In Tanzania, nearly one child in every five is not allowed to go to school. Only around 70 per cent of children who are enrolled in school finish their primary education. There is a lack of qualified teachers, and teaching and learning conditions are poor in the crowded and for the most part sparsely equipped schools.
There are also clear deficits when it comes to the availability and quality of vocational training. The illiteracy rate is almost 20 per cent.
Despite the good progress that has been made in past years – for example with regard to reducing child mortality and the HIV infection rate – health care still has a lot of room for improvement, especially as regards health care for women. Even though demand is growing because of population growth, public health expenditure has fallen in recent years. There is a huge lack of skilled workers, wage levels are low and health facilities are poorly equipped.
In autumn 2022, the government presented a legislative proposal for mandatory universal health insurance – an important step towards social protection (see also: Core area “Health, social protection and population policy”).
Diseases like diarrhoea and cholera, which are caused by unclean water, are widespread in Tanzania. While drinking water supply in cities has significantly improved in recent years, more than half of the people living in rural areas have to live without hygienically clean water. Only about one third of the people in Tanzania have access to basic sanitation.
The main causes of these deficiencies are antiquated or non-existent infrastructure, inadequate management of the institutions responsible and huge population growth. In addition, water resources are under pressure. The unregulated use of water for agricultural and industrial purposes and for generating power, and climate change are reducing the availability of water more and more.