Content

Bangladesh

A motorboat driving through the port of Khulna

more

Overview

A dynamic country facing big challenges

Water shapes life in Bangladesh. The abundant water and fertile soils of the country's plains, which lie only a few metres above sea level, allow farmers to produce several harvests a year.

But the same water also poses great dangers. Monsoon rains, swollen rivers and cyclones coming from the Bay of Bengal regularly cause flooding and have cost countless lives over the last few decades. In future, these weather-related phenomena are likely to become more extreme as a result of climate change. That is why Bangladesh is working hard to gain international support for its efforts to adapt to climate change.

In the past few decades, Bangladesh has undergone a period of remarkable development. The economy is showing dynamic development. Bangladesh is the most populous of the "least developed countries" (LDCs) and has an active civil society. This has led to it playing a leading role on the international stage within the group of countries that are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In fact, Bangladesh regards itself as a spokesperson for these countries. If the country continues to develop at the current pace, then it is likely to graduate to the category of "moderately developed countries" (MDCs) as early as 2024.

Development cooperation

Bangladesh and Germany have been on friendly terms ever since the former gained independence in 1971. Germany is the second biggest market after the US for Bangladesh exports. As a long-standing and reliable partner in development cooperation, Germany is held in high regard in Bangladesh. German church organisations and numerous other non-governmental organisations, together with their local partner organisations, are also engaged in efforts to promote development in Bangladesh.

Germany's development support to Bangladesh focuses primarily on the areas of renewable energies and energy efficiency, good governance, better social and environmental standards in the textiles industry, human rights and the rule of law, and climate change adaptation in urban areas.

Straigth to

Development facts and figures from Bangladesh

  • Parliamentary building in Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Political situation

    Democratic structures under strain

    The political atmosphere in Bangladesh is determined by the confrontational policies of the two major parties, the Awami League (AL) and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP).

  • Street scene in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh
    Social situation

    Growth not reaching everyone

    In Bangladesh, around 165 million people live on only 148,000 square kilometres of land – equivalent to about 40 per cent of the area of Germany.

  • View of Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh
    Economic situation

    The economy is picking up

    The economy of Bangladesh has been growing since the 1990s. In the past ten years, annual growth has usually been around six per cent or slightly higher.

  • Harvesting rice in Mongla in the Southwest of Bangladesh
    Environmental situation

    Natural resources under threat by economic growth and climate change

    The environment in Bangladesh is being progressively degraded, mostly as a result of natural disasters, overpopulation and poverty.

Parliamentary building in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Political situation

Democratic structures under strain

The political atmosphere in Bangladesh is determined by the confrontational policies of the two major parties, the Awami League (AL) and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP). In the parliamentary elections held in December 2018, the Awami League was able to consolidate its position, winning a majority of 96 per cent of the vote. The opposition voiced severe criticism of the way the elections were held, accusing the government of rigging votes and menacing critics. There were violent clashes, in which at least 17 people were killed. The former BNP Prime Minister, Khaleda Zia, was found guilty of corruption in early 2018 and has been in goal since then.

Even in the run-up to the parliamentary elections held in early 2014, tensions between the two parties had been growing and violent clashes had brought public life in various parts of the country to a standstill on numerous occasions. Because election fraud was suspected, the opposition staged a boycott of the elections. Which is why the governing Awami League won the 2014 elections even before they were held.

Freedom of opinion

Bangladesh's government suppresses the expression of critical opinions under the pretext of combating extremist views. Since 2009, more than 2,000 people – among them bloggers, journalists, homosexuals and avowed atheists – have been killed in acts of political violence. The 2019 World Press Freedom Index compiled by the human rights organisation Reporters Without Borders ranks Bangladesh 150th out of 180 countries evaluated. Freedom of opinion within civil society is effectively restricted by the ICT Act, which makes criticism of the state or Islam via social media channels a punishable offence.

