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Cameroon

Young men in a street restaurant in Mondoni, Cameroon

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Overview

Partnership in a difficult setting

For a long time, Cameroon was considered a pillar of stability in an unstable region. However, the Central African country's development is hampered by a severe lack of progress on much-needed reforms and investments. Since 2016, Cameroon has been experiencing increasing internal conflicts and growing political and social tension.

In the English-speaking Northwest and Southwest Regions, separatist groups are fighting for the areas to break away from Cameroon and form the "Republic of Ambazonia". In the country's northern parts, the Islamist terrorist organisation Boko Haram has repeatedly been committing suicide attacks, causing numerous civilian casualties. The security situation along the border with the Central African Republic, which is itself engulfed in crisis, is also tense.

Development cooperation

For more than 50 years now, Germany has been involved in development activities in Cameroon. Currently, the programme of cooperation focuses on the protection and sustainable use of natural resources, good governance, and rural development. Germany is also providing support to the country with regard to assistance for displaced persons and in the area of health.

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Development data for Cameroon

  • City view of Yaoundé, capital of Cameroon
    Political situation

    No strong focus on sustainable development

    Cameroon's government is not demonstrating a strong focus on development. While its Vision 2035 lays down the ambitious goal of becoming an emerging economy by 2035, and the government has formally embraced the 2030 Agenda, there is no evidence of a holistic policy approach that would address global development goals.

  • View of Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon
    A country in crisis

    Deepening conflicts

    At present, Cameroon is going through a deep domestic crisis. Conflicts in the English-speaking Northwest and Southwest Regions and in the Far North Region are posing a threat to the country's stability, and also to development cooperation projects.

  • Veneer production in Douala, Cameroon
    Economic and social situation

    Jobs urgently needed

    In order to improve the living conditions of the people, the Cameroonian government wants to focus on boosting economic growth and creating jobs. At present, more than one third of the people are living below the national poverty line.

City view of Yaoundé, capital of Cameroon
Political situation

No strong focus on sustainable development

From 1884 until the First World War, Cameroon was a German colony. Subsequently the country was divided into two mandate territories, administered by France and the United Kingdom. It was only reunified in 1961, after the French part had gained independence.

Today, Cameroon is a member of both the International Organisation of La Francophonie and of the Commonwealth; the official languages of the country are French and English. However, the people living in the two English-speaking regions, Northwest and Southwest, are complaining that they have suffered disadvantages at the hands of the central government for decades (see also chapter on "A country in crisis").

Since independence, Cameroon has been governed by the Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (RDPC, Rassemblement démocratique du Peuple Camerounais). President Paul Biya has been in office since 1982.

In October 2018, at age 85, he was re-elected for another seven-year term. Parliamentary and local elections had been scheduled for the second half of 2018 as well, but the government postponed them to 2019.

Ambitious goal, weak delivery

Cameroon's government is not demonstrating a strong focus on development. While its Vision 2035 lays down the ambitious goal of becoming an emerging economy by 2035, and the government has formally embraced the 2030 Agenda, there is no evidence of a holistic policy approach that would address global development goals such as sustainability, environmental protection and social protection.

Civil society activities are hampered by government repression – for example bans on rallies, the blocking of websites, and media censorship. The Corruption Perceptions Index 2017 published by the non-governmental organisation Transparency International ranked Cameroon 153rd out of the 180 countries assessed.

View of Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon
A country in crisis

Deepening conflicts

At present, Cameroon is going through a deep domestic crisis. Conflicts in the English-speaking Northwest and Southwest Regions and in the Far North Region are posing a threat to the country's stability, and also to development cooperation projects.

Conflict in the Anglophone parts of the country

Some 20 per cent of Cameroon's people are living in the two English-speaking regions in the country's western part. Many of them feel that the central government is discriminating against them in the areas of politics, public authorities, the justice system, and education. In late 2016, what started as peaceful rallies turned into violent clashes between separatist groups and government security forces. The conflict has since continued to deepen. There have been massive human rights violations and numerous casualties.

The government under President Biya refuses to enter into negotiations on the constitutional status of the regions or on the introduction of a federal system. The humanitarian situation in the regions in question has deteriorated significantly. According to the United Nations, some 246,000 people have so far been displaced from the Southwest Region to other parts of the country, and about 27,000 people have been registered as refugees in neighbouring Nigeria (as at August/September 2018).

Terrorism in the North

In the Far North Region, too, the security situation has deteriorated. While Cameroon formed a multinational force (Multinational Joint Task Force, MNJTF) together with Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Benin, which has successfully contained the military activities of the Boko Haram terrorist group, the number of suicide attacks on Cameroonian territory has increased significantly since the first half of 2017. According to United Nations figures, 2.1 million people in the region are dependent on humanitarian aid (as at September 2018).

Veneer production in Douala, Cameroon
Economic and social situation

Jobs urgently needed

In order to improve the living conditions of the people, the Cameroonian government wants to focus on boosting economic growth and creating jobs. At present, more than one third of the people are living below the national poverty line.

Although the official unemployment rate is relatively low at 4.3 per cent, about two thirds of the workforce can be considered underemployed. They work primarily in subsistence agriculture or as micro-entrepreneurs in the informal sector.

The latest United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) ranked Cameroon 151st out of 189 nations.

