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Zambia

Zambian with parasol in Livingstone

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Overview

Great opportunities and challenges

Zambia is home to over 70 different ethnic communities, which generally live together in peace. Compared with other countries in the region, it is regarded as politically largely stable. Yet, increasingly, there are governance deficiencies.

President Edgar Lungu's government is moving to curb freedom of assembly, freedom of opinion and freedom of the press and obstructing the opposition and civil society organisations.

Zambia faces massive obstacles to its development. These include widespread poverty, high rates of malnutrition, pronounced socially inequality, rapid population growth and extremely high levels of public debt. Zambia comes in fifth on the Global Hunger Index (ranking 115 out of 119 countries).

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Development data for Zambia

  • Freedom Statue in Lusaka, Zambia
    Political situation

    Governance deficiencies

    The most recent transfers of power have been peaceful and, by and large, Zambia has a functioning state. Yet the current government is limiting the space for civil society, the media, opposition parties and human rights advocates.

  • Copper mine in Kitwe, Zambia
    Economic situation

    High levels of public debt

    After many years of strong growth, annual economic growth in Zambia has fallen since 2015 to around three to four per cent. Foreign borrowing going into the billions and excessively expensive public investment projects have been major factors in the state accumulating massive public debt, amounting to over 60 per cent of gross domestic product.

  • Children in Mongu, Zambia, return from fishing
    Social situation

    Severe rural poverty

    Even during the period of economic growth that lasted until 2014, the lives of Zambia's poor improved very little. More than half the population lives on less than 1.90 US dollars a day; the situation is particularly severe in rural areas.

  • Hippos in Zambia
    Environmental situation

    Climate change and forest loss

    Zambia's biological diversity is unique and is in urgent need of protection. Although the legal framework for environmental protection measures is in place, efforts to implement such measures still fail all too often due to a lack of political will and environmental awareness and because the relevant institutions are underfunded and lack capacity.

Freedom Statue in Lusaka, Zambia
Political situation

Governance deficiencies

After gaining independence from the United Kingdom in 1964, Zambia was governed for many years by president and "founding father" Kenneth Kaunda. In 1990, in a peaceful transition of power, Kaunda was replaced by the Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD), marking the end of the one-party system. The opposition Patriotic Front (PF) won elections held in autumn 2011. Following the death in office of President Michael Sata, a presidential by-election was held in January 2015. Edgar Lungu of the PF was elected President and was reconfirmed in office in August 2016, winning election by a narrow margin.

Governance

The most recent transfers of power have been peaceful and, by and large, Zambia has a functioning state. Yet the current government is limiting the space for civil society, the media, opposition parties and human rights advocates. State authorities are abusing freedom of opinion and of the press, freedom of association and of assembly, citing the Public Order Act, a law that dates back to colonial times. In the summer of 2017, the leader of the opposition, Hakainde Hichilema (United Party for National Development, UPND), was imprisoned for four months and was only released following intervention by the Commonwealth. Plans were subsequently made for a National Dialogue between government and opposition, facilitated by the churches; this was launched in October 2018. Youth party members from both the opposition and governing parties are, however, continuing to intimidate their opponents with shows of violence.

Widespread corruption is shaking the public's faith in the state. In 2017, the non-governmental organisation Transparency International ranked Zambia 96th out of 180 countries on its Corruption Perceptions Index.

Development goals

In its Vision 2030 (PDF 752 KB), the Zambian government has defined its goal as to make Zambia a "prosperous middle-income country" by 2030. It is working towards this long-term goal on the basis of five-year plans. The seventh of those plans is currently in place, covering the period 2017 to 2021. In it, the government sets out the following goals: to reduce poverty and vulnerability, to diversify and make economic growth inclusive and to create a conducive governance environment. The 2019 budget, however, places the emphasis elsewhere.

