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Serbia

Reflection of the Cathedral of Saint Savas in Belgrade, Serbia

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Overview

Moving closer to European Union membership

Over the past 30 years, the people of Serbia have seen considerable political upheaval: the breakdown of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Yugoslav wars that followed, Serbia's international isolation by the international community, and finally Montenegro's separation from Serbia in 2006 and the declaration of independence by the Province of Kosovo in 2008. Since 2000, the country in the Western Balkans has been undergoing a transition from a socialist system to a market-oriented democracy.

The Serbian government is facing complex political, social and economic challenges. They include shortcomings with regard to the rule of law, a high level of unemployment and underemployment, widespread poverty, which is even more severe among disadvantaged groups, and brain drain.

Accession to the European Union constitutes the greatest opportunity for national development, and is the strategic goal of the Serbian government. In January 2014, the European Union and Serbia entered into accession negotiations. The precondition for this had been the conclusion of an agreement on the normalisation of relations between Serbia and Kosovo in 2013. While many countries – among them 23 of the 28 members of the EU, including Germany – have recognised Kosovo's independence, Serbia does not.

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Development data for Serbia

  • A polling station at the regional elections in Serbia
    Political situation

    Reform-oriented government, weak opposition

    Serbia's close integration into international structures is an important prerequisite for peaceful and sustainable development in the Balkan region.

  • Federal Development Minister Gerd Müller visiting a Roma settlement in Belgrade, 2015
    Social situation

    Poor job prospects for young people

    Poverty remains a pressing social problem in Serbia, with about 25 per cent of the population living below the national poverty line according to World Bank figures.

  • Syrian refugees at the Serbian-Hungarian border in August 2015
    Displacement and migration

    Country of origin and transit country

    Serbia is a transit country for refugees who enter the European continent through Greece and move on to Western Europe. In 2015, more than 760,000 refugees arrived via what is known as the Balkan route.

  • Belgrade by night
    Economic situation

    Hoping for foreign investment

    The political upheavals of the last two decades have had a dramatic impact on Serbia's economy. After many years of isolation as a result of UN sanctions, Serbia is still in the process of rebuilding its economy.

  • The Freedom Bridge across the Danube near Novi Sad, Serbia
    Development potential

    Important market in South-Eastern Europe

    Serbia is one of the most important markets in South-Eastern Europe. Thanks to its good transport connections and competitive wages, the country has a chance to become a successful supplier of industrial goods.

A polling station at the regional elections in Serbia
Political situation

Reform-oriented government, weak opposition

German and European support for Serbia is guided by the goals pursued by the EU: the rule of law and promotion of human and minority rights, a stable democracy and a market economy, legislation aligned with EU standards, establishment of efficient and transparent administration, and a willingness to pursue unrestricted regional cooperation.

In order to reach its development goals, the Serbian government will have to reinforce its reform efforts in these fields. The precondition for Serbia to join the EU continues to be that relations with Kosovo are normalised and the process of reconciliation with the other countries of the former Yugoslavia is continued.

Danger of setbacks

The government's pro-European policy, its interest in enhancing regional cooperation, and its successful efforts to stabilise the fiscal situation are opening up new scope for government investment and making the environment for private investors more reliable. However, the dominating role of the governing party poses a number of risks. There is a danger that some of the progress made on democratisation may be undone, as the opposition is too weak to exercise effective parliamentary control. The media and the justice system are subject to government influence.

Federal Development Minister Gerd Müller visiting a Roma settlement in Belgrade, 2015
Social situation

Poor job prospects for young people

Poverty remains a pressing social problem in Serbia, with about 25 per cent of the population living below the national poverty line according to World Bank figures. According to official figures, 14 per cent of the population are unemployed; however, it is likely that the real unemployment rate is even higher. Underemployment is very common. The situation is particularly dramatic for young people. Among 15- to 24-year-olds, some 35 per cent are unable to find a regular job. The average income has barely changed over the past few years, remaining at a level of about 375 euros a month.

Inadequate public infrastructure is placing severe limitations on people's access to energy and water and on the disposal of waste and wastewater. This is also leading to a high level of pollution, overexploitation of natural resources, and excessive greenhouse gas emissions.

