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Namibia

Nature reserve in Namibia

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Overview

Partner country with historical relationship

When Namibia (formerly South West Africa) secured its independence in 1990, a neutral name with no historical connotations was chosen for the new nation. Its name was derived from the Namib Desert which extends over the entire coastal strip of Namibia. The country is almost two and a half times as large as Germany but has a population of only about 2.5 million.

Namibia has a stable democratic system and its economy has been growing steadily for several years. It is classified as a higher middle-income country by the World Bank.

However, its wealth distribution is among the most unequal in the world. A predominantly white elite and a fledgling black middle class are able to maintain a virtually European standard of living – while broad sections of the mainly black population live below the poverty line. Even now, more than half of the country's population is considered poor; more than 40 per cent is malnourished. The Human Development Index (HDI) ranks Namibia at only position 125 out of the 188 nations assessed (2015); if the HDI is adjusted for income inequality, the country falls by another 13 places in the ranking.

Development cooperation

Namibian-German development cooperation focuses on the management of natural resources, sustainable economic development and transport.

In 1991, both countries concluded a cultural agreement. It includes cooperations in the fields of science and universities, language promotion, media, film, literature and sport. Numerous private initiatives and non-governmental organisations are also active in Namibia.

Scroll down to get detailed information about the situation in Namibia and Germany's development engagement in the country.

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Priority areas of cooperation with Namibia

Development facts and figures from Namibia

Herero women in their traditional clothing during commemorations of the 100th anniversary of the Herero uprising against the German colonialists, Okakarara, Namibia
Shared history

Particular historical and moral responsibility

For historical reasons, Namibia and Germany are connected by an especially close partnership. Namibia was a German colony from 1884 to 1915. It was during this period that the Herero, Nama and Damara rose up against German colonial rule. The uprising was violently crushed by German troops. How many died is a matter of historical dispute: Depending on the source consulted, figures vary from 30 to 80 per cent of the Herero people. Many of the survivors were forced into compulsory labour or interned in camps. Members of many other ethnic groups were either driven off their land or forced to work on German farms.

The German government acknowledges its special historic and moral responsibility toward Namibia and is firmly committed to strengthening further the special partnership and friendship between the two countries. This is also reflected in the level of development cooperation provided by Germany. Germany is one the country's biggest donors. The priority areas of cooperation are natural resources management, sustainable economic development and transport.

Social situation

Extreme income disparities and low level of education

Widespread poverty and the extremely inequitable distribution of wealth within society are huge challenges for Namibia. The government headed by President Hage Geingob, which has been in power since March 2015, has set itself the goal of creating prosperity for all Namibians.

Deficits in the education sector

This requires the country to overcome deficits in the education sector, for example. Right now, Namibia’s education and training system is still underperforming. Even though the country has managed to increase the number of children enrolled in primary school to approximately 90 per cent, roughly one third of Namibians do not have school-leaving qualifications or have only completed primary school. Much also needs to be improved in the field of vocational education and training.

HIV and AIDS

Namibia continues to be one of the countries worst affected by HIV and AIDS, with an infection rate of roughly 13 per cent (among adults aged 15 to 49, in 2015). The pandemic affects young people in particular, and women worst of all.

Pedestrians with mobile phones in Windhuk, Namibia
Economic situation

Opportunities for companies through security and good infrastructure

Namibia is believed to offer a secure climate for investment in Africa. However, it has hardly managed to improve its competitiveness over the past decade. From 2010 until 2015 the country achieved economic growth rates of five to six per cent. Following a slump in 2016 (0.1 per cent), the International Monetary Fund has predicted 3.5 per cent growth for 2017 (as at April 2017).

In comparison with other African countries, Namibia has a well developed infrastructure, especially with regard to telecommunications and transport routes, offering companies a favourable business environment. However, the very small domestic market, relatively high transport and labour costs, and lack of skilled workers are still deterring potential investors.

Despite a considerable shortage of skilled labour, the unemployment rate is high. The official rate stands at around 25 per cent. And it is significantly higher for teenagers and young adults.