Copper mine in Kitwe, Zambia
Economic situation

High levels of public debt

After many years of strong growth, annual economic growth in Zambia has fallen since 2015 to around three to four per cent. Foreign borrowing going into the billions and excessively expensive public investment projects have been major factors in the state accumulating massive public debt, amounting to over 60 per cent of gross domestic product. Indeed, by autumn 2017, the IMF was already warning that Zambia was at high risk of debt stress. A total of 20 per cent of the budget is being used for loan repayments.

Development potential

Zambia is rich in mineral resources. It is the world's eighth largest producer of copper and sixth largest producer of cobalt. The mining sector accounts for almost half of all Zambia's exports (2015 figures). Because it is so dependent on exporting copper and cobalt, however, Zambia's economy is very vulnerable to fluctuations in prices on the international commodities market. There is likely to be a considerable increase in demand for cobalt for the construction of electric cars. This could be an opportunity for Zambia.

The agricultural sector in particular offers great potential for development. Up until now, it has accounted for only seven per cent of gross domestic product, despite employing more than half the population. Large numbers of people in Zambia depend on small-scale farming and use no farming machinery. Experts believe that Zambia could produce significantly more food and export to other countries in the region.

Zambia is increasingly using hydropower and solar power as sources of energy. The country is home to about 40 per cent of southern Africa's water resources; 85 per cent of electricity is generated using hydropower. Only 23 per cent of people have access to electricity and in rural regions the rate is as low as 4.4 per cent. One answer to the problem could be off-grid solutions.

Other major growth areas are tourism and construction. However, the risk here is that major infrastructure projects, especially road projects, will have to be financed through loans. This will only serve to increase public debt.

Children in Mongu, Zambia, return from fishing
Social situation

Severe rural poverty

Even during the period of economic growth that lasted until 2014, the lives of Zambia's poor improved very little. More than half the population lives on less than 1.90 US dollars a day; the situation is particularly severe in rural areas. Some 45 per cent of the population is classified as undernourished. Prevalence of child stunting stands at 40 per cent (source: 2018 Global Hunger Index) and child mortality at 6.3 per cent.

There are few other countries with such pronounced income disparities as Zambia, which has a Gini co-efficient of 57. What is more, any development progress achieved is cancelled out by the country’s rapid population growth (three per cent in 2017).

Zambia's economy is still overly dependent on copper, a sector that offers employment to comparatively few people. Structural reforms are needed in order to improve the business environment and expand the agricultural sector. Public authorities, especially at local level, lack the necessary skilled personnel and funds. On the latest United Nations Human Development Index (HDI), Zambia is ranked 144th out of 189 countries.

HIV/AIDS

The wide prevalence of HIV in Zambia is a huge issue; more than one in ten adults between the ages of 15 and 49 are infected. The epidemic cut average life expectancy to just 41 years in the late 1990s. The availability of antiretroviral therapy has since brought it back up to 62 years. Young people, however, are still at particular risk, as they are often not sufficiently well-informed about HIV and AIDS.

The situation for women and girls

Women's social and legal position is still strongly dictated by tradition, in rural areas and also elsewhere. Although gender equality is enshrined in the constitution and is being demanded by an increasingly active women’s rights lobby, social change is slow in coming. Many girls leave school early because they are pregnant. Domestic and sexual violence against women is widespread and the government is undertaking insufficient efforts to combat violence and the oppression of women.

Hippos in Zambia
Environmental situation

Climate change and forest loss

Zambia is being increasingly confronted with the impact of climate change and is active in international fora to promote climate action. Precipitation patterns have become increasingly irregular, leading to more and more droughts and flooding.

Zambia's biological diversity is unique and is in urgent need of protection. Although the legal framework for environmental protection measures is in place, efforts to implement such measures still fail all too often due to a lack of political will and environmental awareness and because the relevant institutions are underfunded and lack capacity.

Flora and fauna under threat

The dramatic level of largely uncontrolled commercial logging in Zambian forests is alarming. Large sections of the population are also contributing to deforestation, as wood and charcoal are the sole source of energy for most. Zambia now has one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world. The spoil heaps from copper mining and the inappropriate management of toxic mining by-products are additional sources of environmental pollution, affecting rivers and groundwater in particular.

