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Mali

Women carrying a German and a Malian flag on the occasion of the visit of federal minister Gerd Müller to Mali in March 2014

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Overview

Landlocked country with a rich ethnic and cultural diversity

For 20 years, Mali was considered an African success story. When the military dictatorship ended in 1991, a peaceful democratisation process was begun. Mali adopted a new constitution and held free elections.

However, in early 2012, the country experienced a serious political crisis. The President was overthrown, whilst Tuareg rebels and Islamist extremists took power in large parts of the country's northern regions. The situation was further aggravated by a food crisis caused by poor harvests in the entire Sahel region. More than 500,000 people had to flee their homes, seeking refuge in other regions of Mali or outside the country.

In 2013, the country managed to recover from the severe political crisis. The most important factors in this process were the formation of a transitional government, the holding of democratic presidential and parliamentary elections and the support provided by neighbouring countries, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the African Union, the United Nations and France. Voter turn-out at the 2013 democratic presidential and parliamentary elections was high, showing that people wanted their country to return to democracy and constitutional order.

The security situation remains fragile

In June 2015, a peace agreement was signed between the government and various armed groups (Algiers Accord). It was agreed, inter alia, to strengthen decentralisation and establish interim administrations tasked with rebuilding the state in the North of the country. Local elections that had been postponed several times were finally held in November 2016.

However, the security situation is still fragile, especially in Mali's three northern regions. Over and over again, the Malian government has been forced to impose a state of emergency following terrorist attacks, or to extend the restrictions already in place.

Development cooperation

Germany is supporting the peace process in Mali; development cooperation activities are combined with foreign and security policy efforts.

Development cooperation focuses on the priority areas of decentralisation, agriculture, and water supply and sanitation. Germany is also engaged in the fields of sustainable energy supply and responsible extraction of natural resources.

Scroll down to get detailed information about the situation in Mali and Germany's development engagement in the country.

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Priority areas of cooperation with Mali

Development facts and figures from Mali

Women in Mopti do their laundry at the Niger river.
Water tower at the district of Tienfala, Mali
Lecture Hall of the Institute for Applied Agricultural Research and Education in Katibougou
Market stall in Bamako
Market stall in Bamako, Mali
Farmers on their way to their fields
Children in Tienfala with a donkey cart
Traffic in Bamako
Muslim prayer room
Political situation

Many challenges for the government

Since the dictator Moussa Traoré was overthrown in 1991, the country has seen major changes. Democratic structures have been developed and a programme to promote decentralisation has been initiated. Until 2012, however, progress in implementing many of the reforms was fairly slow.

After the crisis in 2012, Ibrahim Boubacar Keita was elected as the new President of Mali in 2013, with a large majority.

Keita's election raised high expectations among the people. Meeting these expectations is a huge challenge for the government as its starting point is difficult. The latest United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) ranks Mali 175th out of 188 countries.

Development goals

In July 2016, the government presented a development strategy for the period from 2016 to 2018 (Cadre stratégique pour la relance économique et le développement durable, CREDD). The document sets out goals for the fields of peace and security, economic stability, inclusive and sustainable growth, social development and good governance. It is intended to serve as guidance for Mali's efforts to achieve the global Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda.

Security

The security situation in the North of the country remains very tense. Islamist groups continue to be active in the region. In the South of the country, too, and in the capital of Bamako terrorist attacks cannot be ruled out either. Criminals and terrorist groups finance their activities mainly through illegal trade in drugs and weapons, and through human trafficking. Its geographical position has made Mali a transit country for human trafficking and for refugees who cross Mali on their journey from West Africa to North Africa.

Displacement

The political crisis in 2012 forced hundreds of thousands of people to flee to other parts of Mali or leave the country altogether. According to figures published by the UN Refugee Agency UNHCR and the Malian government, almost 500,000 internally displaced persons had returned to their home towns by August 2017. Some 140,000 refugees and more than 50,000 internally displaced persons had still not returned to their homes.

Corruption

Corruption continues to be a tremendous challenge in Mali. The annual reports published by the independent auditor (Vérificateur Général) appointed by the president in 2004 draw the attention of the public. But there is no guarantee that every case of corruption that is detected will be prosecuted. Mali's judicial system is poorly equipped and must compete with traditional legal systems.

