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Lebanon

Cedars in the Lebanon

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Overview

A small country facing enormous challenges

Lebanon is facing extreme challenges: on 4 August 2020, a terrible explosion ripped through the port of Beirut leaving more than 200 people dead and injuring thousands. The port was destroyed by the explosion and even buildings a great distance away were damaged, meaning that as many as 300,000 people could be left homeless.

The explosion was triggered by a fire in a warehouse where more than 2,700 tonnes of an explosive substance were being stored with no thought to safety considerations. Mass demonstrations against the government of Prime Minister Hassan Diab ensued as people took to the streets to protest about the negligence of the authorities, who had long been aware of the danger, and about the economic and political crisis that the country is going through. A few days after the explosion the government resigned.

Lebanon's health system was already under huge pressure as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Now staff are struggling to provide medical care for all the thousands who were injured in the explosion.

These latest events have hit a small country that, in relation to the total number of its citizens, has taken in more refugees than any other place in the world. An estimated 1.5 million people from Syria have fled to Lebanon in a bid to escape the civil war raging in their own country (at the end of June 2020, just under 900,000 Syrians were officially registered with the United Nations Refugee Agency, UNHCR). The sheer number of refugees coming into the country is a huge challenge for the roughly 4.4 million inhabitants of Lebanon – where there are already about 210,000 Palestinian refugees, some of whom have been living in camps there for decades.

Development cooperation

When Lebanon reached the status of an "upper-middle-income country" in 2003, Germany discontinued its development cooperation with the country. However, following militant clashes between the Hezbollah (a Shi'ite political and military organisation based in Lebanon) and Israeli forces in the summer of 2006, Germany resumed its development cooperation with Lebanon in order to support the reconstruction of the country.

This support has been scaled up in the wake of the Syrian crisis. Since 2012, the BMZ has provided a total of more than 1.2 billion euros to support Lebanon. Since 2020, Lebanon is one of the selected group of partner countries with which the BMZ is working to realise long-term development goals. The aim of this German support is to contribute towards stabilisation and conflict prevention as well as towards economic development.

Scroll down to get detailed information about the situation in Lebanon and Germany's development engagement in the country.

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Priority areas of cooperation with Lebanon

Development facts and figures from Lebanon

The Bourj el-Barajneh camp for Palestinian refugees in the Lebanese capital Beirut
View of Beirut
Political situation

Threats to internal security

Besides the unrest in the country, which the terrible explosion in August 2020 has increased, for years now the crisis in Syria has been having serious political, economic and social impacts on Lebanon.

The country is still in the middle of a phase of reconstruction. Between 1975 and 1990, civil war raged in Lebanon – a war in which Syria and Israel also had a hand. In fact, Syria did not withdraw its occupying troops until 2005. Then, in 2006, there were militant clashes between Lebanon's Hezbollah militia and Israel.

Following the withdrawal of the Syrian troops, two political blocs – both more or less equal in power – emerged in Lebanon. The first one, the March 8 Alliance, led by the Shi'ite Hezbollah, supports Syria's leader, Bashar al-Assad. The second bloc is the March 14 Alliance, which includes the Sunni-backed Future Movement and has close ties to the West and to Saudi Arabia. This group sympathises with the Syrian rebel forces fighting President Assad.

In the summer of 2012, representatives of both blocs agreed not to interfere in the conflict in Syria. However, in spring 2013, Hezbollah broke this pact with a military intervention in the war on the side of the Assad regime. Since then, the divisions between Lebanon's political factions – and thus also between Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims – have widened.

Falafel stall by the highway in Saida, Lebanon
Political background

A difficult balancing act

Although Lebanon is formally a parliamentary democracy, the distribution of power is in fact determined by religious affiliation. There are eighteen officially recognised religious denominations in Lebanon, and political and administrative posts are allocated on the basis of religious affiliation using data from a census carried out in 1932. Thus, the President of the Republic must be a Maronite Christian, the Speaker of Parliament a Shi'ite Muslim and the Prime Minister a Sunni Muslim.

Parliamentary seats are also distributed according to religious affiliation. Decisions are taken not by simple majority but by consensus. Large sections of the very diverse media landscape and the many non-governmental organisations also support specific religious groups and their interests. 

However, this system with its focus on balancing interests has prevented the principles of democracy and the rule of law from becoming firmly established in Lebanese society. The religious groups wield so much power that, in everyday life, private citizens are obliged to define themselves by their religious affiliation and organise their lives accordingly. The result is cronyism and nepotism; corruption pervades both the government and society.