Zambia's large elephant population is under serious threat from poaching. The rhinoceros population has been wiped out once already and efforts to reintroduce the species in the country have only begun in recent years. The government's announcement in the summer of 2018 that it would permit hunting of hippopotamuses attracted international criticism.

German development cooperation with Zambia

The Federal Republic of Germany and Zambia have maintained friendly relations since the country became independent in 1964. Germany is one of Zambia's larger international cooperation partners. At government negotiations in November 2018, the German government committed new funding of 62.98 million euros to Zambia for development cooperation (2016: 97.5 million euros). Of this amount, 40 million euros was allocated to Financial cooperation and 22.98 million euros to Technical Cooperation.

Under the special BMZ initiative "Tackling the root causes of displacement, reintegrating refugees", a further 10 million euros is being provided for water supply and sanitation in communities hosting Congolese refugees. Zambia is also a priority country of the special initiative "One World – No Hunger". In 2018, funds of up to 20.1 million euros were made available for the development of the agricultural sector and for food security.

Development cooperation between German and Zambia pursues the following goals:

  • Promoting good governance
    The aim is to strengthen reform-minded forces within both state and civil society, to promote transparency and accountability and to increase domestic resource mobilisation. Efforts to promote decentralisation focus on strengthening democratic structures at grassroot level.
  • Climate change mitigation and adaptation
    The priority is to protect the country's water resources, which are under increasing threat from climate change. The aim is to preserve Zambia's great agricultural potential and its capacity to generate electricity using hydropower. The increased use of renewable energies (solar power and hydropower) is also being promoted.
  • Fighting poverty and malnutrition
    One major focus is on improving access to water and sanitation for poor target groups. As a pilot country in the special initiative "One World – No Hunger", Zambia's small farmers are being helped to gain access to agricultural tools and machinery, and the nutrition of women and children is being improved. Young people are also being educated about HIV/AIDS.

Misuse of development funds

In the summer of 2018, indications emerged that official development funds from two programmes supported by international donors had been misused. The donors concerned subsequently suspended payments to these programmes until the case had been fully investigated. The UK also suspended all direct payments into Zambian accounts.

The BMZ had already stopped making direct payments into the Zambian budget under its bilateral development cooperation in 2016. Since then, bilateral commitments for new cooperation activities have only been made for specific and closely monitored projects.

In August 2018, indications emerged that some funds from a long-standing water project that was still being funded through direct payments had been misused. The German government resolved the case by formulating clear demands and conducting a close dialogue. At the most recent government negotiations, for example, it did not commit funding for two planned projects in the water sector. In response, the Zambian government transferred the misused funds back to the joint project account at the end of November

Voters in the 2011 presidential elections in Zambia
Priority area "Good governance"

Transparency and participation

Good governance is vital in facilitating economic development and poverty reduction. Germany is supporting Zambia in developing good financial governance, improving political participation and moving forward the process of decentralisation.

Good financial governance

Support focuses on strengthening transparency and accountability so as to ensure that public funds are used properly and efficiently. Zambia's budget planning, implementation and auditing is often not sufficiently transparent, systematic or structured. Public revenue is too low, corruption is rife and procedures are generally not sufficiently transparent. German experts are supporting the relevant Zambian ministries and the tax authorities in bringing greater transparency and efficiency to budget planning and implementation, increasing tax revenues, reforming public contracting so as to make corruption more difficult, and driving forward the process of fiscal decentralisation.

Public participation

As part of its activities in the field of public participation, Germany is helping to empower civil society to effectively demand in particular more transparency and accountability. It is also helping public institutions to ensure that the state functions in a way that gives the Zambian general public and civil society fair opportunities to participate. The Zambian government is being advised, for instance, on the reform of legislation on civil society organisations and efforts are being made to ensure that the civil society organisations themselves have a say in the process.

