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Jordan

Amman at dawn

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Overview

A country on the road to reform

For King Abdullah II of Jordan, the stability of his country and the region are top priorities. For that reason he takes a mediatory role and is open to reform, in recent years replacing the government several times in the face of continuing criticism of its policies.

In early 2011, the wave of protests during what became known as the Arab Spring also spread to Jordan. Thousands of Jordanians demonstrated against high unemployment, rising prices and corruption, and demanded more political and social rights. Protesters did not, however, demand the overthrow of the regime. The king is recognised by all groups within society.

In response to the protests, King Abdullah introduced constitutional reforms in 2011 and granted parliament more powers. The most recent parliamentary elections were held in September 2016.

Renewed protests

Early June 2018 saw a renewed wave of protests in reaction to the government's austerity policies and escalating living costs. Prime Minister Hani al-Mulki resigned his post and was succeeded by Omar Razzaz. Razzaz now faces the difficult task of leading the country out of its current economic crisis while at the same time avoiding social unrest.

The civil war in neighbouring Syria, in particular, is presenting great challenges to Jordan. With its population of 9.5 million, Jordan has already taken in more than 670,000 Syrian refugees, according to United Nations statistics (as at October 2018). Many Jordanian communities are struggling to provide adequate water, energy, health services and education.

Cooperation with Germany

Political relations between Jordan and Germany are close and amicable. Jordan is one of the partner countries that Germany supports as part of thematic and regional programmes. Cooperation is focused on the priority areas of water, education, technical and vocational education and training and support for refugees and their host communities.

Germany is the second largest donor to the country, after the United States. In 2018, the BMZ provided more than 290 million euros.

Scroll down to get detailed information about the situation in Jordan and Germany's development engagement in the country.

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Priority areas of cooperation with Jordan

Development facts and figures from Jordan

Shepherd in Jordan
Political situation

Supporting modernisation

The constitution of 1952 established Jordan as a constitutional monarchy. King Abdullah II has been head of state since 1999 and has extensive powers. He is endeavouring to systematically modernise his country so as to enable it to take on a leading role in the region.

Governance

Wide-ranging reforms came into force in 2011; a constitutional court and an independent electoral commission were set up, and parliament’s rights in relation to the King were strengthened. Elections to the lower house of parliament were held in September 2016 under reformed electoral laws.

While Jordan ranks 59th out of 180 countries on Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index, corruption does nevertheless remain a serious problem.

Human rights

Jordan has signed all the main UN human rights treaties but in some cases has applied reservations to their provisions. No public criticism of the monarchy, military or security service is permitted and press freedom is severely curtailed. Although women have equal rights under the constitution, they are still socially, economically and culturally disadvantaged. Following an eight-year moratorium on the death penalty, it was reinstated in 2014.

Foreign policy

In its foreign policy, Jordan is keen to achieve conciliation between its neighbours. It maintains good relations with the United States, the European Union and the states on the Arabian Peninsula, and also actively champions the continuation of the Middle East peace process. Jordan signed a peace treaty with Israel in 1994.

Jordan belongs to the Deauville Partnership, through which, since 2011, the G7/G8 countries have been helping the states of the Middle East and North Africa to further develop democracy and the rule of law and to introduce economic and social reforms.

An association agreement between the EU and Jordan came into force in 2002 and in October 2010 Jordan was granted "advance status" partnership. A wide-ranging free trade agreement is currently being negotiated.

Trainees in a vocational training centre in Jordan
Economic situation

High levels of youth unemployment and poor prospects

Jordan's economy is weak. The country has few mineral and other natural resources and only very limited agricultural land.

The population is very young: some 35 per cent of the country’s approximately 9.7 million inhabitants are under 15 years of age. The country’s own labour market is currently unable to provide adequate employment opportunities for them. It is estimated that youth unemployment stands at well over 30 per cent.

Many people see no economic future for themselves. That feeling is rooted, for example, in the upheaval taking place in the region, not least the Syrian crisis, the reform backlog, the high levels of youth unemployment and one of the lowest female employment rates in the world. As a result, Jordan is dependent on external support, mainly from funds and debt rescheduling from international donors, and remittances from Jordanians living abroad.

According to World Bank figures, Jordan experienced economic growth of two per cent in 2017; growth of 2.3 per cent is expected for 2018.

On the current Human Development Index (HDI), Jordan ranks 95th out of 189 countries.

Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan
Refugee crisis

Open arms policy

Despite its difficult geographical position in a crisis-torn region, Jordan has pursued an open arms policy.

Around 1.8 million Palestinians have found refuge in Jordan since 1947/48. They were followed by refugees from Iraq, estimated to number between 200,000 and 300,000. After the outbreak of armed conflict in Syria in 2011, a new influx of refugees began. By October 2018, some 670,000 Syrian refugees were officially registered in Jordan, according to United Nations figures.

The vast majority of these refugees are living in Jordanian towns or communities. Some 126,000 refugees, however, are living in three camps, the largest being Zaatari on the Jordanian-Syrian border.

The influx of refugees is threatening to destabilise the country. The existing infrastructure is not sufficiently well developed as to be able to provide a reliable supply of water or power. The education and health systems are also under great strain.

Jordan is dependent on international support to prevent an overstretching of its political, social and economic fabric. It has requested assistance of 7.7 billion US dollars for the period from 2017 to 2019.

Dam in Jordan

German development cooperation with Jordan

Germany is Jordan’s second largest bilateral donor, after the United States. The BMZ has provided a total of around 1.9 billion euros since 2012 to help the country cope with the impact of the Syria crisis. In 2018, the BMZ committed more than 290 million euros.