The situation of the Rohingya people

Since 2017, over 700,000 people belonging to the minority Rohingyas have fled from neighbouring Myanmar to Bangladesh. They have fled across the border to escape acts of retaliation and revenge by the military forces and the police – acts that have caused the deaths of thousands of Rohingyas. Most of them are living near the border in the town of Cox's Bazaar in simple camps, where the refugees now number more than 1.1 million people. The Bangladesh government is calling on the international community to exert greater pressure on Myanmar and to make more of an effort to bring about a solution to the crisis.

Rohingya displaced from Myanmar in the Kutupalong refugee camp in Bangladesh
Street scene in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh
Social situation

Growth not reaching everyone

In Bangladesh, around 165 million people live on only 148,000 square kilometres of land - equivalent to about 40 per cent of the area of Germany. With an average of more than 1,265 inhabitants per square kilometre, Bangladesh is the most densely populated country in the world. Recent annual population growth has been around 1.05 per cent.

Poverty

Between 2000 and 2016, the proportion of people living below the national poverty line was halved, from 48.9 per cent to 24.3 per cent. Despite this achievement, poverty reduction remains one of the government's primary tasks, as Bangladesh ranks 136th out of 189 countries on the most recent Human Development Index (HDI).

A major cause of poverty in Bangladesh is underemployment. The government wants to create more jobs by fostering labour-intensive manufacturing industries and is trying to attract foreign investors by offering them tax incentives and reduced customs tariffs. However, this reasonably favourable formal and legal environment must be set against inefficient bureaucracy, lack of transparency and corruption. Power shortages and poor transport infrastructure also deter potential investors. The World Bank ‘Doing Business' report of 2018 placed Bangladesh in 177th position out of 190 countries.

In its Vision 2021 strategy paper, the Bangladesh government has adopted an ambitious goal: Bangladesh is to reach the status of a 'middle-income country' by 2021, the 50th anniversary of the country's independence. If this goal is to be achieved, a great many fundamental problems and development constraints will still have to be overcome, however. Nevertheless, the World Bank already ranks Bangladesh as a 'lower middle-income country' and has done since July 2015.

And in early 2018, Bangladesh qualified to leave the group defined as the 'least developed countries' (LDCs) by the World Bank. Should this positive trend in the country's economic development continue, Bangladesh will probably qualify for the status of middle-income country by 2024.

View of Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh
Economic situation

The economy is picking up

The economy of Bangladesh has been growing since the 1990s. In the past ten years, annual growth has usually been around six per cent or slightly higher. The World Bank expects this rate of growth to continue in 2019 and beyond. The main drivers of the country's economic growth are its cities.

More than half (56 per cent) of its gross domestic product comes from the services sector, with industry generating nearly a third. Besides a growing textiles industry, Bangladesh also has new export-oriented sectors with further potential for growth, such as shipbuilding, ceramic wares, pharmaceuticals and the IT sector.

The country's most important export markets are the Member States of the EU and the US. Bangladesh is also making an effort to expand its export activities into new markets such as Turkey, Brazil, South Africa, Japan, Australia and Russia.

One of the most important sources of foreign exchange, in addition to export earnings, are the remittances of Bangladeshis working abroad – in particular in the Gulf states. In 2018, workers' remittances accounted for almost 12 per cent of gross domestic product.

Infrastructure

A particular problem in Bangladesh is the poor state of its infrastructure. Many power-generating facilities are outdated and overstretched, and many roads and railway lines are congested and in need of repair. The transport of goods is also hampered by silted-up rivers and ports.

The textiles industry

The textiles industry is by far Bangladesh's most important export branch, accounting for more than 80 per cent of all exports. Germany is the largest importer of textiles manufactured in Bangladesh, followed by the USA and the United Kingdom.

However, because the health and safety standards in Bangladesh textile factories are very poor, there are frequent accidents. For example in 2012, a fire broke out in a factory in Ashulia, on the outskirts of Dhaka, claiming the lives of more than one hundred people. In 2013, the Rana Plaza – a nine-storey business and factory building in Savar near Dhaka – collapsed, killing more than 1,100 people and injuring more than two thousand. The Rana Plaza collapse was the worst factory disaster in the country's history.

