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Democratic Republic of the Congo

Street scene in Kinshasa, DR Congo

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Overview

A country in deep crisis

On paper, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo) is a wealthy country: it has an abundance of natural resources – mineral wealth, large water resources and huge tropical rainforests. However, many decades of exploitation under colonial rule, followed by dictatorship and several wars, have reduced the country to abject poverty. The social and humanitarian situation is disastrous. The United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) currently ranks the DR Congo 176th out of the 188 countries listed.

Geostrategically, this Central African country plays an important role in the region, for its political, economic and social development has a considerable impact on the situation in its nine neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the conservation of the rainforest areas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is of vital importance for the global climate.

Currently, the country is experiencing its most severe crisis since the end of the Congo Wars in 2003. 2015 and 2016 should have seen elections at local and provincial level as well as parliamentary and presidential elections at national level. However, President Joseph Kabila has remained in office, even though his second and therefore, under constitutional terms, last term should have ended in December 2016.

The elections eventually took place on 30 December 2018. There were numerous issues with the way they were carried out. The former opposition politician Felix Tshisekedi was sworn in as DR Congo's new president on the basis of the official election results on 24 January 2019. The election results are highly controversial.

Development cooperation

Germany has been a development cooperation partner of the Democratic Republic of the Congo for many years. Government negotiations on further development cooperation were due to be held in 2017. However, in response to the delaying of the elections and the resulting political crisis, the negotiations have been postponed until further notice. Furthermore, since late 2017, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) has been focusing on development activities that do not involve direct cooperation with the government of the DR Congo. Thus, measures implemented by Germany have focused on improving the everyday lives of the people, fostering peace, and preserving the rainforest as a source of livelihood for the people of the DR Congo and as a global good.

The BMZ and its implementing organisations are continuously reviewing the governance and security situation to see whether the development cooperation programme between Germany and the Democratic Republic of the Congo can be continued.

Scroll down for more information on the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and on Germany's development activities there.

Priority areas of development cooperation with the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Development data for the Democratic Republic of the Congo

A woman in front of a mural at the railway station of Kinshasa, the capital of the DR Congo.
Political situation

A difficult political legacy

In 1885, the territory of what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo – not to be confused with the neighbouring Republic of Congo, with its capital city Brazzaville – was declared the private property of the King of the Belgians, Leopold II. Then, in 1908, the territory was declared a Belgian colony and given the name "Belgian Congo". King Leopold II’s regime pursued a policy of ruthless exploitation of humans and the natural environment. In the late 1950s, resistance to the colonial system grew ever stronger. In 1960, Belgium finally granted the country its independence, for which it was completely unprepared.

The country’s first prime minister was Patrice Lumumba, the leader of the Congolese independence movement. Only a few months after taking office, Lumumba was deposed and, in January 1961, assassinated. In 1965, Joseph Mobutu seized power in a coup. He renamed the country Zaire. Mobutu's regime lasted 32 years and was one of the most corrupt dictatorships in Africa.

The state and the economy in ruins

In 1994, the ethnic conflict raging between the Hutu and the Tutsi in neighbouring Rwanda and Burundi spilled over into what was then Zaire. Civil war broke out – a war in which Uganda, Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Chad all had a hand (therefore also referred to as "Africa's World War"). Mobutu was deposed in 1997, and rebel leader Laurent-Désiré Kabila became the new President. The country reverted back to its former name of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

The warring factions signed a peace agreement in 2003. By this point, the country’s economy and government institutions had completely collapsed, and its infrastructure was largely in ruins. According to estimates by the International Rescue Committee, the war claimed more than five million lives.

A brief interlude of hope

After the assassination of this father, Joseph Kabila took over as President in 2001. In 2006, he was officially confirmed as President in free elections, which were organised by the international community. The country began to stabilise politically and economically.

However, the country slid into crisis again not long afterwards when the presidential and parliamentary elections were held in 2011, as these were marked by serious irregularities and a lack of transparency. The local, regional and national elections scheduled for 2015 and 2016 did not take place, meaning that the country no longer has a democratically legitimate government. In the cities, there have been mass protests against current government policies, which have been repeatedly crushed.