In 2019, Germany will once again deliver on the commitments it entered into at the Syria donor conference. Development cooperation between Germany and Jordan is concentrated on the following priority areas:

  • water
  • education and vocational training/job creation.

Since 2012, German activities have also focused on supporting Syrian refugees and the Jordanian communities that are hosting large numbers of them.

  • Water meter being installed during the laying of new drinking water pipes in the town of Mafraq, Jordan
    Water

    Promoting sustainable water management

    The aim of the German-Jordanian water programme is to make water management more efficient and sustainable. It focuses in particular on the close relationship, or "nexus", between water supply, power supply and food security.

  • Pupils at a school in As-Salt
    Education and vocational training/job creation

    Education for all

    The aims are to improve the quality of primary and secondary education and to ensure that all children and young people have equal access to state schools. Also, employment opportunities and opportunities to participate in economic life are to be improved.

  • Cash-for-work programme: construction and repair of roads and drainage systems in Jordan
    Support for refugees and host communities

    Improving infrastructure, creating jobs

    In reaction to the crisis in Syria, the German Development Ministry has considerably increased support for Jordan. All measures are focused on achieving rapid and tangible improvements in the circumstances both of Syrian refugees and also the people living in their Jordanian host communities.

Water meter being installed during the laying of new drinking water pipes in the town of Mafraq, Jordan
Water

Promoting sustainable water management

Jordan is one of the most water-poor countries in the world. The influx of refugees from Syria is placing additional strain on the country's scarce water resources and severely stretched water infrastructure. This is also heightening the risk of conflict over how existing water resources are shared out.

The aim of the German-Jordanian water programme is to make water management more efficient and sustainable. It focuses in particular on the close relationship, or "nexus", between water supply, power supply and food security. Cooperation is concentrated on management of water resources, the treatment and re-use of wastewater, energy efficiency in the water sector, reducing water loss and water pricing.

Thanks to the activities undertaken over recent years, it has been possible to improve the water supply for just under two million people. Amongst those who have benefited are thirty Jordanian communities who are hosting large numbers of Syrian refugees.

Wastewater treatment plant in Madaba
Pupils at a school in As-Salt
Education and vocational training/job creation

Education for all

In 2015, Germany and Jordan agreed to add a second priority area to their development cooperation: education/training and job creation.

The aims are, firstly, to improve the quality of primary and secondary education and to ensure that all children and young people have equal access to state schools. Secondly, employment opportunities and opportunities to participate in economic life are to be improved.

The Jordanian government is being helped to focus its labour market policies more on supporting job-seekers and creating new jobs. Measures include increasing careers advice services and providing state assistance for business start-ups. Strategies are also being developed to better integrate women into the labour market.

As in other areas, one of the focuses in the education sector is support for refugees and host communities. With German assistance, for example, the school infrastructure has been improved for some 270,000 Jordanian and Syrian pupils. Funding has been provided to cover the salaries of 7,000 additional teachers.

Cash-for-work programme: construction and repair of roads and drainage systems in Jordan
Support for refugees and host communities

Improving infrastructure, creating jobs

In reaction to the crisis in Syria, the German Development Ministry has considerably increased support for Jordan. As well as expanding its bilateral programmes, it has also provided additional funding under its special initiative "Tackling the root causes of displacement, reintegrating refugees". All measures are focused on achieving rapid and tangible improvements in the circumstances both of Syrian refugees and also the people living in their Jordanian host communities.

In Zaatari refugee camp, for example, a photovoltaic system has been installed, providing power for 80,000 people. Also, with German support, over 50,000 children and young people have received counselling and over 100 health professionals have been trained. More than 400,000 people have been granted loans to help them engage in small-scale business activities.

Cash-for-work measures have created nearly 30,000 new jobs. Under this job creation initiative, refugees are given the opportunity to work within the host community, for example in waste collection or construction of housing or roads. In the interests of social cohesion, the programmes are also open to the local population.

Al-Azraq refugee camp in Jordan
Cooperation in detail

Examples of activities

A boy is collecting water from a tank in the Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan.
Infrastructure

Improving water supply

Since the civil war began, more than 660,000 Syrians have fled to neighbouring Jordan. One major problem is providing sufficient drinking water for everyone, as water is extremely scarce in Jordan. On behalf of the BMZ, KfW Development Bank has therefore been involved in the Jordanian water sector for some time now.

In the vocational training centre in Mafraq in Jordan, women train to become plumbers.
Vocational training

Training of plumbers

Jordan is one of the most water-poor countries in the world. Yet so far it has not been using its scarce water resources efficiently enough. In many places, the pipe network is in poor condition. Maintenance is inadequate and there is a lack of well-trained staff. That is why the BMZ is supporting the training of men and women as "water-wise plumbers".

The project "Kick for Hope" supports the dialogue between young Syrians and Jordanians.
Sports for development

Playing for a Common Future

With its peace-building project "Playing for a Common Future: Dialogue through Football", the organisation Streetfootballworld is bringing Syrian children and teenagers from refugee camps together with their Jordanian peers to play football. The project offers each group the opportunity to meet and get to know the members of the other group.

Syrian students in the Al Quds School in Amman, Jordan
Hygiene

Sanitation for overcrowded schools

Some 40 per cent of Syrian refugees in Jordan are school-age children. Many Jordanian schools therefore operate a two-shift system. Yet the existing school buildings cannot accommodate so many children. Not least, they do not have enough toilets. The BMZ is therefore providing funds for a programme specifically designed to improve sanitation and hygiene in schools.

Development facts and figures

  Jordan Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Amman, approximately 2.3 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 89,320 sq km (2017) 357,380 sq km (2017)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 95 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Map of Jordan

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Girls school in Irbid

Further information

Here you can find selected links to websites with more information on development policy in Jordan.

BMZ glossary

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