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Flagge der Türkei

Turkey

Ferries on the Bosporus in Istanbul

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Overview

Working together to tackle the challenges posed by displacement

Turkey is an important link between Europe and Asia, as well as with the Islamic world. It is regarded as an emerging country, with an economy that has shown very dynamic performance over the past few years. Turkey also plays an important geopolitical role, since it borders on several regions that are prone to tensions, such as the Balkans, the Caucasus Region as well as the Near and Middle East.

Germany's development cooperation with Turkey began in 1958 and came to an end with a last commitment in 2008. Currently, Germany helps Turkey cope with the refugees streaming into the country to escape the war in Syria. However, there are no plans to resume a regular programme of bilateral development cooperation.

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Development data for Turkey

Bunting with Turkish and European flags
Current political situation

Presidential powers greatly increased

In order to prepare for the desired accession to the European Union, the Turkish government began in 2002 to introduce numerous reform steps with regard to the rule of law and the respect for human rights.

However, under Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's presidency these reform-oriented policies have stalled. In fact, in its most recent round of country reports, the EU has enumerated a number of instances where the country has moved backwards with regard to the rule of law. For example, judiciary independence and the freedom of opinion, freedom of the press and freedom of assembly have all been severely restricted - as have the activities of civil society organisations.

In June 2018, a change to the constitution came into force, which resulted in Turkey's parliamentary democracy being replaced by a presidential system. Under the new system, the powers of the president have been substantially extended, and the office of prime minister has been abolished. President Erdoğan was confirmed in office in the summer of 2018.

Tens of thousands of employees dismissed or taken into custody

Following an attempted coup by parts of the armed forces in July 2016, the Turkish government imposed a state of emergency. Two years later when the state of emergency was lifted, a number of security laws were released, which turned what had been special powers under emergency law into permanent law. According to figures released by the Turkish government, more than 170,000 civil servants have been dismissed since the attempted coup. By the beginning of the year 2019, more than 54,000 people were being held in custody on charges of belonging to a terrorist organisation.

The mass sackings and frequent reorganisations of key public authorities, as well as the shift of numerous decision-making powers to central government in Ankara, have not only made development cooperation with Turkey more difficult but have also led to delays in joint projects.

Syrian refugee buying lifesaving jacket in the streets of Basmane
Impact of the conflict in Syria

Turkey takes in millions of refugees

The crisis in Syria has been influencing Turkey's domestic and foreign policies for some time now. A number of terrorist attacks and violent incidents along the country's borders are evidence that the conflict is having a direct impact on Turkey's security. Since July 2015, the Turkish government under President Erdoğan has been conducting its own military operations in the border region with Syria.

Many people from Syria are seeking refuge in the territory of their northern neighbour Turkey - or hope they will be able to travel on safely from there to the European Union. No other country has taken in as many refugees from Syria: By February 2019, more than 3.6 million Syrians were officially registered in Turkey. In addition, more than 350,000 people from Afghanistan, Iraq and Iran have also fled to Turkey. In the meantime, Turkey has closed its borders to people wanting to cross from Syria. Permission to enter Turkey is now granted only for humanitarian reasons, such as medical emergencies.

It must be said that Turkey is doing a tremendous job of coping with the more than four million refugees within its borders. No other country in the region has been as open and generous in dealing with the Syrian refugees, or has given them such liberal access to state systems such as schools, the labour market and health care as Turkey has.

Re-homing refugees in local communities

Only a small percentage of Syrian refugees are still living in official refugee camps. Instead, most have been housed in local communities in the south and south-east of the country, or in large economic centres such as Istanbul and Ankara. The Turkish authorities provide the refugees with identity papers which give them the right to access services such as medical care. Since February 2016, refugees can, under certain circumstances, also request work permits. However, only around 40,000 such permits have been granted so far. It is therefore likely that the majority of refugees are working illegally, which means they are not entitled to the minimum wage or social insurance cover.

With support from the international community, non-governmental organisations and private initiatives, Turkey makes a huge effort to provide for the refugees. One of the challenges it faces in this respect is providing enough places for them in schools and other educational establishments. More than half of the Syrian refugees are children and young people of school age.

Risk of conflict is growing

The social and economic infrastructure in particular in the border region with Syria is coming under severe pressure because of the refugees. To date, there has been no significant social strife because of the influx of the refugees. However, experts predict that Turkey will experience an economic downturn, with a growth in jobless numbers and higher inflation. There is, therefore, a very real danger that tensions between the local population and the refugees will increase, in particular in the structurally weak south-eastern part of Turkey.

The refugee camp Öncüpinar at the Turkish-Syrian border
Teacher and students in the UNICEF school in Adana
German activities

Education and employment

The German government has provided some 530 million euros since 2012 to assist Turkey in meeting the basic needs of the Syrian refugees. Around 181 million euros of this amount are humanitarian aid, provided by Germany's Federal Foreign Office. Since 2015 to date, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) has provided around 349 million euros in total to help support refugees and Turkish communities which have taken in refugees.

School education and vocational education

The BMZ focuses its interventions on the areas of school education and vocational education and training, on employment promotion, and on strengthening social cohesion. For instance, efforts are being made to step up the provision of education so that there is no "lost generation" of refugee children - in other words, a generation of Syrian children who have known nothing but war and have so little education that they have virtually no prospect of a decent life. It is hoped that offering these youngsters educational opportunities will also prevent them from becoming radicalised. One of the BMZ's most important partners in implementing these activities is the United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF. Readers will find more information about these activities in the next section, entitled "Cooperation in action".