As a result of international pressure, far-reaching agreements on fire prevention measures and safety standards in buildings have meanwhile been initiated, which should benefit the 4.5 million textile workers in Bangladesh. The initiatives started in Bangladesh may have an impact well beyond the country's borders. However, the implementation of such safety measures is progressing more slowly than had been hoped.

Following the Rana Plaza disaster, it was agreed to set up a fund for compensation payments to the victims and their families. The International Labour Organization (ILO) is coordinating the fund, and various companies have pledged to help finance it.

For more detailed information on the BMZ's engagement in the textile sector, click here.

Workers at the Zaber und Zubair Fabrics Ltd. textile company in Tongi, Bangladesh
Harvesting rice in Mongla in the Southwest of Bangladesh
Environmental situation

Natural resources under threat by economic growth and climate change

The environment in Bangladesh is being progressively degraded, mostly as a result of natural disasters, overpopulation and poverty. Soil erosion and deforestation are destroying forests, wetlands and farmland. In addition, a proportion of the country's drinking water is contaminated by natural deposits of arsenic. Drinking the contaminated water over long periods of time can cause serious illnesses.

Bangladesh is particularly severely affected by the impacts of climate change. Experts predict that the frequency and intensity of natural disasters there will continue to increase. The rise in industrial production is placing a further strain on the environment. The country's rivers are being polluted by industrial and domestic effluents in particular.

Agriculture

Although agriculture in Bangladesh contributes only about 14 per cent of the country's value creation, some forty per cent the working population is employed in the agricultural sector. Rice is the most important crop. The fertile lowlands regularly flood, enabling them to produce several harvests a year.

So far, food production has kept pace with population growth. However, the unstable climatic conditions in Bangladesh increase the risk of food shortages. The extent of the flooding is growing, with the result that, sometimes, the floods cause huge damage. Experts reckon that climate change is likely to exacerbate these problems even further in the future, and that agricultural production will decline as a result. Moreover, the amount of arable land under cultivation is dwindling due to increasing settlement and industrialisation and the expansion of shrimp farming, which is now a growth industry.

Chimney stacks of brick kilns in Savar, Bangladesh

German development cooperation with Bangladesh

Having contributed around three billion euros in development support to date, Germany is an important bilateral donor for Bangladesh. For 2017 and 2018, the Federal Republic of Germany made commitments totalling 195 million euros to Bangladesh.

Cooperation between the two states currently focuses on the following three priority areas:

  • Renewable energy and energy efficiency
  • Good governance, human rights and the rule of law
  • Climate change adaptation in urban areas
Solar system powering a groundwater pump
Priority area "Renewable energy and energy efficiency"

Ensuring an environmentally friendly supply of power on the basis of cost recovery

Increasing industrial production in Bangladesh is exacerbating the already serious energy crisis facing the country. Shortages result in frequent power cuts. The over-stretched and out-dated infrastructure in Bangladesh's energy sector is holding back economic development. At the same time, however, Bangladesh has made a commitment under the Paris Agreement to reduce its carbon emissions. To meet its commitment, Bangladesh intends to scale up the use of renewable energies and plans to modernise and extend its power supply infrastructure accordingly.

Germany is closely involved in supporting Bangladesh efforts to reform its energy sector. One particular concern is to improve the energy supply in rural areas that are not yet connected up to the national electricity grid. Renewable energy sources such a solar energy and biogas play an important role here. Germany is also supporting measures to improve energy efficiency, for example through the use of energy-efficient stoves, through the global programme "Energising Development" (EnDev). By December 2017, Germany's contribution to these measures had helped to provide around two million people with electricity and some four million people with access to energy-efficient and healthy cooking techniques. Another development focus is investment in improving the electricity network and avoiding transmission losses.

Measures also include advising enterprises on ways of saving energy. Germany's development cooperation activities in the energy sector are helping to bring about a change in awareness throughout society.

 

A man transporting jeans on a rikshaw
Priority area "Good governance, human rights and the rule of law"

Strengthening social safeguards and an independent judiciary

The human rights situation in Bangladesh is cause for concern. Human rights violations are not prosecuted systematically or effectively enough. Furthermore, Bangladeshi citizens are not yet sufficiently aware of their rights.