Human rights

Human rights are enshrined in Mali's constitution and are largely respected by the government. During the political crisis in 2012, however, massive human rights violations occurred, especially in the northern provinces. At the request of the Malian government, the International Criminal Court is carrying out preliminary investigations into possible violations of international law.

Female genital mutilation is still practised in Mali and roughly 90 per cent of women and girls are affected. The country has actually signed international conventions against female genital mutilation. However, a law to abolish this cruel practice, which has been announced several times, has still not been adopted yet.

Girls in Tienfala, Mali
Children in Tienfala
Social situation

Very hard living conditions

Around half of the population lives in extreme poverty. Out of 1,000 newborns, an average of 111 children die before they reach the age of five. Almost one quarter of the people living in Mali have no access to safe drinking water, three-quarters of them lack adequate sanitation. Life expectancy is a mere 58 years. The annual population growth rate is three per cent – 48 per cent of Malians are below the age of 15 and the average number of children per woman is seven.

The education system is in a bad state. The school enrolment rate is just over 50 per cent and only about 50 per cent of the children finish primary school. Two-thirds of the population is illiterate.

About 60 per cent of the population lives in rural areas, earning a living from farming and livestock breeding. However, population growth and rural exodus are fueling a rapid increase in urbanisation. The government is faced with the difficult task of creating employment opportunities for a fast-growing young population and ensuring access to basic services for all its people.

Economic situation

Most of the population works in agriculture

The two mainstays of Mali's economy are agriculture and mining. This means that the country is heavily dependent on world market prices for its two most important export goods, cotton and gold. Shortcomings in Mali’s infrastructure and its dependence on oil imports are, however, a serious obstacle to economic development. Most people earn their money in the informal sector, so that the tax revenue of the country is low.

The majority of the working population is employed in the agricultural sector. Yet, the traditional dry field farming methods, where plants depend exclusively on rainwater, is not able to provide food security for the rapidly growing population. With support from Germany and other development cooperation donors, Mali is therefore now seeking to expand irrigated agriculture among small farmers along the Niger River.

Mali faces diverse environmental challenges which directly impact the economy. They include deforestation, soil erosion, falling groundwater levels, progressive siltation of the Niger River and an increase in extreme weather events. The government is doing little as yet to promote sustainable consumption and production patterns.

Mali managed to increase its gross domestic product by 5.4 per cent in 2016. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is predicting economic growth of five per cent for 2018. However, in view of Mali's strong population growth, that is not sufficient to improve people's living conditions in the long term.

A farmer in Mali is irrigating his field.

German development cooperation with Mali

Germany and Mali cooperate at various levels. On the one hand, Germany is supporting the government in its efforts to draw up and implement national policies. On the other hand, it is supporting projects at the local level with a view to directly and tangibly improving people's living conditions.

At the end of 2015, the BMZ committed funds for Mali totalling more than 73 million euros for official development cooperation for the period from 2015 to 2017. In 2016 and 2017, Germany made further commitments of 16.5 million euros and 41.5 million euros. Development cooperation between Germany and Mali focuses on the following priority areas:

  • Decentralisation and good governance
  • Promotion of productive and sustainable agriculture
  • Drinking water supply and basic sanitation

Germany is also engaged in the fields of sustainable energy supply and responsible extraction of natural resources. In addition, the BMZ supports non-governmental organisations (in particular churches, private executing agencies, agencies engaged in "social structural programmes" and political foundations) that implement projects in Mali.

Germany is also working in the north of Mali. Some of the projects the BMZ is supporting in these northern regions have been brought under the umbrella of the EU Migration Partnership with Mali, which is meant to help tackle the root causes of displacement.

  • Elections in Mali. A woman standing in front of electoral lists at the district administration of Tienfala.
    Decentralisation and good governance

    Building responsive administrative structures

    Decentralisation is seen in Mali as one of the key reforms in order to make progress in reducing poverty and achieving peace and stability.

  • Market scene in Bamako
    Productive and sustainable agriculture

    Achieving food security and creating jobs

    Mali is affected by huge, climate-related fluctuations in production. Germany is supporting small-scale irrigated agriculture in Mali by helping to develop new irrigation areas and advising the government with regard to climate-resilient agricultural strategies.

