Education and health
There are also great deficits in the field of health and education services. The illiteracy rate is almost 50 per cent. Less than three-quarters of school-age children attend primary school, and less than 60 per cent complete primary school. In rural areas in particular, medical services are totally inadequate. Most doctors work in the capital, Dakar. There are hardly any hospital beds in rural areas.
With regard to HIV/AIDS, the government's efforts to educate the public early on have paid off. The official infection rate in Senegal is 0.4 per cent, which is well below the average for sub-Saharan Africa (3.9 per cent).
Situation of women
Gender equality has been enshrined in Senegal's constitution. Particularly in rural areas, however, the situation of women is still characterised by traditional ideas about their role. In some ethnic groups, female genital mutilation remains widespread. Notwithstanding the fact that there are clear legal provisions against this practice, prosecution remains de facto patchy.
In parliamentary elections, a gender equality law governs the process. Currently, 69 of the 165 members of parliament are women, meaning that Senegal ranks among the world's leading countries in terms of representation of women in parliament.
Rural exodus and migration
Many people are moving from rural areas to the cities in hopes of finding better living conditions there. Nearly half the Senegalese population of nearly 16 million now lives in urban areas, with more than 20 per cent of all people living in and around the capital, Dakar.
This is causing problems in the cities, especially in terms of drinking water supply, sanitation and solid waste management. Social conflicts, too, are worsening, as urban labour markets are unable to absorb the incoming population. The official unemployment rate is 6.5 per cent, but according to estimates some 40 per cent of the workforce are jobless or underemployed.
Every year, many Senegalese people decide to leave the country, hoping to find a better future elsewhere. Most of them remain within West Africa, but Europe is also an attractive destination. The remittances from Senegalese migrants account for about 13 per cent of gross domestic product. They are thus a significant economic factor.