A tank of the UN mission in Rumangabo, DR Congo
Democracy and human rights

A weak state allows corruption and violence to flourish

The DR Congo still has a long way to go before it can be regarded as a democratic state under the rule of law. The separation of powers exists solely on paper. Freedom of the press and other media is severely restricted. People working in the state sector misuse their positions for personal gain – often enough because their wages and salaries are not paid out. Corruption is pervasive at all government levels.

Government institutions are extremely weak, there is no independent judiciary and large parts of the country – especially in the East – are not under government control. Nor is there any political will to sanction human rights violations committed by government authorities.

The prevalence of sexual violence is alarming. Rape has been – and is still – used systematically as a weapon of war in the DR Congo, both by rebel forces and by the military and the police.

Millions of people displaced

In the eastern part of this fragile multi-ethnic state, there are frequent clashes between the Congolese armed forces and various rebel groups. The rebel groups are fighting for political control, land rights and access to raw materials.

According to United Nations reports, there are 4.5 million internally displaced people within the DR Congo (as at December 2017). More than 735,000 Congolese have fled to neighbouring countries.

Regional agreement

2013 saw an important step taken to prevent the entire region's destabilisation: the framework agreement signed in Addis Ababa. The agreement saw all the countries of the region, as well as the African Union, the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR), the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the United Nations, come together for the first time to agree who would take on which roles and responsibilities.

Under the terms of the agreement, the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is obliged to reform its security sector, strengthen the authority of the state in the east of the country, devolve central powers to subsidiary levels, and take measures to boost the economy. The countries of the region have agreed not to interfere in the internal affairs of their neighbours, not to provide assistance to any armed groups, and to foster regional cooperation.

The United Nations is facilitating the regional peace process through its peacekeeping mission called MONUSCO (Mission de l’Organisation des Nations Unies en République Démocratique du Congo). With more than 15,000 peacekeepers ("blue berets"), MONUSCO is the world's largest peacekeeping mission.

Immunisation of babies in a health centre in Kibati, Goma
Social situation

Living in extreme poverty

President Mobutu's dictatorship and the wars that followed have completely ruined the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The country's people lack food and opportunities to earn a living. Although it is the second largest country in Africa by area, the DR Congo has few paved roads, and the water supply and power supply are poor. A basic level of health care and education is maintained in many parts of the country only through the work of church organisations, non-governmental organisations and international development agencies. The majority of the Congolese people live in extreme poverty, and nearly one in ten children dies before reaching the age of five.

According to figures published by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), of the DR Congo's roughly 79 million inhabitants more than 13 million are dependent on humanitarian aid. 7.7 million people are facing severe food insecurity (figures for late 2017). The incidence of stunting due to malnutrition among Congolese children is more than 40 per cent. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) no longer lists the country in its World Hunger Index because it lacks reliable data on the situation there.

There have been repeated outbreaks of Ebola in the DR Congo, the most recent in early summer 2018. In order to prevent this life-threatening disease from spreading, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched an immunisation programme in the regions affected.

Men with so-called chukudus (freight scooters) in Goma, DR Congo
Economic situation

Great mineral wealth, poor business climate

After decades of mismanagement and war, the economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is in ruins. Although the country has achieved growth rates of between seven and nine per cent over recent years, these are based on a very low starting point and have not been high enough to improve the lives of many Congolese. And by 2016, economic growth had slowed to only 2.4 per cent – well below the population growth rate of 3.3 per cent.

Most people in the DR Congo are struggling just to survive from one day to the next. Less than 10 per cent of the population is in regular employment, and around 90 per cent of the country's economic activities are taking place in the informal sector. The World Bank's Doing Business report for 2018, which analyses the business climate worldwide, ranks the DR Congo 182nd out of the 190 countries reviewed.

The fight for mineral resources

Great hopes rest on the extractive industries. The Democratic Republic of the Congo has numerous resources, including copper, tin, cobalt, gold, diamonds, oil and coltan – of which the latter is needed in the production of mobile phones and lap-top computers. In order to ensure that the commodity trade is conducted lawfully and that revenues are used transparently, the government has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). In July 2014, the EITI included the DR Congo in its list of compliant countries. Nevertheless, considerable challenges remain with regard to civil society involvement in this sector.

