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South Africa

Sunrise in Johannesburg

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Overview

Global development partner in Southern Africa

Today, South Africa calls itself the Rainbow Nation, referring to its ethnic and cultural diversity. Yet, in the past, South Africa was isolated by the international community on account of its policy of strict racial segregation known as "apartheid".

In 1994, the country held free and universal elections, ushering in its return to the international community. The work done by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission helping the country come to terms with its bitter past has earned huge international recognition.

Since the end of the apartheid regime, South Africa has developed into a stable democracy. The constitution, which entered into force in 1997, is one of the most progressive in the world. Among other things, it contains a comprehensive catalogue of human rights. The country has a free press.

International engagement

These days, South Africa plays a leading political and economic role on the African continent. The country is committed to resolving inner-African conflicts and to strengthening regional organisations like the African Union (AU) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). In terms of the global economy, South Africa acts as a bridge between industrialised and developing countries. In international organisations such as the United Nations, the G20 and the World Trade Organization (WTO), it sees itself as an advocate of the interests of the South.

Challenges

Yet apartheid has left a profound mark on the country. Poverty is widespread, especially among the black population. Great social inequality, an extremely high crime rate and the high incidence of HIV are all holding back development. The official unemployment rate was just under 26 per cent in 2016, but the unofficial rate is estimated to be roughly 40 per cent. The World Bank even estimates that as many as half of all young people are unable to find work.

Despite its status as an upper middle income country, South Africa is only ranked 119th out of 188 countries on the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) for 2015.

Development cooperation

South Africa is one of Germany's global development partners and one of the partner countries with which Germany enjoys close development cooperation based on intergovernmental agreements. The cooperation between the two states focuses on four priority areas: energy and climate ("Green Economy"); good governance and public administration; technical and vocational education and training and skills development; HIV prevention.

The aims of this development partnership with one of Africa’s most populous, politically significant and stable countries are twofold. First, the partnership is designed to help South Africa overcome its development challenges, especially in the areas of governance, health, education and preventing violence. Secondly, the partnership aims to contribute to global climate protection efforts and strengthen South Africa in its important role for democracy, peace and stability on the African continent

Scroll down to get detailed information about the situation in South Africa and Germany's development engagement in the country.

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Priority areas of cooperation with South Africa

Development facts and figures from South Africa

Seat of South Africa in a meeting room of the United Nations in New York
Social situation

Division between rich and poor

Roughly one fifth of South Africans are currently reliant on social benefits. 16 per cent of the population live on less than 1.90 US dollars a day. Despite remarkable progress being achieved in providing people with water, energy and low-cost housing, deficits in basic public services still persist, especially in the areas where the black population lives, the former homelands and townships. The country has been striving for many years to carry out comprehensive land reforms that will benefit the majority black population; the plan, however, is making slow progress. Most fertile farm land is still in the hands of white farmers.

Growing discontent

Discontent is growing because living conditions have not improved significantly. In 2010, the government launched a national planning commission. It has engaged in an open, dialogue-based process to analyse development deficits and develop a long-term strategy for the country. In summer 2012, the commission presented a national development plan for the years until 2030. It is aimed at overcoming poverty and social inequality.

People in a slum on the outskirts of Cape Town
Health situation

Around seven million people infected with HIV

The spread of HIV and AIDS is a major problem for South Africa’s society and economy. Roughly seven million people are infected with HIV and more than two million children have lost their parents to the disease. Among 15- to 49-year-olds, almost one fifth are HIV-positive. Tied in with this is a tuberculosis epidemic. This infectious disease is one of the biggest killers of AIDS patients in South Africa. The country's health and welfare systems are facing almost insurmountable problems.

Shortcomings in the medical sector and the government’s indecisive HIV/AIDS policy for a period of many years are felt to be jointly responsible for the massive social and health policy challenges. It is only since President Zuma took office in 2009 that serious efforts have been undertaken to combat HIV/AIDS. There has been a sharp increase in public health expenditure, with the scope and quality of the treatment given to persons living with HIV and suffering from tuberculosis improving considerably.

Progress has already been made, thanks to the prevention and treatment programmes. The number of new infections has been reduced and the mother-to-child HIV transmission rate has fallen. Life expectancy has risen again in recent years, though it still remains at just 57 years.