It is hoped that, by acquiring vocational skills, refugees will be able to build a livelihood for themselves which will make them independent of outside support. Moreover, they should be able to use the skills they have acquired when they return to Syria someday.

Jobs campaign

The employment promotion programmes supported by Germany are directed not only at refugees but also at locals who are finding it difficult to find a job because of the inflow of refugees. For instance, under "cash-for-work" programmes people can earn a quick income by taking on basic tasks in their communities such as helping with repairs, waste disposal or the maintenance of public buildings and green spaces.
Other employment promotion programmes help to fund wages or salaries, in particular for additional teaching staff. In 2018, employment promotion measures helped to create 29,000 jobs, of which 11,000 were teaching jobs for Syrians. The Syrian teachers are being paid the Turkish minimum wage and are providing education for more than 250,000 Syrian children for an entire school year.

More information on the cash-for-work programmes and the Partnership for Prospects funded by the BMZ can be found here.

Activities involving the EU

In addition to the German government's bilateral activities in Turkey, Germany is also involved in the European activities being carried out under the action plan agreed by the EU and Turkey in November 2015 and under the EU-Turkey statement issued in March 2016. The measures are being coordinated closely in order to avoid duplicate structures and to ensure added value.

The Federal Republic of Germany is contributing to the EU Facility for Refugees in Turkey, and is a member of the group coordinating the measures agreed between the European Union and Turkey.

  • Children at the UNICEF preschool in Mercin
    Cooperation in action

    Education programme promoting school enrolment and leisure activities

    More than half of the Syrian refugees in Turkey are children and young people. Some 40 per cent have no opportunity to attend regular school classes.

  • Street scene in Öncüpinar at the Turkish-Syrian border
    Cooperation in action

    Community centres to improve social cohesion

    The majority of Syrian refugees in Turkey live outside the official camps, mostly in towns and villages in the south-east of the country.

Children at the UNICEF preschool in Mercin
Cooperation in action

Education programme promoting school enrolment and leisure activities

More than half of the Syrian refugees in Turkey are children and young people. Some 40 per cent of these youngsters have no opportunity to attend regular school classes. This means they are deprived of the opportunity to return to a normal daily routine and develop new hope for the future.

That is why the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) is financing an education programme being implemented by the GIZ, which is supporting state schools and local youth and community centres in the border provinces of Gaziantep, Hatay, Kilis and Sanliurfa as well as in the cities of Ankara and Istanbul.

Lessons at the schools concerned are held in two shifts: in the mornings, Turkish children attend school and, in the afternoons, Syrian children. The support these schools are receiving is in the shape of a "full package". This package includes extension and refurbishment work on the buildings; advanced training courses and expense allowances for teachers; textbooks and teaching materials; and transport services for the schoolchildren.

Cultural exchanges

In order to encourage mutual trust and peaceful co-existence between the local Turkish population and the Syrian refugees, support is being provided for activities which foster a spirit of community. For example, young people from both the Turkish and the Syrian communities are being trained by social workers to act as disseminators in their communities. They are being taught how to organise social, cultural and sporting activities for Syrian and Turkish children and young people, and how to take an active role in community life.

By September 2018, already more than 45,000 Syrian and Turkish children and young people had taken part in such leisure activities.

Important partners in these activities, besides the local councils, have been the German Olympic Sports Confederation, the Goethe Institute and the Turkish non-governmental organisation Association for Solidarity with Asylum Seekers and Migrants (SGDD-ASAM).

UNICEF preschool in Mercin
Street scene in Öncüpinar at the Turkish-Syrian border
Cooperation in action

Community centres to improve social cohesion

The majority of Syrian refugees in Turkey live outside the official camps, mostly in towns and villages in the south-east of the country. Local and international non-governmental organisations have set up community centres there offering educational activities as well as advisory and support services to the refugees. These services include legal advice, psycho-social counselling and job application coaching.

Currently, the GIZ has been commissioned by the BMZ to work with the German NGO Welthungerhilfe in order to help set up, or extend the services of, nine community centres in eight Turkish provinces. First, the two organisations are seeking to establish which services the refugees need most urgently. Then they will widen the range of services on offer, and develop new courses, in accordance with their findings. Particularly important will be courses offering Turkish language lessons, but there will also be courses offering training in crafts and trades.

Moreover, the programme is also designed to strengthen peace-building activities and intercultural relations in order to prevent conflicts between refugees and local population. Consequently, the programme offers activities in sports, the arts, theatre and dance, as well as discussion rounds.

In an effort also to reach particularly vulnerable groups, such as women, severely traumatised people or people with disabilities, the community centres will carry out information campaigns and home visits designed to educate these groups about their rights and the opportunities available to them.

The people implementing the programme work closely with the Turkish authorities and support partnerships between the community centres and local service providers. Although many of the people using the centres come from Syria, the programme is also open to refugees from other countries, such as Iraq or Afghanistan, and to the local Turkish population.

Map of Turkey

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Turkey Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Turkey Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Ankara, around 5.3 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 785,350 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 64 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

View of Ankara with the Kocatepe mosque

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Turkey

BMZ glossary

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