Dish with a small amount of Coltan. This ore is mined in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and is an important raw material, for example for the production of mobile phones.
Tourist guide with canoes on the Dzanga River in the border region of DR Congo, Cameroon and Central African Republic

Development potential

The Democratic Republic of the Congo has enormous development opportunities. Its resources are highly sought after on the world market. Furthermore, the country also has fertile soils and rainforests with a unique biodiversity. If peace and stability can be established and maintained, the DR Congo could massively build up the tourism industry, thereby bringing much-needed foreign exchange to the country.

What is more, with the Congo – the second longest river in Africa – and its tributaries and the Great Lakes in the eastern part of the country, the DR Congo is one of the most water-rich countries on Earth. The potential to produce environmentally friendly electricity from hydropower has hardly been tapped so far.

However, this vast potential will only benefit the population at large if the resources are managed sustainably and the revenue generated from them is invested in inclusive development – but not if it is used to increase the personal wealth of those in power or to fund militias.

A woman carrying firewood in Kibati Goma, DR Congo

German development cooperation with the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Given the current crisis, government negotiations between Germany and the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been suspended for the time being. Ongoing development cooperation has been restricted to activities that benefit the population directly. Furthermore, the German Development Ministry (BMZ) has stepped up its cooperation with Congolese civil society organisations.

Since 2018, the BMZ has also been stepping up its involvement in measures to help bring about peace and security in Eastern Congo. Germany, in keeping with international donors' strategy to work with the Congolese government to help stabilise the country, is focusing its activities on fostering stability in the crisis areas and giving the Congolese people prospects for a better future. In doing so, the BMZ wants to send a political signal that Germany has not forgotten the people living in the conflict region.

The BMZ's new programme combines elements of medium-term transitional aid with long-term development cooperation measures – an approach that takes into account the fact that the situation remains volatile. The aim of the programme is to help the local population to find peaceful solutions to social conflicts and to set up and develop local economic cycles. The programme is intended to help, in particular, women and young people to actively seek new opportunities for improving their lives and living conditions.

Priority areas

The following areas continue to be priorities of German-Congolese development cooperation:

  • Water supply and sanitation
  • Protection and sustainable use of natural resources
  • Peace and security
  • Sustainable economic development

Regional cooperation

The DR Congo is also receiving support through several regional projects that Germany is funding as part of its development cooperation activities in Africa. For instance, Germany supports multi-country bodies such as the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR), the Central African Forests Commission (COMIFAC), the International Commission of the Congo-Oubangui-Sangha Basin (CICOS) and the Congo Basin Forest Partnership (CBFP).

  • Well with clean drinking water, DR Congo
    Water supply and sanitation

    Millions of people living without clean water and sanitation

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo has made marked progress in terms of improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation.

  • Deforestation near Yangamba, DR Congo
    Protection and sustainable use of natural resources

    Protecting the rainforest, maintaining biodiversity, and slowing down climate change

    The tropical forests in the Congo Basin are vitally important for the global climate and the preservation of biodiversity.

  • Presenter at Radio Okapi, operated by the UN
    Peace and security

    Stepping up involvement in the east of the country

    Since 2018, the BMZ has been stepping up its involvement in measures focusing on Eastern Congo. Hence, existing projects are being combined and expanded as part of a new programme – a programme based on the stabilisation strategy being pursued by MONUSCO.

  • Haberdashery in Kinshasa, DR Congo
    Sustainable economic development

    Loans for small enterprises

    It is the DR Congo's MSMEs that provide jobs and incomes for a large part of the country's population. Since most of these enterprises operate in the informal sector, they are not in a position to provide the collateral usually required by banks and therefore cannot get any loans.

Well with clean drinking water, DR Congo
Water supply and sanitation

Millions of people living without clean water and sanitation

The Democratic Republic of the Congo has made marked progress in recent years in terms of improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. However, a great deal of investment is still required. Little more than 50 per cent of the population has access to safe drinking water, and fewer than 30 per cent have adequate sanitation.

The consequences are dramatic: diseases caused by polluted water are widespread, causing often irreversible damage to children in particular.

In order to supply the public with clean and safe drinking water and toilet facilities, Germany is providing support for the repair and expansion of drinking water supply and sanitation systems, especially in the country's medium-sized towns.