Sign of an AIDS prevention campaign at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University in Port Elizabeth, South Africa
Orange processing plant in South Africa
Economic situation

Strong industry and rich natural resources

On the one hand, South Africa has a highly developed economy with a world-class financial sector, rich reserves of natural resources, a comparatively good infrastructure, a good, in many cases excellent, academic system, an independent, reliable legal system, a free press and huge economic potential. On the other hand, South Africa is a developing country with a high unemployment rate, massive poverty and extreme social inequalities.

In recent years, however, the country has lost a lot of its economic momentum. Since 2014, growth rates have been below two per cent, with an increase of just 0.3 per cent being recorded in 2016. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is predicting economic growth of 0.8 per cent for 2017 (as at April 2017). This is not nearly enough to allow the country to permanently solve its social problems. Private companies in particular are reluctant to invest.

Shortage of specialists

Under the apartheid regime, most people from the discriminated sections of the population did not receive vocational training in line with the needs of the modern labour market. The skilled labour shortage is therefore now holding back the ambitious growth plans of the government and the corporate sector. Moreover, job seekers are facing competition from millions of migrant workers from neighbouring countries, who hope to find income opportunities in South Africa. Repeated outbreaks of anti-foreigner protests in recent years are a sign of growing social tensions.

Aerial view of South Africa's coastline

Development potential

South Africa has great development potential that stretches well beyond its borders. In the medium term, it can contribute to the political, economic and social stabilisation of sub-Saharan Africa.

Further economic growth is possible in South Africa, especially in manufacturing, in the mining sector, tourism and the "green" sector. However, it is the country's people who constitute its greatest potential, albeit a potential that has not yet been sufficiently harnessed. Through its constitution, South Africa has created the necessary preconditions for equality of opportunity as regards access to education and to material and natural resources. This will allow society to continue developing successfully along democratic and pluralistic lines.

German development cooperation with South Africa

Germany's development partnership with South Africa is intended to help the country overcome its remaining development problems - particularly in the areas of governance, health, education and violence prevention. It also contributes to global climate protection and strengthens South Africa in its important role for democracy, peace and stability on the African continent.

Official governmental development cooperation with South Africa commenced in 1992. Since 1996, the Binational Commission (BNC) has been the most important body for Germany in terms of conducting political dialogue with South Africa. The BNC is made up of six individual commissions on development, defence, environment, business, science/research and culture. It meets once every two years.

The BNC meeting in November 2016 was also used to hold government negotiations on development cooperation. At those negotiations, the German government committed funds from the BMZ budget amounting to 314.25 million euros to South Africa for 2016 and 2017. Owing to the advanced level of development of its partner country, the main share of Germany's support was provided in the form of loans. Of this, 285.75 million euros was allocated to Financial cooperation and 28.5 million euros to Technical Cooperation. The priority areas of cooperation are as follows:

  • Energy and climate ("Green Economy")
  • Governance and public administration
  • HIV and AIDS prevention.
  • Technical and vocational education and training (TVET)
  • Wind turbines in South Africa
    Energy and climate

    More electricity from wind and solar power

    South Africa has been caught up in an energy crisis for years. At the same time the government will have no other choice but transform its energy generation if it wants to meet international climate goals. Currently, South Africa is meeting more than 90 per cent of its growing energy demand using domestic coal reserves.

  • View of the government building in Pretoria
    Good governance

    Creating an efficient public administration

    Governing South Africa is made more difficult by inefficiency, corruption and the lack of skilled staff, not just at national level but above all in the provinces and districts. However, good governance is a prerequisite for sustainable development.

  • Woman holding an AIDS awareness campaign in South Africa
    Health

    HIV and Aids prevention

    In no other country in the world are there as many people living with HIV as in South Africa. The spread of HIV and AIDS is jeopardising not only South Africa’s economic development but also its social stability. The immunodeficiency disease is a threat to the lives and livelihoods of countless families.

  • Trainees at a technical training centre in Soweto
    Vocational education and training

    Creating  perspectives

    More than half the young people in South Africa under the age of 25 are unemployed. At the same time, companies are having difficulties filling vacant posts because of a lack of skilled workers. That is why Germany is supporting a pilot project on dual vocational training.

Wind turbines in South Africa
Energy and climate

More electricity from wind and solar power

South Africa has been caught up in an energy crisis for years. At the same time the government will have no other choice but transform its energy generation if it wants to meet international climate goals. Currently, South Africa is meeting more than 90 per cent of its growing energy demand using domestic coal reserves. That makes the country one of the world's largest emitters of greenhouse gases.