The general framework, though, has improved: Bangladesh has now ratified all international human rights conventions. In 2010, it was the first South Asian state to ratify the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Watchdog bodies, including a national human rights commission and an Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC), have been put in place.

Justice

However, there are still weaknesses in the justice sector. For example, the courts are overstretched, the prisons overcrowded and conditions in prison often inhumane. Germany is supporting Bangladesh in its efforts to fully reform its prisons. The plan is to carry out capacity building measures in the context of prison administration and to improve the penal system. In addition, prisoners are to be offered rehabilitation measures. And the Justice Ministry is being given advice on overhauling outdated legislation. The aim is to ensure that all citizens, whether male or female, have equal access to a fair trial. The Anti-Corruption Commission, too, is receiving support.

Social and environmental standards

Germany is working with the Bangladesh Labour Ministry and Environment Ministry, as well as with factory managers, to support a project intended to promote social and environmental standards in the industrial sector of Bangladesh. This project is to help improve working conditions and enhance the safety of the workforce, as well as strengthening their organisations and protecting their rights. Together with the International Labour Organization, ILO, Germany is helping, amongst other things, to provide training for state-approved health and safety inspectors; to set up small fire brigades near industrial zones; and to dispose of and treat sewage sludge produced by the textiles industry.

Under a regional initiative, producers are being networked with each other so that they can exchange information about initiatives and activities relating to sustainability standards and their experiences with, or the need for, action in this area. Moreover, Germany has helped to set up a regional network of non-governmental organisations which is supporting women's rights in the textiles industry. On top of these efforts, the BMZ launched a Partnership for Sustainable Textiles in November 2014. The Partnership provides a platform for activities to improve environmental and social safeguards within the entire supply chain. More detailed information can be found here.

Workers building a new dam road in Khulna
Priority area "Climate change adaptation in urban areas"

Helping climate change migrants build a future

Since the activities of many other donors in the field of adaptation to climate change concentrate on coastal and rural areas, Germany has decided to promote adjustment measures in towns and cities.

Bangladesh will have to contend with severe climate change-related impacts in future. For example, if the climate continues to warm, the Gulf of Bengal is likely to see a rise in sea levels of 30 to 45 centimetres by the year 2050. If this were to happen, Bangladesh would lose a tenth of its land area, which in turn would lead to the mass migration internally of ten to thirty million people. Many development achievements would be destroyed. Already, the proportion of the population living in urban areas is growing by almost one percentage point each year (proportion of urban dwellers in 2017: 35.8 per cent). Many rural inhabitants are migrating to the large cities of Dhaka and Chittagong in search of work. That means that the proportion of the entire population made up of poor city dwellers is likely to increase.

This influx of people poses a huge challenge for the country's towns and cities. They will have to change the way in which resources are used, so that urban areas can continue to offer the people living there sufficient living space, water, energy and food. Models of public participation will also need to be adapted to new realities in order to nip any increase in social tensions in the bud.

But towns and cities also offer opportunities to adapt to climate change. Urbanisation brings with it a structural change in the country's economy, away from agriculture towards less vulnerable industrial and services sectors.

That is why the aim of German development activities is not only to make resource policy more efficient, but also to strengthen the resilience of the urban population in areas that are likely to be vulnerable to climate change.

The example of Khulna

Germany is contributing out of its development cooperation funds to the Cities Development Initiative for Asia, a regional climate fund. The initiative is helping Khulna's municipal authorities to pave the roads and construct drainage channels so that the city is better protected against regular flooding and better prepared for climate change. As a result, the city's neighbourhoods are no longer flooded for weeks at a time.

Slum areas benefit particularly from this, because the improved roads mean that they are permanently connected to the transport grid, providing new economic opportunities for the people who live there.

More information on these activities can be found here and here.

Map of Bangladesch

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Bangladesh Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 People's Republic of Bangladesh Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Dhaka, approximately 18 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 147,630 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 136 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Aerial photograph of the refugee camp Kutupalong in Bangladesh, where Rohingya who were expelled from Myanmar live.

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Bangladesh

BMZ glossary

Close window

 

Share page