According to the 2019 Global Hunger Index, more than five per cent of the people are undernourished. Some 11 per cent of under-five-year-olds are stunted.
Government welfare benefits are limited. Some social protection is being provided by non-governmental organisations, most of which are financed by international donors.
Economic growth is centred around the urban areas of Tirana and Durrës. In rural areas, people have very few economic opportunities. There is a lack of education and training opportunities and of basic infrastructure. Many people therefore migrate to cities or to other countries. While remittances from migrants living abroad benefit their family members who have remained in Albania, very few of these remittances are used for investments in profitable business ideas.
The German Development Ministry (BMZ) assists Albanian migrants in Germany as they voluntarily return to Albania and establish a livelihood for themselves. More information on the BMZ's 'Returning to New Opportunities' returnee programme can be found here.
Albania has ratified most international conventions on fundamental rights, but some action is still needed on implementation. Challenges include violence against women, which is widespread, as well as child labour. Ethnic minorities, especially Roma, are suffering discrimination and often have less access to government services, housing, education and jobs.