Gaps in energy supply are a further obstacle to the country's sustainable economic development. Namibia has too few power stations and is heavily dependent on expensive electricity imported from neighbouring countries. This has increased the interest in renewable energy.

Opportunities for development

Namibia's main potential for sustainable development lies in the extraction of mineral resources, in fishing and in tourism. Mining forms the backbone of the Namibian economy. Diamonds, gold, copper, uranium and other mineral resources account for a large share of the country's exports. Yet, the extraction of these minerals still creates very few jobs, because domestic value creation is poor.

Thanks to its scenic beauty, its unique fauna and flora and its cultural diversity Namibia's tourism sector has considerable growth potential as well. The creation and sustainable management of national parks is helping to create long-term employment and new income opportunities. Ecotourism offers especially good development prospects.

Gamekeepers in Khaudum National Park in Namibia. The park is part of the cross-border national park project KAZA, which is supported within the framework of German development cooperation.

German development cooperation with Namibia

Germany's special historical responsibility towards Namibia is reflected in its sizeable programme of development cooperation. Since Namibia secured its independence in 1990, Germany has been one of its largest bilateral donors. For the two-year period 2017/2018, Germany pledged around 130 million euros in support.

The priority goals of German-Namibian development cooperation are fighting poverty and inequality in Namibia. These goals are also core elements of 'Vision 2030', Namibia’s long-term national development strategy, and the corresponding National Development Plans (currently NDP5, which will guide policies until 2021/22).

Because of the high rate of HIV infections, HIV prevention is a cross-cutting issue in the bilateral development cooperation between Germany and Namibia.

Cooperation focuses on three priority areas:

  • natural resources management
  • sustainable economic development
  • transport and logistics
  • Elephant at Khaudum National Park, Namibia
    Natural resources management

    Protecting nature, creating jobs

    Much of the soil in Namibia is threatened by erosion. Large stretches of land are under threat of desertification and bush encroachment. The unique ecosystem of the Namib Desert is threatened by the impacts of climate change.

  • Water treatment plant in Windhuk, Namibia
    Sustainable economic development

    Better access to financial services

    German-Namibian cooperation takes the goals set out by Vision 2030 as a guideline and focuses on improving the general conditions for the private sector, which includes supporting small and medium-sized enterprises.

  • The Port of Walvis Bay, Namibia
    Transport and logistics

    Development needs infrastructure

    Namibia is a large but extremely sparsely populated country. In order to give all of its people access to local markets, education, health and administration facilities, and thus promote economic and social development, the country needs a good transport infrastructure.

Elephant at Khaudum National Park, Namibia
Natural resources management

Protecting nature, creating jobs

Much of the soil in Namibia is threatened by erosion. Water in general is scarce and the country's water resources are not managed sustainably. Large stretches of land are under threat of desertification and bush encroachment. The unique ecosystem of the Namib Desert is threatened by the impacts of climate change. At the same time, natural resources are the basis for sustainable economic development through agriculture, mining and tourism.

Creating fair access to scarce resources

Competition for already scarce resources is further exacerbated by a highly inequitable distribution of land ownership. Despite a land reform, which has scored some first successes, a small number of big and predominantly white landowners still control more than 75 per cent of all commercial farmland. A total of 15 million hectares of land are to be redistributed by 2020, which is approximately 40 per cent of all land holdings.

Improving the institutional framework

Germany is assisting Namibia in its efforts to establish equitable access to natural resources and manage these assets sustainably so as to ensure their long-term availability. At the national level, the government is being advised on how to improve the general environment and develop institutional capacities for managing the environment and biodiversity. At regional and communal level, the sustainable use of natural resources is being promoted by establishing and managing community forests, conservancies and national parks, for example. Support is also being provided to fight poaching activities, which have increased considerably.

