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Democratic Republic of the Congo

Street scene in Kinshasa, DR Congo

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Overview

A country in deep crisis

On paper, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo) is a wealthy country. It has an abundance of valuable natural resources, large reserves of freshwater and huge tropical rainforests. However, many decades of exploitation under colonial rule, followed by years of dictatorship and then armed conflicts have reduced the country to abject poverty.

In social and humanitarian terms, the country is in a dire state. On the latest United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) DR Congo is ranked 176th out of the 189 countries listed.

After being repeatedly unlawfully postponed, presidential elections eventually took place in December 2018. The opposition politician Felix Tshisekedi was declared the unexpected winner. Doubts regarding the legitimacy of the result were expressed both at home and abroad. Whether the new head of state will manage to steer the country out of the deep political crisis it is facing and into more peaceful waters remains to be seen. The need for reform is huge.

This Central African country plays an important geostrategic role; its political, economic and social development has a considerable impact on the situation in its nine neighbouring countries. And the conservation of its rainforests is of vital importance for the global climate.

Ebola outbreak

Ebola broke out in the Congolese province of North Kivu. Since then, more than 3,000 people have become infected with the virus and more than 2,100 people have died (as of September 2019). The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak an international health emergency. This is the tenth Ebola outbreak in the DR Congo and the second largest worldwide.

Development cooperation

Germany and the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been engaged in development cooperation for many years. Government negotiations on development cooperation were due to be held in 2017. However, in response to the delaying of the elections and the ensuing political crisis, the negotiations were postponed indefinitely.·

Since then the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) has been concentrating on development activities that do not involve direct cooperation with the government of the DR Congo. Instead of working with central government bodies, the focus is on cooperation at the provincial and municipal levels, and with civil society organisations.

German activities in the country centre on ways to immediately improve the everyday lives of the population, on fostering peace in the conflict-ridden region of Eastern Congo and on protecting the country's tropical forests. In response to the Ebola outbreak the BMZ has expanded its activities and has made additional funding available for combating the disease.

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Development data for the Democratic Republic of the Congo

  • A woman in front of a mural at the railway station of Kinshasa, the capital of the DR Congo.
    Political situation

    A difficult political legacy

    When Joseph Kabila took office as President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2001, the Central African country was at war. The arrival of a new head of state kindled fresh hope – hope that the country might find peace and achieve political and economic stability.

  • A tank of the UN mission in Rumangabo, DR Congo
    Democracy and human rights

    Pervasive corruption and violence

    The DR Congo still has a long way to go before it can be regarded as a democratic state under the rule of law. The separation of powers exists solely on paper. Freedom of the press and other media is severely restricted.

  • Immunisation of babies in a health centre in Kibati, Goma
    Social situation

    People living in extreme poverty

    The dictatorship under President Mobutu and the wars that followed have completely destroyed the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The people have little food and few opportunities to earn a living.

  • Men with so-called chukudus (freight scooters) in Goma, DR Congo
    Economic situation

    Rich mineral deposits, poor business climate

    Most people in the DR Congo are struggling just to survive from one day to the next. Less than 10 per cent of the population is in formal employment, and around 90 per cent of economic activity is focused on the informal sector.

A woman in front of a mural at the railway station of Kinshasa, the capital of the DR Congo.
Political situation

A difficult political legacy

When Joseph Kabila took office as President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2001, the Central African country was at war. The arrival of a new head of state kindled fresh hope – hope that the country might find peace and achieve political and economic stability. In 2006, Kabila was officially confirmed as President in free elections organised by the international community. 

Yet the conflict continued to rage in the eastern provinces in particular. To this day, various rebel groups are still engaged in combat against the Congolese army in the east of the country.

In 2011, the DR Congo once again slid into a deep crisis: the presidential and parliamentary elections were marred by massive irregularities and a lack of transparency. A few years later there were mass demonstrations in cities and towns when the municipal, regional and national elections scheduled for 2015 and 2016 were postponed several times by the government. President Kabila refused to relinquish power even though his second – and according to the constitution last – term in office should have ended in December 2016. The protests against the election delays were violently crushed.

Disputed election victory

In December 2018 the postponed elections finally took place. They were marked by numerous irregularities, including reportedly incomplete electoral rolls and malfunctioning voting machines. On the basis of the official election results, in January 2019 Felix Tshisekedi was sworn in as the new president. Since the count was not transparent and, according to the election observers from the Catholic Conference of Bishops posted around the country, another candidate had been clearly in the lead, doubts were cast on the legitimacy of the election result both at home and abroad.

In the parliamentary elections held at the same time, Joseph Kabila's party won a clear majority of the seats. After six months of negotiations, Tshisekedi and Kabila reached an agreement in July 2019 on the composition of the new government. A large proportion of the cabinet members are from Kabila's political camp.

United Nations peace mission

In the eastern and north-eastern parts of the country Congolese government forces are still engaged in violent battles with various armed groups. The United Nations is facilitating the peace and reform process in the DR Congo through its peacekeeping mission MONUSCO (Mission de l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation en République démocratique du Congo). With some 15,000 "blue beret" peacekeepers, MONUSCO is the world's biggest peacekeeping mission.