Inside the Tripoli souk
Security situation

The role played by the war in Syria and the influence of Hezbollah 

The conflict in Syria is having a negative impact on the security situation in Lebanon. The state monopoly on the use of force is greatly reduced. This is in part due to Hezbollah acting as a "state within a state” and deploying armed fighters who are not part of the regular armed forces, without the consent of the government. Large parts of southern Lebanon and the Beqaa Valley are under the military control of this militia force. Meanwhile, the state monopoly on the use of force is also being challenged by terrorist organisations, which are trying to infiltrate the country. These organisations include the group calling itself "Islamic State” and the al-Nusra Front, which is part of the al-Qaeda network.

Economic situation

Important sources of income have been lost

Prior to the civil war (from 1975 to 1990), Lebanon was one of the Middle East's most important trading and financial centres. Beirut was a banking metropolis, acting as a link between Europe and the Gulf States. However, the country proved unable to regain this position after the war. Reconstruction was financed via loans – as a result of which Lebanon's national debt is now one of the highest in the world; in the spring of 2020, Lebanon was not able to repay government bonds that had matured.

The terrible explosion in August 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Syria have put a heavy strain on the Lebanese economy. Tourism – one of the country's most important sources of revenue – has collapsed and exports to the Gulf States, which were largely routed via Syria, have suffered the same fate. What is more, Syria used to be an important market for Lebanese goods.

The country is experiencing the worst economic, financial and monetary crisis since the end of the civil war.

Syrian women and children in a refugee camp in Bar Elias in the Bekaa plain, Lebanon
The refugee crisis

More than one in every five people living in the country is a refugee

At the end of June 2020, the UN Refugee Agency, UNHCR, had officially registered nearly 900,000 refugees from Syria staying in Lebanon. Their living conditions are poor: some 70 per cent of the refugees are living in poverty. More than one third of Syrian refugee children under the age of 14 are not in school and child labour is widespread.

Most Syrian refugees arrive in northern Lebanon, a region where the social situation is already difficult. The prosperity gap in Lebanon is huge. Consequently, there is a risk of distributional conflicts arising between the refugees and local people.

The Lebanese government is seeking to significantly restrict the number of refugees coming into the country. To this end, it has introduced more stringent border controls and now requires entry visas. Lebanon is not a party to the Geneva Refugee Convention of 1951. This means that Syrian refugees can register in Lebanon but gain no legal benefits from doing so. For example, they do not receive work permits. 

Tree blossoming in the Bekaa plain in Lebanon

German development cooperation with Lebanon

In the wake of the Syrian crisis, development cooperation with Lebanon was resumed. Since 2020, the country is one of the selected group of partner countries with which the BMZ is working to realise long-term shared development goals.

The aim of this cooperation is to contribute towards stabilisation and conflict prevention and also, in the medium to long term, towards Lebanon's economic development. The Lebanese government is expected, for its part, to implement reforms.

Since 2012, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) has provided a total of over 1.2 billion euros to support Lebanon.

For 2020, commitments similar to the level of past years are planned. In addition, at a donor conference on 9 August 2020, Lebanon received a commitment from Germany for ten million euros in the form of emergency relief, in order to enable basic medical care, food security via the World Food Programme and short-term jobs to repair important infrastructure.

The priority areas of cooperation with Lebanon are basic education and vocational training, job creation, municipal infrastructure projects to provide basic services in host communities, food security, support of agricultural production, and support for maintaining and rebuilding Palestinian refugee camps.

A selection of examples which show the impacts of German involvement in Lebanon

  • Thanks to German support, since 2014, more than 655,000 children, including many refugees, have been able to attend school.
  • More than 170 schools have been rehabilitated.
  • Between 2016 and 2019, under the framework of the Partnership for Prospects in the Middle East (cash for work) some 30,000 short-term jobs were created in Lebanon alone.
  • Just under 14,000 micro and small enterprises and more than 1,100 start-ups have received support.
  • Just under 5,000 participants have taken part in agricultural training courses.

The BMZ has increased its support for Lebanon as part of its emergency COVID-19 Support Programme. For example, via a digital learning platform many Syrian refugee children are being reached who are not able to go to school at the moment. As part of food security measures, around 100 small and medium-sized operations are receiving assistance, including support for buying seeds.

BMZ publications

Map of Lebanon

Development facts and figures

  Lebanon Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Lebanese Republic Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Beirut, around 2 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.75 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 10,450 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 93 of 189 (2018) 4 of 189 (2018)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Lebanon

BMZ glossary

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