Content

Albania

Mountain landscape near Valbona, Northern Albania

more

Overview

Moving closer to European Union membership

Since 1990, Albania has made a transition from a Stalinist dictatorship to a parliamentary democracy. Among policymakers and within society in Albania, there is a basic consensus in support of democracy and the rule of law, a market-based economy, NATO membership (since 2009) and a regional policy that is geared towards mutual understanding. Albania's most important foreign policy goal is to become a member of the European Union. In 2014, the country was awarded candidate status by the EU.

The most urgent tasks in terms of domestic policy are the improvement of people's living conditions and the creation of jobs, especially in rural regions. Poor infrastructure, inadequate public services and a lack of economic opportunities are causing people, especially young people from rural areas, to leave for the cities or for other countries.

Development cooperation

In 1988, Albania became the first cooperation partner for Germany's bilateral development cooperation in South-Eastern Europe. The overarching goal of the two sides' cooperation is to improve people's living conditions. One effective instrument in this endeavour is helping the country to bring its standards more closely in line with those of the EU. To that end, Albanian-German development cooperation focuses on energy, drinking water supply, wastewater and waste management, and sustainable and socially compatible economic development.

Straight to

Development facts and figures from Albania

  • The Skanderbegplatz with a sculpture of the national hero Skanderbeg and the Palace of Culture in the Albanian capital Tirana
    Political situation

    Need for systematic reforms

    The government under Prime Minister Edi Rama, which has been in power since 2013, has launched significant reform efforts to foster the rule of law. It has achieved some initial successes in the fight against corruption and organised crime. However, many reform endeavours have not yet been implemented systematically enough.

  • Street traders in Tirana, Albania
    Social situation

    Poverty and lack of opportunities

    Poverty in Albania has declined significantly in the last two decades. However, about one in seven Albanians is still considered to be living in poverty. Older people and members of minority groups are particularly affected.

  • Market stall in Korça, Albania
    Economic situation

    The economy is picking up

    Over the last 20 years, Albania has made major economic progress. The country saw growth rates of over five per cent on a regular basis for some time.

The Skanderbegplatz with a sculpture of the national hero Skanderbeg and the Palace of Culture in the Albanian capital Tirana
Political situation

Need for systematic reforms

The government under Prime Minister Edi Rama, which has been in power since 2013, has launched significant reform efforts to foster the rule of law. It has achieved some initial successes in the fight against corruption and organised crime. However, many reform endeavours have not yet been implemented systematically enough. Albania's political parties have a strong tendency to work mainly for the benefit of their respective voter groups. Some important decisions, for instance on the reform of the judiciary, have only been taken as a result of international pressure.

The 2015 local elections and the 2017 parliamentary elections received largely positive comments from Election monitors from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). Monitors did, however, criticise some technical shortcomings and vote-buying.

A lack of legal certainty and weak public administration institutions are constraining the country's development. On the Corruption Perceptions Index published by Transparency International in 2018, Albania is ranked 99th out of the 180 countries rated.

European Union

In April 2009, a Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU came into force. Simultaneously, the Albanian government submitted its application to join the European Union. In June 2014, Albania was awarded candidate status by the EU.

Regional engagement

Albania entertains friendly relations with its neighbours and supports the efforts of the international community to establish common security and economic structures in the region. It is a member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) and the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC). Since April 2009, Albania has been a member of NATO. The country has also provided troops for numerous UN peace missions.

Security guard in the office of the Albanian Prime Minister in Tirana
Street traders in Tirana, Albania
Social situation

Poverty and lack of opportunities

Poverty in Albania has declined significantly in the last two decades. However, about one in seven Albanians is still considered to be living in poverty. Older people and members of minority groups are particularly affected.

According to the 2018 Global Hunger Index, more than five per cent of the people are undernourished. Some 18 per cent of under-five-year-olds are stunted.

Government welfare benefits are limited. Some social protection is being provided by non-governmental organisations, most of which are financed by international donors.

Migration

Economic growth is centred around the urban areas of Tirana and Durrës. In rural areas, people have very few economic opportunities. There is a lack of education and training opportunities and of basic infrastructure. Many people therefore migrate to cities or to other countries. While remittances from migrants living abroad benefit their family members who have remained in Albania, very few of these remittances are used for investments in profitable business ideas.

The German Development Ministry (BMZ) assists Albanian migrants in Germany as they voluntarily return to Albania and establish a livelihood for themselves. More information on the BMZ's 'Returning to New Opportunities' returnee programme can be found here.

Human rights

Albania has ratified most international conventions on fundamental rights, but some action is still needed on implementation. Challenges include violence against women, which is widespread, as well as child labour. Ethnic minorities, especially Roma, are suffering discrimination and often have less access to government services, housing, education and jobs.

Two old red benches in the garden of a house in Pogradec, Albania
Market stall in Korça, Albania
Economic situation

The economy is picking up

Over the last 20 years, Albania has made major economic progress. The country saw growth rates of over five per cent on a regular basis for some time. Due to its close trade links with the EU, and especially with its neighbours Italy and Greece, the euro crisis had a temporary negative impact on the country's economy. From 2008, there was a sharp drop in growth rates.

Since 2014, the economy has been recovering. In 2017, the growth rate was 3.8 per cent. For the period up to 2020, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) expects the rate to remain at a similar level.

As the rate of people leaving the country and the share of the informal sector in the economy continue to be high, the unemployment rate is difficult to estimate. According to government sources, it is about 12 per cent. A matter of particular concern is the share of youth who are neither in education or training nor hold a job, which is over 30 per cent.

