Political situation Slow progress on democratisation

In April 2021, Chad’s President Idriss Déby Itno was fatally wounded in an attack by rebels. Déby had ruled the country since 1990 and shortly before his death, he had again emerged as the victor in the presidential election.

A woman casts her vote in the 2016 presidential election in Chad.

A woman casts her vote in the 2016 presidential election in Chad.

A woman casts her vote in the 2016 presidential election in Chad.

After Déby’s death, a transitional military council (Conseil militaire de transition, CMT) chaired by his son Mahamat Idriss Déby Itno took over the leadership of the country. The CMT suspended the constitution, dissolved parliament and adopted a transitional constitution. Initially, a phase of political transition of 18 months had been envisaged, but this timetable was not met. A national dialogue led to an extension of the phase of transition by two more years in October 2022, the dissolution of the military council and Mahamat Idriss Déby Itno’s appointment as interim president for two more years. This transitional period is to culminate in democratic elections.

Substantial need for reform

With regard to good governance, the rule of law and human rights, there is a substantial need for reform and action in Chad. Repressive and sometimes violent measures are taken to silence criticism from the political opposition, media and civil society. Parliamentary elections were last held in 2011; local elections have been overdue since 2014.

There is widespread corruption. On the Corruption Perceptions Index (External link) compiled by Transparency International, Chad ranked 167th out of the 180 countries evaluated in 2022.

Economic reforms and reforms in the education system and health sector are needed most to further poverty reduction.

Security situation

Violence and conflict are part of daily life in Chad. In the Lake Chad region in the west of the country, security is under threat from radical Islamist terror groups such as Boko Haram and the “Islamic State”. A state of emergency has been in force here for many years. Various groups known as “political-military” groups, from southern Libya and Sudan, are fighting for a change of power in the capital N'Djamena.

There are also conflicts between ethnic groups, particularly between settled arable farmers and nomadic pastoralists, over land and water and over the exploitation of gold deposits.

A generous response to refugees

Despite facing domestic difficulties of its own, Chad is hosting a large number of refugees, some 570,000 according to UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency (as at March 2023). The refugees are mainly from Sudan and the Central African Republic. Additionally, there are around 400,000 internally displaced persons (as at March 2023) in Chad who have fled terrorist attacks.

Military activities

In order to combat terrorism in the Sahel region, Chad is involved in multinational military missions. These include the G5 Sahel Joint Force and the Multinational Joint Task Force, MNJTF.

In addition, Chad is one of the largest providers of troops for the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA).

As at: 18/04/2023