A tank of the UN mission in Rumangabo, DR Congo
Democracy and human rights

A weak state allows corruption and violence to flourish

The DR Congo still has a long way to go before it can be regarded as a democratic state under the rule of law. The separation of powers exists solely on paper. Freedom of the press and other media is severely restricted. People working in the public sector misuse their positions for personal gain – often because their wages are not paid. Corruption pervades every level of government.

Government institutions are extremely weak, there is no independent judiciary and large parts of the country – especially in the east – are not under government control. Nor is there any political will to sanction human rights violations committed by government authorities.

The prevalence of sexual violence is alarming. Rape has been – and is still – used systematically as a weapon of war in the DR Congo, both by rebel forces and by the military and the police.

Millions of people displaced

In the eastern part of this fragile multi-ethnic state, there are repeated outbreaks of fighting between the Congolese armed forces and various rebel groups. The rebel groups are fighting for political control, land rights and access to raw materials.

According to United Nations reports, there are 4.5 million internally displaced people within the DR Congo. More than 860,000 Congolese have fled to neighbouring countries (as at June 2019).

Immunisation of babies in a health centre in Kibati, Goma
Social situation

Living in extreme poverty

The dictatorship under President Mobutu and the wars that followed have completely destroyed the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The people have little food and few opportunities to earn a living. Although it is the second largest country in Africa in terms of area, the DR Congo has few paved roads, and the water supply and power supply are poor. Many parts of the country only have a basic level of health care and education thanks to the work done by church organisations, non-governmental organisations and international development agencies. The majority of the Congolese people live in extreme poverty, and nearly one in ten children dies before reaching the age of five.

According to figures published by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), almost 13 million of the DR Congo's roughly 84 million inhabitants are dependent on humanitarian aid (as at August 2019). The United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF, has found that roughly 1.4 million children are severely undernourished.

It is difficult to judge the real extent of the crisis since there is a lack of reliable data. That is why, for example, the country is not listed in the 2018 World Hunger Index drawn up by the aid organisations Welthungerhilfe and Concern Worldwide. 

Men with so-called chukudus (freight scooters) in Goma, DR Congo
Economic situation

Rich mineral deposits, poor business climate

After decades of mismanagement and war, the economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is in ruins. In recent years, growth rates have seesawed between 2.4 and 9.5 per cent – starting from a very low baseline. Given that population growth stands at over three per cent, however, even good economic figures are not enough to bring improvements to the lives of broad swathes of the population. 

Most people in the DR Congo are struggling just to survive from one day to the next. Less than 10 per cent of the population is in formal employment, and around 90 per cent of economic activity is focused on the informal sector. In the World Bank's Doing Business Report 2019, which analyses the business climate in 190 countries worldwide, the DR Congo ranks 184th.

The fight for mineral resources

Great hopes rest on the extractive industries. The country has rich deposits of extractive and mineral resources. International demand for commodities like coltan and cobalt is very high, since they are used in the manufacture of mobile phones, laptops and electric cars. However, some of these deposits are located in the conflict-ridden east of the Republic. Rebel groups, militias and also army units all have illegal mines under their control.

In order to ensure that the trade in commodities is conducted lawfully and that revenues are used transparently, the government has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, EITI. In July 2014, the EITI accepted the DR Congo onto its list of compliant countries. Nevertheless, considerable challenges remain with regard to civil society involvement in this sector. 

Dish with a small amount of Coltan. This ore is mined in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and is an important raw material, for example for the production of mobile phones.

German development cooperation with the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Due to the current crisis and the urgent reforms that still need to be undertaken, government negotiations between Germany and the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been suspended for the time being. Ongoing development cooperation has been restricted to activities that benefit the population directly.

The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) focuses on working with decision-makers at the local level and with Congolese civil society.

The main focus of German activities is on the following priority areas:

  • Drinking water supply
  • Protection and sustainable use of natural resources
  • Peace and security in Eastern Congo
  • Sustainable economic development in the mining sector

Regional cooperation

The DR Congo is also receiving assistance through several regional projects that Germany is funding as part of its development cooperation activities in Africa. For instance, Germany supports transboundary bodies such as the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR), the Central African Forests Commission (COMIFAC), the International Commission of the Congo-Oubangui-Sangha Basin (CICOS) and the Congo Basin Forest Partnership (CBFP).

Well with clean drinking water, DR Congo
Priority area "Drinking water supply"

Millions of people without clean water

The Democratic Republic of the Congo has made marked progress in recent years on improving access to safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the need for investment is still very high – only about half of the population has access to clean drinking water. The consequences are dramatic. Diseases caused by polluted water are widespread, causing often irreversible damage to children in particular.

In order to supply the population with clean and safe drinking water, Germany is providing support for the repair and expansion of water supply systems, especially in the country's small and medium-sized towns. In future, an emphasis will be put on communities that have taken in especially large numbers of refugees.

To date, the programme supported by Germany has helped give about one million people access to safe drinking water, and a further 800,000 people are set to benefit before the programme is concluded.

