Economic situation The economy is picking up
More than half of Bangladesh's gross domestic product (GDP) is generated by the country's services sector, and around 28 per cent by its industrial sector. Besides a growing textiles industry, Bangladesh also has new export-oriented sectors with further potential for growth, such as shipbuilding, ceramic wares, pharmaceuticals, bicycle manufacturing and the IT sector.
One of the most important sources of foreign exchange, in addition to export earnings, are the remittances of Bangladeshis working abroad – in particular in the Gulf states. In 2018, migrant workers from Bangladesh transferred more than 15 billion US dollars to their home country.
Obstacles to investment
A major cause of poverty in Bangladesh is underemployment. The government wants to create more jobs by fostering labour-intensive manufacturing industries, and is trying to attract foreign investors by offering them tax incentives and reduced customs tariffs. However, this reasonably favourable formal and legal environment must be set against inefficient bureaucracy, lack of transparency and corruption. The World Bank's Doing Business report for 2020 (External link), which analyses the business climate worldwide, ranks Bangladesh 168th out of 190 countries reviewed.
The poor state of the country's infrastructure also puts off potential investors. Many roads and railway lines are congested and in a state of disrepair. Silted-up rivers and ports also hamper the transport of goods. A further brake on economic development is the inadequate power supply. The government has pledged to achieve full electrification of the country by 2021.
The textiles industry
Bangladesh is the world's second largest textiles and clothing manufacturer after China. The industry generates more than 80 per cent of the country's export earnings and employs around four million women and men. The main export customers of these textile goods are Germany and the USA. Therefore, Bangladesh is a focal point of German initiatives relating to the garment industry, such as the Textiles Partnership and the "Grüner Knopf" (Green Button) certification mark.
However, because the health and safety standards in Bangladesh textile factories are very poor, there are frequent health and safety incidents. The most severe accident at a manufacturing facility in the history of the country occurred in 2013, when the Rana Plaza building, a nine-storey factory and business premises near the capital of Dhaka, collapsed. More than 1,100 people were killed and over 2,000 were injured.
In response to international pressure, fire safety and other building safety regulations were introduced in the textiles sector and are now widely established. The initiatives started in Bangladesh could have an impact well beyond the country's borders. However, in many places, the implementation of such safety standards is progressing more slowly than had been hoped.
As one of the world's "least developed countries" (LDCs), Bangladesh enjoyed tariff-free access to markets within the EU. When it graduates to the status of "middle income country", it will no longer be granted these preferential trading terms. Bangladesh will then not only face stiffer price competition, but will have to comply with tougher standards on human rights, labour rights, environmental protection and good governance if it wants to continue to export its goods into the EU without having to pay duty on them.