.

You can find more information about Germany's activities in this area here and here.

Map of Bangladesh

Development facts and figures

  Bangladesh Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 People's Republic of Bangladesh Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Dhaka, approximately 18 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.75 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 147,630 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 135 of 189 (2018) 4 of 189 (2018)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Aerial photograph of the refugee camp Kutupalong in Bangladesh, where Rohingya who were expelled from Myanmar live.

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Bangladesh

BMZ glossary

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