Economic growth is centred round the urban areas of Tirana and Durrës. In 2011, around 54 per cent of Albania’s population lived in urban areas; the UN estimates that, by 2050, this rate will have reached 78 per cent. In rural areas, people have very few economic opportunities. There is a lack of education and training opportunities. Basic infrastructure is poorly developed. Many people therefore migrate to cities or to other countries. Remittances of emigrants account for around nine per cent of Gross National Product.
The German Development Ministry (BMZ) assists Albanian migrants in Germany as they voluntarily return to Albania and establish a livelihood for themselves.
Albania has ratified most international conventions on fundamental rights, but actual protection of these rights still needs to be improved. Issues that still need to be tackled include violence against women, which is widespread, and child labour. Ethnic minorities, especially Roma, are suffering discrimination and often have less access to government services, housing, education and jobs.