  • Women  standing at a street in Bamako with water canisters
    Drinking water supply and wastewater management

    Improving living conditions

    According to official figures, almost one quarter of the population lacks access to safe drinking water. There are vast differences between regions: almost 80 per cent of the people in the capital of Bamako have access to water, but in many rural areas in the North of the country that figure is less than a quarter.

Elections in Mali. A woman standing in front of electoral lists at the district administration of Tienfala.
Decentralisation and good governance

Building responsive administrative structures

Decentralisation is seen in Mali as one of the key reforms in order to make progress in reducing poverty and achieving peace and stability. In the peace agreement, regions and municipalities play an important role. Giving them greater decision-making competence and transferring more funds is part of this.

The goal of German development cooperation is to enhance the capacities of local authorities. They should deliver reliable basic public services, promote local economic development and collect local taxes more efficiently. This will increase people's faith in the state and in its institutions.

With German support, numerous Malian communities have developed effective local administrative structures that are responsive to people's needs and were thus able to play a part in stabilising the country during the 2012/2013 crisis.

Local people are beginning to exercise their rights and fulfil their responsibilities. They are taking steps to ensure public participation and demanding that local authorities give account of their actions. With the introduction of women's assemblies, the needs of women and girls will be given greater attention in municipal planning processes.

As part of its Financial Cooperation, Germany is making important contributions to the local development fund. This fund is used to finance the development and maintenance of local infrastructure such as schools, health centres, town halls, granaries and markets. The Malian government and other donors, for instance the EU and France, are also contributing to this fund.

Market scene in Bamako
Productive and sustainable agriculture

Achieving food security and creating jobs

Mali is affected by huge, climate-related fluctuations in production. And the country's high population growth means that the available land is being used more and more intensively.

However, the country has huge reserves of river water, for instance along the Niger River, and hence considerable potential to expand irrigated agriculture. Germany is supporting small-scale irrigated agriculture in Mali by helping to develop new irrigation areas, and by offering farmers extension services and advising the government with regard to climate-resilient agricultural strategies.

Small farmers are taught how to manage their land in a sustainable manner and how to store, process and market their produce properly. The family farms receiving support are able to significantly increase their yields through the new irrigation systems. The increase in vegetable production has led to many more women engaging in agriculture, and thus making a contribution to economic and social stability.

A start has also been made on setting up a "Green Innovation Centre" – an innovation centre for the agricultural and food sector – in Mali as part of the BMZ's Special Initiative "One World – No Hunger". The centre will support research on breeding seeds that are adapted to local conditions and introducing technology into small-scale farming.

Women  standing at a street in Bamako with water canisters
Drinking water supply and wastewater management

Improving living conditions

According to official figures, almost one quarter of the population lacks access to safe drinking water. There are vast differences between regions: almost 80 per cent of the people in the capital of Bamako have access to water, but in many rural areas in the North of the country that figure is less than a quarter. And only one quarter of the population has access to proper sanitation facilities. Diarrhoeal diseases are one of the main causes for the high rate of child mortality in Mali.

Through its development cooperation work, Germany wants to help provide a year-round sustainable and safe drinking water supply and access to properly constructed and maintained sanitation facilities for people in rural areas and smaller towns in Mali.

Germany's focus, on the one hand, is on building and maintaining drinking water systems, especially in rural areas. Investment is made available for wells, elevated tanks, pipe networks, solar-driven pumps and standposts. Some 370,000 people have already been supplied with safe drinking water. Since 2018, the BMZ has been supporting the city of Timbuktu, helping to improve its water supply system. This will benefit 65,000 people.

But German efforts are also aimed at enabling municipalities to fully manage and maintain and, ideally, even expand their infrastructure themselves.

Furthermore, Germany is also promoting wastewater management and sanitation projects in smaller towns and rural areas. This involves building decentralised wastewater treatment plants and public latrines, for instance at schools and health centres, and running hygiene campaigns.

Map of Mali

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Mali Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Mali Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Bamako, around 1.8 million inhabitants Berlin
Surface areaa16180096 1,240,190 sq km (2017) 357,380 sq km (2017)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 175th of 188 (2015) 4 of 188 (2015)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Mali

BMZ glossary

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