Deforestation near Yangamba, DR Congo
Priority area "Protection and sustainable use of natural resources"

Protecting the rainforest, maintaining biodiversity, and slowing down climate change

After the Amazon Basin, the next-biggest area of tropical forest in the world is the Congo Basin. The rainforests are enormously important for the global climate and for the preservation of biodiversity. At the same time, these forests also provide a large part of the Congolese population with a livelihood and form the basis of their culture.

However, the forests are coming under increasing pressure – for instance because the rapidly growing population needs ever greater amounts of wood for fuel and for building, and ever larger areas of land for agriculture. What is more, whole swathes of forest land are being destroyed to make way for mining. In the embattled east of the country, rebel groups and militias are funding themselves through illegal logging and organised poaching, compounding the threat to the country's biodiversity.

Supporting local communities

Under German development cooperation, assistance is being provided for the management of six protected areas, for sustainable forest management and for reafforestation measures. Efforts to tackle the problem of poaching and the illegal trade in wildlife products are also being fostered. The support being offered in collaboration with the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF) includes advising and training national park administration staff, and financing their equipment such as vehicles, office technology, GPS devices, cameras and binoculars.

However, the most important target group under this programme is the local people, for whom the tropical forest is the foundation for their lives and livelihoods. In order to avert conflicts of use, the locals are closely involved in the development planning for the protected areas. Alternative sources of income, such as sustainable, community-based forestry and utilisation of other forest products, are being developed.

The BMZ's support is conditional on observance of human rights and adherence to internationally recognised environmental and social safeguards. Any reports of human rights violations being committed by, for instance, park officials are thoroughly investigated. 

Presenter at Radio Okapi, operated by the UN
Priority area "Peace and security"

Stepping up involvement in the east of the country

Since 2018, the BMZ has been stepping up its involvement in measures focusing on Eastern Congo. Individual projects that were already in place, focusing on food security, social and economic infrastructure, conflict transformation and tackling the issue of violence against women, are now being grouped together and expanded. This is in response to the stabilisation strategy being pursued by the UN peace mission MONUSCO.

One objective is to improve the livelihoods of people in the conflict-affected regions of North and South Kivu, for instance by revitalising the agricultural sector and improving the drinking water supply. Another aim is to specifically support civil society forces with a view to fostering peaceful political dialogue and reconciliation. A particular emphasis here is on communities that are either hosting large numbers of internally displaced persons or are having to reintegrate large numbers of returnees.

KfW Development Bank is financing the construction of roads, schools and health centres in Eastern Congo via a peace fund. These investments are helping to stimulate the local economy. Local people are able to earn an income – at least for a short period of time – by getting actively involved.

Lowering the health risk, raising resilience

In response to the renewed outbreak of Ebola in the DR Congo, the BMZ is providing additional funds in the form of transitional development assistance for a joint programme conducted by the World Food Programme (WFP), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).

The aim is for people in North and South Kivu to be able to boost agricultural production, thus improving their food situation and earning more income. Improved hygiene standards will help to stem the spread of disease in general and lower the risk of the Ebola virus spreading further.

The BMZ plans to make 50 million euros available over a period of four years. Initial estimates indicate that up to 200,000 people could be reached directly. When other family members are included in the calculation, up to 800,000 people could benefit from the programme.

Copper mine in DR Congo
Priority area "Sustainable economic development in the mining sector"

Loans for small enterprises

The Democratic Republic of the Congo has vast mineral deposits, including cobalt, copper, zinc, silver, diamonds, germanium and uranium, and also what are often referred to as "conflict" minerals: tin, tantalum, wolfram and gold. 

Although mining is one of the most important sources of income for the national economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, little has been done until now to harness its potential for the economic and social development of the country. Investors are put off by the country's political instability and the all-pervasive corruption.

In Eastern Congo, all the conflict parties are using mineral trading to finance their fighting. Whereas international trade in the conflict commodities tin, tantalum and wolfram has largely been successfully contained, the supply chains for gold are hard to control. 

Human rights violations, child labour, environmental damage and social tensions are huge challenges, especially in artisanal and small-scale mines.

German activities

Germany is focusing its efforts on promoting the transparent, peaceful and development-oriented use of the country's mineral resources. German development cooperation activities cover the following areas:

  • Participation by the public and private sectors and civil society in a dialogue on mining, aimed at promoting a balance of interests
  • Introducing and documenting compliance with international environmental and social safeguards in small-scale mining, developing the CTC certification system for conflict minerals and for cobalt
  • Strengthening Congolese businesses in the supply sector, integrating the industrial mining sector into the local economy, promoting cooperation between international mining companies and small-scale Congolese enterprises
  • Promoting practically relevant training in the mining sector
  • GIZ and the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) are responsible for the implementation of these activities.

Development facts and figures

  Democratic Republic of the Congo Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Democratic Republic of the Congo Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Kinshasa, approximately 12 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.75 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 2,344,860 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 179 of 189 (2018) 4 of 189 (2018)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Map of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

A woman carrying firewood in Kibati Goma, DR Congo

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on DR Congo.

BMZ glossary

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