Supporting the enlargement of national parks

Eastern parts of Namibia will be incorporated into the world's largest nature reserve that is currently being created – the Kavango Zambezi (KAZA) Transfrontier Conservation Area. For this the BMZ has so far made 35.5 million euros available and is advising the authorities involved on topics such as drafting the legal frameworks, land-use planning, park management and tourism. In the north of the country, too, the BMZ is supporting the enlargement of national parks. Tourist infrastructure is being built up with care so as to ensure that the local population, too, can profit from nature conservation activities.

Supporting smallholders

Small farmers in the north of the country are receiving support to help them develop and use suitable farming methods. This is to enable them to offset the harvest losses that can be expected as a consequence of climate change.

Water treatment plant in Windhuk, Namibia
Sustainable economic development

Better access to financial services

German-Namibian cooperation takes the goals set out by Vision 2030 as a guideline and focuses on improving the general conditions for the private sector, which includes supporting small and medium-sized enterprises.

The development of the strategically important sectors of agriculture, mining and tourism has an important role to play here. The lack of well-trained people and the low standard of education of large sections of the population are posing a persistent challenge to Namibia’s economic development. That is why Germany’s activities always include education and training components.

Germany is also assisting Namibia in further developing its financial sector. At present, the rural population and small businesses – particularly in the informal sector – have little access to such services. With German support, therefore, financial institutions are to extend their range of services to these currently disadvantaged groups, for example by providing microcredits. Namibia's first bank for microfinance services was established with German support.

The Port of Walvis Bay, Namibia
Transport and logistics

Development needs infrastructure

Namibia is a large but extremely sparsely populated country. In order to give all of its people access to local markets, education, health and administration facilities, and thus promote economic and social development, the country needs a good transport infrastructure.

German experts are therefore advising the Namibian government and devising training programmes for the transport sector. Furthermore, the road network is being improved – especially in the densely populated north of the country, which is home to more than half of the country's population.

To enhance Namibia’s economic integration in southern Africa, transport corridors are being upgraded, including a link to the Walvis Bay deep-sea port. The harbour is a supraregional shipping hub. It is to become the main transhipment point for several countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC).

Germany's Technical Cooperation activities have also included measures to develop a Road Safety Strategy and contributed to road safety campaigns.

Special initiatives

Reconciliation, climate proctection, sports

In addition to its intergovernmental development cooperation, Germany provided 34 million euros under the Namibian-German Special Initiative for Reconciliation in the years between 2007 and 2015. The funds were used to support municipal development in the settlement areas of the ethnic groups who suffered particularly badly under German colonial rule. The Special Initiative expressly focuses on a future-oriented development process, rather than on backward-looking "reparations", by combining activities to promote poverty reduction and participation with efforts to foster understanding and interaction.

In addition to the cooperation in the priority areas, Germany is providing support to the Namibian government with regard to climate action and improving energy security. The aim is for Namibia to use more renewable energy and improve energy efficiency so that it can reduce its dependence on coal-based electricity imported from South Africa. For this purpose, the BMZ is deploying special funding under the Initiative for Climate and Environmental Protection.

The BMZ is also financing 45 new sports grounds for socially disadvantaged young people, in cooperation with the German football association (DFB) and the world football association FIFA.

Football pitch at dusk in Namibia
Construction site of Ohorongo cement factory in Otavi, Namibia. The cement plant is the largest German direct investment in Namibia.
Flagship project

"Energy for the future"

One especially promising project in Namibia is the "Energy for the Future" project launched in 2011. The BMZ is providing financial support for the clearing of encroacher bush from several thousand hectares of farmland which has been rendered unusable. The land can then be used for agriculture again. The harvested bush will be used as fuel for a local cement factory. This cement factory is the most up-to-date in Africa and one of the most environmentally-friendly factories of this type in the world. Thus the project is helping to reduce harmful greenhouse gases and supporting sustainable economic development of the region.

Further reading

BMZ publications

Namibia

Map of Namibia

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Namibia Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Namibia Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Windhoek, approximately 320,000 inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 824,290 sq km (2017) 357,380 sq km (2017)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 125 of 188 (2015) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

Here you can find selected links to websites with more information on development policy in Namibia.

BMZ glossary

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