Inadequate protection of minorities

Poverty is most severe in rural areas and among socially deprived groups such as refugees and Roma communities. According to official statistics, about two per cent of Serbia's population are Romani. They are subject to significant discrimination in all areas of life. A large proportion of the Roma population live in informal settlements without any basic services. Less than one third of them hold paid jobs, and merely 15 per cent of young people have completed high school or vocational training.

A woman stands at the fence of her property in a Roma settlement in Belgrade.
Syrian refugees at the Serbian-Hungarian border in August 2015
Displacement and migration

Country of origin and transit country

Serbia is a transit country for refugees who enter the European continent through Greece and move on to Western Europe. In 2015, more than 760,000 refugees arrived via what is known as the Balkan route. Even after the closing of the borders in 2016, this route continues to be used. More and more people are now travelling illegally, with the help of people smugglers.

Serbia is also a country of origin of refugees and migrants. Members of the disadvantaged population groups in particular regard migration to the European Union as their only chance of improving their living conditions. In 2015, for example, 90 per cent of the applications for asylum filed in Germany by Serbian nationals came from members of the Roma minority. However, apart from a few exceptional cases, such applications are normally unsuccessful, as Serbia is considered what is termed a safe country of origin.

Well-trained young people are also leaving Serbia, which is posing a problem to the economy. These people are hoping for better job and income opportunities in other countries, but they are causing a national brain drain.

Through its development cooperation with Serbia, Germany seeks to help reduce the push factors for migration. Thus, one goal of the cooperation programmes is to create tangible positive effects for disadvantaged people (Romani, rural people, children and youth) and to give people better opportunities on the ground.

Belgrade by night
Economic situation

Hoping for foreign investment

The political upheavals of the last two decades have had a dramatic impact on Serbia's economy. After many years of isolation as a result of UN sanctions, Serbia is still in the process of rebuilding its economy. In 2016, economic growth was 2.8 per cent. According to current estimates, the growth rate dropped below 2 per cent again in 2017. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates that growth in 2018 was 3.5 per cent.

One important growth industry is the service sector. The industrial sector, by contrast, having once been well set up, is now struggling to compete on the international markets. Serbia requires foreign knowledge and capital in order for its industrial products to do better in Western markets.

Business climate has improved

Serbia's reform efforts within the framework of the EU integration process and as part of an IMF support programme are already bearing fruit. In the World Bank's Doing Business Report, which looks at the business climate in about 190 countries, Serbia's position has improved significantly – from 91st in 2015 to 43rd in 2018. Since 2017, domestic and foreign investment has increased considerably, and the budget has been stabilised.

However, if the government wants to sustain this development and attract further investors to Serbia, it still needs to remove a number of obstacles, such as red tape, corruption, weaknesses in the legal system, inadequate protection of competition, and the shortage of skilled workers.

 

The Freedom Bridge across the Danube near Novi Sad, Serbia
Development potential

Important market in South-Eastern Europe

Serbia is one of the most important markets in South-Eastern Europe. Thanks to its good transport connections and competitive wages, the country has a chance to become a successful supplier of industrial goods, for instance auto parts. However, to that end Serbia would have to make its vocational training programmes more practice-oriented and stop the exodus of skilled workers.

The country's official status as a candidate for EU accession means that it is already entitled to some European Union funding. It is using these funds, for example, to reform its administrative system, develop rural areas and modernise and expand its infrastructure. As a result, the environment for foreign investment and sustainable economic development is improving steadily.

German development cooperation with Serbia

Serbia plays an important part in ensuring political stability in the Balkans and is the central partner country for German development cooperation in South-Eastern Europe.

At the government negotiations in September 2017, Germany committed a total of 103.5 million euros to Serbia for 2017 and 2018.

The overarching objective of the cooperation programme is to support Serbia on its journey towards EU membership. Germany's activities focus on the German-Serbian initiative for sustainable growth and employment that was launched in 2016, which forms the umbrella for the two countries' development cooperation.

The programme of cooperation focuses on the following three priority areas:

  • Sustainable economic development
  • Democracy, civil society and public administration
  • Environmental policy, protection and sustainable use of natural resources

Since spring 2017, the BMZ's 'Returning to New Opportunities' returnee programme has been helping migrants to make a fresh start after their return from Germany. They are able to take part in training programmes and receive assistance in finding a job. In addition, young people in Serbia who are thinking about leaving the country receive advice on how to establish a livelihood for themselves in their own country. In 2017, the BMZ provided 6.1 million euros for this programme, and it is planning to increase its support.