Not enough economic growth

In 2017, economic growth in Cameroon was 3.2 per cent. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) expects that the rates for 2018 and 2019 will be about four per cent. In view of the very high rate of population growth, this is not enough to reduce poverty on a sustained basis, give young people better prospects and close the development divide between different regions of the country.

The level of industrialisation in Cameroon is low. A cumbersome administrative system, the lack of legal certainty, prevalent corruption, inadequate infrastructure and a lack of skilled workers act as disincentives for potential investors.

EU Partnership Agreement

In 2014, an Interim Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) entered into force between the European Union and Cameroon. The accompanying Aid by Trade measures are an important element of the EPA process. The bilateral EPA is viewed as a step towards a regional EPA between the Central African region and the EU.

German development cooperation with Cameroon

Germany is one of Cameroon's most important donors in development cooperation. At the government negotiations in June 2016 and through subsequent commitments, Germany made available 125.5 million euros in new funding.

In 2017, an interim commitment for 13.6 million euros was made, followed by a commitment for 10.04 million euros in 2018. The next government negotiations are scheduled for 2019.

Development cooperation focuses on the following priority areas:

  • Protection and sustainable use of natural resources
  • Good governance
  • Rural development

Cameroon is also benefiting from various regional programmes under German development cooperation. For example, Germany supports the Central African Forests Commission (COMIFAC) and provides funding for joint projects with the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC).

Protection and sustainable use of natural resources

Protecting threatened tropical forests

Cameroon's vast and species-rich rainforests are of global importance for biodiversity and the climate. They are also an important source of food and income for local people. Apart from oil and primary agricultural products, timber is Cameroon's most important export product. However, the forests are increasingly coming under threat through excessive use. Mining and agricultural activities are encroaching more and more on the forests. Large areas of forest are lost to illegal logging. Biodiversity is at risk as a result of unsustainable forest management and poaching.

Germany is assisting the Cameroonian government with the implementation of its forest and environment programme. Support includes delivering advisory services on the further development and implementation of the government's forestry policy, sustainable forest management, and protected area management.

Need to adjust projects to the conflict situation

However, the worsening conflict in the English-speaking region is placing constraints on the implementation of projects there and has led to the withdrawal of project staff. One project in the Southwest Region that cannot be continued as planned is a resource management project.

Market woman in Cameroon
Good governance

Improving administration at the national and local levels

At the national level, Germany is assisting the Government of Cameroon in the field of public financial management. The focus is on tax revenue and tax administration. In order to increase tax revenue, efforts are under way to identify potential sources of revenue. Among other things, an IT platform is used to match data from the tax authority and the customs authority.

At the municipal level, Germany is working with selected medium-sized cities to help them play their important role as regional economic hubs and service centres. Through a Cameroonian investment fund, FEICOM (Special Council Support Fund for Mutual Assistance), Germany is helping these cities with the development and maintenance of social and economic infrastructure projects. This includes preschools, schools, hospitals, roads and markets.

A local development project launched in 2017 focuses on municipalities that participate in the rural development programme or the forest and environment programme. The idea is to enable them to improve their administrative work so that they can take the developments forward that have been launched through the programmes.

Harvesting yams in a local farm in Bafia, Cameroon
Rural development

Modernising the agricultural sector

At the request of the Cameroonian government, Germany has been supporting rural development in the country since 2015. Activities focus on the three less developed regions in northern Cameroon. Priority is being given to training, improved farming and production methods, the reduction of post-harvest losses, and water management.

As part of the BMZ's special ONE WORLD – No Hunger initiative, a Green Innovation Centre is being established. It supports value chain development for cocoa, potatoes and poultry by disseminating technical innovations and offering training for small farmers and agricultural extension officers. Thanks to a triangular cooperation arrangement between Germany, Cameroon and Israel, the programme is being expanded to include the mango and fruit tree value chain.

Refugee women from the Central African Republic in a camp in eastern Cameroon

Other areas of cooperation

In addition to the priority areas that have been agreed, Germany supports Cameroon's efforts to provide services for refugees, and it provides assistance in the health sector.

Meeting the needs of refugees and reducing the root causes of displacement

The political crises around Lake Chad and in the Central African Republic are presenting Cameroon with great challenges. According to the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), Cameroon is hosting more than 260,000 refugees from the Central African Republic and over 100,000 refugees from Nigeria (as at September 2018). The BMZ is supporting a project that seeks to improve the situation of refugees from the Central African Republic.

In Cameroon's poor northern regions, many young people lack social and job opportunities, which provides them with more incentive to join extremist groups. In order to prevent fresh violence and, thus, fresh displacement, the BMZ is helping to improve young people's living conditions. Together with international and local organisations, it is providing jobs and training programmes for them and helping them to set up their own businesses. This project is co-financed by the European Union.

Support for maternal health

Many women in Cameroon have no access to medical care before, during and after birth. As a result, maternal mortality is high. Germany therefore supports Cameroon in training midwives and undertaking further actions to improve maternal health. Among other things, health posts are being renovated and provided with medical equipment across the country. Pregnant women receive vouchers that enable them to get specialised care at clinics.

Map of Cameroon

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

A basket maker in Douala, Cameroon

Development facts and figures

  Cameroon Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Cameroon Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Yaoundé, approximately 2 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 475,440 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 151 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Cameroon

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