To date, the programme has helped give 1.1 million people access to safe drinking water, and a further 1.4 million people are to benefit by the time the programme has been completed.

Deforestation near Yangamba, DR Congo
Protection and sustainable use of natural resources

Protecting the rainforest, maintaining biodiversity, and slowing down climate change

The tropical forests in the Congo Basin are vitally important for the global climate and the preservation of biodiversity. Simultaneously, the forests are vital for the livelihoods and the cultural roots of a large part of the population.

However, the forests are coming under increasing pressure – for instance because the DR Congo's rapidly growing population needs ever greater amounts of wood for fuel and for building, and ever larger areas of agricultural land. And swathes of forest land are being destroyed to make way for mining. In the embattled east of the country, rebel groups and militias are using illegal logging and organised poaching as a source of funding, thereby posing a growing threat to the country's biodiversity.

As part of its development cooperation, Germany provides support for the management of protected areas and for sustainable forest management. The projects seek to closely involve the local people in all development and land use planning. And Germany has also helped several universities to set up courses in sustainable resource management, so that they can train specialists in environmental protection.

Transparent use of resource revenues

Germany is also working to boost the transparent, peaceable and development-oriented use of the country's natural resources. To achieve this, Germany is supporting the development – and implementation in selected mining districts – of a government certification system for the mining of coltan, tin ore, tungsten and gold. Furthermore, Germany continues to support the EITI, as it has done for many years already. The Initiative promotes transparency with regard to the origin and the use of revenues from the extractive industries.

Copper mine in DR Congo
Presenter at Radio Okapi, operated by the UN
Peace and security

Stepping up involvement in the east of the country

Since 2018, the BMZ has been stepping up its involvement in measures focusing on Eastern Congo. Hence, existing projects are being combined and expanded as part of a new programme – a programme based on the stabilisation strategy being pursued by MONUSCO.

One idea behind the programme is to improve the livelihoods of the people living in the conflict region, for instance by revitalising the agricultural sector and improving the drinking water supply. Another idea is to provide support specifically to civil society forces in order to promote peaceful political dialogue and reconciliation. Germany's activities include a focus on communities which are either hosting large numbers of displaced people or having to reintegrate large numbers of returnees.

The activities are being accompanied by complementary measures in the neighbouring countries of Rwanda, Uganda and Zambia, which have all taken in large numbers of refugees from the DR Congo.

KfW Development Bank is using capital from its fund for peace and stabilisation to fund the construction of roads, schools and health centres in Eastern Congo. These investments are helping to stimulate the local economy, enabling local people to get involved and earn an income – even if only for a limited period of time.

Targeted support for smallholder farmers

The BMZ wants to help boost agricultural production in Eastern Congo. To this end, it is supporting a programme being implemented by the World Food Programme (WFP) in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The BMZ is working with local non-governmental organisations to help them set up farmers associations, women’s organisations and community-based savings and loan associations.

Farmers' field schools are providing training for smallholder farmers in subjects such as the sustainable production, storage, processing and marketing of food. And the World Food Programme is also funding the construction and equipping of storage facilities, and buying some of the food produced by the small farmers, in order to reduce post-harvest losses and help them gain access to markets.

Haberdashery in Kinshasa, DR Congo
Sustainable economic development

Loans for small enterprises

It is the DR Congo's micro, small and medium-sized enterprises that provide jobs and incomes for a large part of the country's population. Since most of these enterprises operate in the informal sector, they are not in a position to provide the collateral usually required by banks and therefore cannot get any loans. As a consequence, they are often not able to grow their businesses and create new jobs. That is why Germany is supporting measures that will help improve micro, small and medium-sized enterprises' access to financial services that are tailored to their needs.

Support for financial institutions and their customers

On the supply side, the fund operated by KfW Development Bank is helping to provide selected financial institutions with long-term refinancing capital. It is also providing advisory services to help the banks diversify their financial products and tailor them more to the needs of poorer population groups.

Development facts and figures

  Democratic Republic of the Congo Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Democratic Republic of the Congo Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Kinshasa, approximately 12 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 2,344,860 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 176 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Map of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on DR Congo.

BMZ glossary

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