Farmer in Western Serbia
Priority area "Sustainable economic development"

Support for growth and employment

Serbian-German cooperation in this field focuses on private sector development, financial system development and vocational training and the labour market.

Private sector development

Micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) play a key role in job creation. Germany therefore provides special support to Serbian MSMEs in the areas of information and communication technology, metalworking, mechanical engineering, and sustainable farming. They are given access to reduced-interest loans and public support programmes and receive assistance with a view to the introduction of modern information technologies.

In 2019, the German and Serbian governments will launch a broad-based support programme (start-up facility) for people who want to start a business. In its first year, 2,000 entrepreneurs are to receive training under the programme, and 1,500 loans and start-up grants are to be provided.

Vocational training

In the area of vocational training, a law on "dual" (industry-based and school-based) vocational education was passed with support from Germany. Currently, 43 vocational schools offer dual training in five occupations that are in high demand (welder/metalworker, electrician, industrial mechanic, apparel tailor, car mechanic). Nearly 1,900 students are attending these courses. Practical training is provided by some 50 companies. About 170,000 young people are using a career guidance system that was introduced with support from German Technical Cooperation.

City hall of Niš
Priority area "Democracy, civil society and public administration"

Building public authorities that are responsive to people's needs

Good governance is a key aspect in the negotiations on EU accession. The chapters on judiciary and fundamental rights and on justice, freedom and security are currently being negotiated between the EU and Serbia. The negotiations started in July 2016. The outcomes of these talks will be decisive for the further course of the accession process. Germany is assisting Serbia in harmonising its legislation with European standards.

The purpose of the cooperation programme is to develop efficient administrative bodies that are responsive to citizens' needs, both at the national and at the local level, and to improve people's political participation.

To that end, Germany is providing advice to Serbian municipalities on topics such as budget management and human resource management, and it is helping them to modernise administrative procedures. Disadvantaged groups such as women and girls, Romani and refugees in particular are to be given better access to government services. Support is also being provided to municipalities as they invest in an environmentally sound social and economic infrastructure. This is also a contribution to local economic development.

At the national level, Germany is providing advice to the Serbian government, for example on how to reform public financial management and the administrative court system, and on how to combat corruption.

Danube hydropower plant Iron Gate on the border between Serbia and Romania
Priority area "Environmental policy, protection and sustainable use of natural resources"

Protecting the environment and human health through wastewater treatment plants and renewable energy

Serbia urgently needs to catch up in terms of environmental protection, climate action and health protection. There are not enough wastewater treatment plants. Most waste is deposited in unsafe landfills. Energy generation relies mainly on lignite and oil. Greenhouse gas emissions are high. Serbia lacks the necessary funding to modernise and expand its environmental and energy infrastructure and to comply with EU standards.

Wastewater and waste management in small and medium-sized towns

Initially, the German-Serbian cooperation programme focused on improving the drinking water supply in larger cities. Now KfW Development Bank is mainly providing support to smaller and medium-sized towns as they set up efficient water and wastewater systems. Municipalities also receive advice on how to introduce socially equitable waste and wastewater charges that enable them to expand and maintain their infrastructure facilities.

In the field of waste management, special attention is being given to the interests of the Roma community. Romani are more likely than other population groups to live in poor hygienic conditions. Often, collecting waste is their only source of income.

Renewable energy and energy efficiency

In the energy sector, the focus of cooperation is on environmentally sound practices in line with EU standards, and on enhancing energy efficiency. To that end, Germany supports the use of renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind power and hydropower.

In order to improve energy efficiency, German funding is used to support energy upgrades to public buildings such as preschools and schools. KfW is also assisting Serbian banks in providing loans to municipalities and small and medium-sized enterprises for investments in energy conservation measures.

Thanks to the energy projects supported under German development cooperation, carbon emissions of nearly three million tonnes can be avoided every year – more than six per cent of the total volume of national emissions.

Map of Serbia

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Serbia Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Serbia Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Belgrade, approximately 1.7 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 88,360 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 67 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Traffic in Belgrade

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Serbia

BMZ glossary

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