Together with the EU, efforts are being made to improve the access of poorer people, in particular, to justice and legal assistance. As a result, the number of people receiving aid from the state legal aid board in the provinces targeted rose from 514 in 2014 to 2,843 in 2017. When remandees receive this kind of support, for example, it often results in shorter detention times.

Decentralisation

The Zambian government has set itself the goal of transferring more tasks to local authority level and increasingly delivering government services at local level. This move could greatly increase opportunities for political participation and poverty reduction. Germany is supporting Zambia's efforts to implement this policy of decentralisation. At national level, the responsible coordinating body within cabinet and also the responsible ministries are being advised. In addition, selected local authorities are receiving support directly on issues like budget planning, financial management, spatial planning and service orientation. Support is also being provided for the expansion of municipal infrastructure (bus stations, markets) and the modernisation of an administrative college where municipal officials are trained.

A number of districts in Southern Province that are being hit particularly hard by climate change are being helped to make adaptation plans and establish a climate-resistant infrastructure. This should ensure that basic public services can be delivered even under extreme weather conditions.

Employees cleaning a filter basin of a waterworks in Livingstone, Zambia
Priority area "Water supply and sanitation"

Securing the water supply for the general population

Zambia has enormous water resources. And yet, very many people have no access to safe drinking water. Access to proper sanitation in particular is inadequate, especially in rural regions and the growing suburbs, where poverty is highly prevalent. This causes diarrhoeal diseases, which further weaken an often malnourished population. That is why one focus of cooperation is on improving sanitation coverage in poor urban areas and in rural areas.

In view of climate change, another major focus is managing Zambia's water resources more sustainably. People need water, but it is also needed to generate energy, for agriculture, for mining, and for industrial and manufacturing purposes. In order to conserve valuable water resources for the country and the region in the face of climate change, good planning and cooperation between all stakeholders is needed. The necessary processes are receiving considerable support through German development cooperation.

Other areas of cooperation

Expansion of renewable energies

Germany has adopted a regional programme to address climate change; in southern Africa it is primarily supporting the use of renewable energies. One part of this is the Get Fit programme, which helps the Zambian state to find private investors for the expansion of solar power and small-scale hydropower. The German government is also supporting the refurbishment and expansion of Chishimba Falls hydropower station, which is in the particularly poor north of the country.

Solar system on a latrine in rural Zambia

Agricultural development and food security

Zambia is one of the pilot countries in the BMZ special initiative "One World – No Hunger". A Green Innovation Centre has been established, where small farmers are helped to boost their income by organising and increasing production in a sustainable way with minimum impact on soils.

They also receive support for the processing of their products, with the focus on the value chains for dairy products and legumes. Many small farmers in Zambia still work the land using hoes. Two agricultural financing projects have been set up to enable them to lease or obtain loans for seed and agricultural machinery and also to learn more about managing their farms. Another particularly important focus in Zambia is tackling malnutrition.

One project helps local authority bodies in two districts in Eastern Province to independently plan and coordinate the many steps required for guaranteeing food security. The people there, particularly young mothers, are also advised on how to maintain a balanced diet and on good hygiene.

Women prepare food in a camp for Zambian fishermen.

Protection against infections and unwanted pregnancies

Germany's activities in this field are limited but effective; the main aim is to protect young people from contracting HIV and from unwanted pregnancies and, in particular, to strengthen girls' rights. Interactive "join-in circuits" are offered at schools, which use quizzes, games and discussions to impart basic knowledge about HIV to all pupils.

Child in Luapula in the northwest of Zambia at the border to the Democratic Republic of Congo

Helping Zambia to meet the refugees' basic needs

Zambia has taken in some 75,000 refugees from other African countries, mainly the Democratic Republic of the Congo (August 2018 figures). Germany is helping Zambia to meet the refugees’ basic needs. It is, for example, helping to fund a UNICEF programme to improve drinking water and sanitation in host communities.

Map of Zambia

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Zambia Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Zambia Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Lusaka, approximately 2 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 752,610 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 144 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Ferry between Botswana and Zambia

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Zambia

BMZ glossary

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