Political situation Successful system changeover

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, from which Mongolia had been fully dependent, it was quick to develop democratic and market structures in a peaceful manner. Since 1990, free and fair parliamentary elections have been held on a regular basis, while changes of government have proceeded peacefully.

Sushbaatar Square in Ulan Bator, Mongolia

Sushbaatar Square in Ulan Bator, Mongolia

Sushbaatar Square in Ulan Bator, Mongolia

Mongolia is the only country in Post-Soviet Eurasia to be ranked “good” on the governance index of the Bertelsmann Transformation Index BTI 2022 (External link). Human rights in Mongolia are enshrined in the constitution and are largely respected. The country has an active civil society with a large number of citizens’ movements and self-help initiatives.

Although all of the political players are agreed on the country’s democratic and market-oriented course, there are many challenges that still need to be addressed. The capacity of public institutions is still poor. In parts, political action is marked by personal business interests and lobbying activities.

There is need for reform both with regard to economic policy, which is not yet sufficiently aligned with environmental sustainability, and with regard to social policy, which needs to focus more on poor and vulnerable population groups than it has in the past.

The challenge of corruption

Widespread corruption is a serious problem. The Mongolian public is more and more aware of how much the country’s development is being hampered by corruption. The country has adopted anti-corruption laws and put monitoring bodies in place. Despite these positive developments, the non-governmental organisation Transparency International ranks the country 116th out of 180 countries listed on its 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index (External link). More reforms, for instance in the judicial system, are needed and cases of corruption need to be prosecuted with due vigour.

As at: 21/07/2023