South Africa’s government has set itself ambitious targets in the area of renewable energies and energy efficiency. Power generation from wind power and solar energy is to be greatly expanded. The government has also stated its desire to cut carbon dioxide emissions by 42 per cent by 2025 while at the same time making it clear that South Africa will only be able to achieve these targets with the help of the international community.

Cooperating with the private sector

Germany is assisting South Africa with the modernisation of power generation and with climate protection. Together with the private sector, GIZ is advising South Africa’s Department of Energy as well as its districts and municipalities on how to promote the use of renewable energies and improve energy efficiency.

As part of Financial Cooperation, low-interest loans are being offered via South African financial institutions to small and medium-sized businesses wishing to invest in renewable energies and energy efficiency measures. In addition, KfW Development Bank is promoting measures to modernise the transmission and distribution grids so that renewable energy sources may be linked to the grid. KfW is also contributing to a fund that provides finance to help people on moderate or low incomes to build energy-efficient houses.

Vocational training

New energy sources also create new "green" jobs. That is why Germany is assisting South Africa with the creation of a training centre for renewable energies in Cape Town. The centre will provide training for wind turbine service technicians, in particular, who are urgently needed.

View of the government building in Pretoria
Good governance

Creating an efficient public administration

Governing South Africa is made more difficult by inefficiency, corruption and the lack of skilled staff, not just at national level but above all in the provinces and districts.

German development cooperation is helping South Africa to create an efficient administration system that is open to and serves all its citizens equally, providing reliable and transparent basic public services.

Preventing violence in communities

Moreover, Germany is supporting measures for preventing violence in communities. That includes improving the social and economic infrastructure (safe footpaths, public spaces, sports grounds, community and youth centres). Support is also provided for measures to promote exchange between public bodies and civil society organisations, with a special focus on involving young people. Training programmes and social media enable them to actively contribute to preventing violence in their neighbourhoods.

Woman holding an AIDS awareness campaign in South Africa
Health

HIV and Aids prevention

In no other country in the world are there as many people living with HIV as in South Africa. The spread of HIV and AIDS is jeopardising not only South Africa’s economic development but also its social stability. The immunodeficiency disease is a threat to the lives and livelihoods of countless families. There are many children who are caring for their sick relatives. The more than two million children who have lost their parents as a result of AIDS are particularly at risk of economic and sexual exploitation. Many children and young people are also severely traumatised after witnessing the death of loved ones and experiencing suffering repeatedly. Many of them feel that violence and crime are their only way out.

Reducing the number of new infections

Germany is supporting, among other measures, programmes to encourage voluntary HIV and tuberculosis testing in severely affected provinces, with a view to lowering the rate of new infections. The National AIDS Council and AIDS councils at the provincial and district level receive assistance to develop functioning structures and increase coordination so as to improve the exchange of information between all the actors from the public sector, civil society and the corporate sector involved in HIV prevention efforts.

New community centres offer a range of care and training services for children who have lost their parents as a result of AIDS and for other vulnerable children.

The BMZ cooperates with various non-governmental organisations to help introduce and implement innovative prevention programmes. A special focus here is on raising awareness by reaching out to young people through telephone hotlines and contributions to university and vocational training school radio programmes.

Trainees at a technical training centre in Soweto
Vocational education and training

Creating  perspectives

More than half the young people in South Africa under the age of 25 are unemployed. At the same time, companies are having difficulties filling vacant posts because of a lack of skilled workers. The training standard at public TVET schools is low and trainers have little or no training at all. There are no formalised cooperation arrangements between companies and public TVET colleges.

Pilot project on dual vocational training

That is why Germany is supporting a pilot project on dual vocational training. Four TVET colleges are piloting training programmes for electricians and plumbers based on the dual system. Those courses link periods of practical training in companies with classroom training at a TVET college. The college curricula and examination procedures were developed in collaboration with companies and trade associations. The aim is for the trainees to be offered permanent jobs by the companies involved once they have completed their training.

There are plans to expand the scheme to other vocational colleges.

In 2016, an agreement was reached with the South African government to use funds from Financial Cooperation to also upgrade the standard of training for trainers. The aim is to develop training facilities and relevant curricula to upskill trainers.

Map of South Africa

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  South Africa Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of South Africa Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Pretoria, Greater Pretoria approximately 2 million inhabitants Berlin
Surface areaa16180096 1,219,090 sq km (2017) 357,380 sq km (2017)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 119 of 188 (2015) 4 of 188 (2015)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on South Africa

BMZ glossary

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