Agriculture

The backbone of the Albanian economy is agriculture. While its share in gross domestic product has dropped to just under 20 per cent, it accounts for nearly 40 per cent of all jobs. Most people in the sector are smallholders who are engaged in subsistence farming. The agricultural sector and the food industry could make a much stronger contribution towards economic development. To that end, however, rural infrastructure would need to be improved significantly (roads, markets, water, energy).

Development potential

The growth of Albania's economy is driven mainly by the textile and leather industries, telecommunications and tourism. The country is one of the biodiversity hotspots in Europe. However, so far it has lacked both the political will and the financial and human resources to monitor and enforce compliance with existing environmental legislation.

Road construction in Albania

German development cooperation with Albania

For Albanian-German development cooperation in 2018 and 2019, Germany has provided Financial cooperation loans and grants totalling 147.9 million euros and Technical Cooperation resources totalling 20.5 million euros. In addition, a "promotional loan" of 150 million euros was agreed during the 2018 government negotiations in order to support reforms in the energy sector. Of that amount, 100 million euros will be provided by KfW , and 50 million euros by the French government aid agency AFD.

Albanian-German development cooperation focuses on the following priority areas:

  • Energy
  • Water / wastewater / waste
  • Sustainable economic development (including vocational training)

Albania is also part of numerous multi-country regional projects run by the BMZ. Examples include the Open Regional Funds for foreign trade, energy efficiency, municipal services, EU integration and biodiversity.

Construction of high-voltage transmission line near Shkoder, Albania
Priority area "Energy"

Ensuring an environmentally friendly supply of power on the basis of cost recovery

Germany's activities in Albania are intended to help ensure that the country, and the entire region of South-Eastern Europe, has a power supply that is stable, sustainable and secure, and covers its costs. They also aim to make a contribution to global climate protection.

More than 90 per cent of Albania's power generation is based on hydropower. When there are extended periods with little or no rain, Albania has to import electricity. The expansion of transmission lines to neighbouring countries is intended to facilitate the import of power and, above all, the sale of electricity to Albania's neighbours. Through its development cooperation, Germany helps Albania expand its high-voltage transmission networks, for instance to Montenegro, Kosovo and North Macedonia.

Germany is also providing financial support to Albania's efforts to build and expand transmission systems and substations, to improve safety at hydropower stations, and to invest in energy upgrades to public buildings.

Discussion about water supply project in the village Mishter, Gurre, Albania
Priority area "Water, wastewater, waste"

Nationwide services, environmentally sound disposal

Merely a little less than 70 per cent of Albania's people have access to a reliable supply of safe drinking water. Considerable infrastructure deficits can be found in rural areas in particular. In many regions, wastewater and waste are not being disposed of properly. About one in three households is not connected to the sewer network. Waste is often taken to illegal or poorly managed dumps.

The government is undertaking major efforts to fundamentally reform the water sector. Among other things, it has transferred the management and ownership of water and sanitation utilities from the central government level to cities and municipalities. The government has also presented a waste management strategy, and it has adopted numerous laws and regulations, for instance on waste segregation, composting and recycling.

Investment and advice

Germany is assisting Albania in modernising and expanding its infrastructure and adjusting water and wastewater management to EU standards. So far, about 15 medium-sized cities and 50 municipalities have benefited from new drinking water reservoirs, waterworks and wastewater treatment plants. Hundreds of kilometres of new water pipes have been installed. German support is provided on the basis of a performance-based approach under which utilities are eligible for funding if they meet certain minimum requirements.

In parallel, advice is being provided to ministries, municipalities and utilities on how to make water, wastewater and waste management environmentally sound while conserving resources and recovering costs. As part of a model project, three partner municipalities are being supported as they draft and implement waste management strategies and develop the related financing models. The project is based on broad participation by local citizens.

Waterworks of Shkoder in Albania
Training of chefs in a vocational school in Kamza, Albania
Priority area "Sustainable economic development"

Creating opportunities for young people

Nearly all Albanian companies are micro, small or medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs). Many of them operate in the informal sector. The education system and especially the vocational training system are not geared towards enterprises' needs. This is making it difficult for young people to find appropriate jobs. And many companies complain that they cannot find suitable skilled labour. Many workers, especially those who are well-educated or well-trained, migrate to other countries in search of better opportunities.

German activities

The purpose of German development cooperation activities is to create more jobs, with a focus on the long-term viability of the jobs, and higher incomes. Together with the Albanian government, Germany has drafted an employment promotion strategy that is now being implemented:

  • In addition to providing support for a vocational school, Germany is assisting Albania in helping ten vocational training centres to operate more professionally. There is also close cooperation with private training facilities.
  • Based on collaboration with training facilities and business associations, training programmes are being created for entrepreneurs who want to improve their business skills.
  • Support is being provided to disadvantaged population groups (youth, women, minorities, persons with disabilities) through pre-vocational training courses to help them find new job opportunities. Active efforts are also being made to include people in these programmes who have spent some time abroad, especially in Germany.

Advice is being provided to ministries and authorities on how they can prepare and implement their own strategies and projects for economic development, employment promotion and a better investment climate.

IT training of young people in a vocational school in Kamza, Albania

Map of Albania

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Albania Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Albania Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Tirana, approximately 625,000 inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 28,750 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 68 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

View of Shkodra Lake, Shiroke, Albania

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Albania

BMZ glossary

Close window

 

Share page