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Burundi

Waiting patients outside a hospital in Rumonge, Burundi

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Overview

Hope for peace has failed to materialise

In 2000, the Arusha Accords formally ended seven years of civil war in Burundi. In 2005, the East African country adopted a new constitution. However, the consequences of the war have not yet been overcome. Burundi is politically unstable and the situation of the people is worse than it was before the war began.

Burundi is one of the five least developed countries in the world. On the latest United Nations Human Development Index (HDI), the country is ranked 185th out of 189 countries. Human rights are subject to severe restrictions; there are major deficits in the areas of governance and rule of law.

Development cooperation

In response to massive human rights violations and non-compliance with democratic principles on the part of the Burundian government, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) partly suspended its bilateral development cooperation with Burundi in June 2015. This applies, in particular, to political-strategic cooperation with the government and to investment commitments under Financial cooperation.

Currently, German development cooperation activities focus on projects based on cooperation with non-governmental organisations and United Nations programmes that directly benefit needy people.

Straigth to

Development facts and figures from Burundi

  • Protestors raise their hands in front of police in the Musaga neighbourhood of Bujumbura, Burundi, on May 4, 2015.
    Political situation

    Burundi has lost the trust of international partners

    Pierre Nkurunziza, who has been President of Burundi since 2005, announced in April 2015 that he would run for office again. This caused a domestic crisis which has continued to the present.

  • A voter in the parliamentary elections in Burundi in July 2010 gets paint on his finger to indicate that he has already voted.
    Governance and human rights

    Massive infringement of fundamental rights

    Under Burundi's President Pierre Nkurunziza, there have been great shortcomings in the area of governance. Often, policymakers pursue individual interests, giving more attention to staying in power and to their personal enrichment than to national development.

  • Trader with calculator at the market in Bujumbura, Burundi
    Social situation

    People suffering from poverty and hunger

    Due to the political and economic crisis, the humanitarian situation in Burundi has deteriorated further. More than 70 per cent of the people live in extreme poverty. Life expectancy is only 58 years.

  • Farmers on their way back from the country's largest city, Bujumbura, to their farms in the surrounding hills
    Economic situation

    Great impediments for private enterprises

    Burundi's economy is barely diversified. The high population density, the scarcity of mineral resources and the lack of job opportunities outside agriculture all place severe constraints on the country's economic development.

Protestors raise their hands in front of police in the Musaga neighbourhood of Bujumbura, Burundi, on May 4, 2015.
Political situation

Burundi has lost the trust of international partners

Pierre Nkurunziza, who has been President of Burundi since 2005, announced in April 2015 that he would run for office again. This caused a domestic crisis which has continued to the present, because a third term in office is not in line with the Arusha Accords, which form the basis of the constitution adopted in 2005.

Notwithstanding massive protests, violent clashes between security forces and protesters and an attempted military coup, presidential elections were held in July 2015. Nkurunziza won almost 70 per cent of the vote. The European Union and the United Nations criticised the elections, stating that they had not been free and transparent.

In June 2018, a constitutional amendment entered into force that extends the presidential term of office from five to seven years and that allows the current President to run for two further terms. It remains to be seen whether Nkurunziza will choose to run for office again in 2020.

Response to democratic deficits

There is no constructive dialogue between the different parties. The main opposition parties have boycotted all elections since 2010. Moreover, they have been struggling with internal differences. As a result, Burundi has de facto become a single-party state. All major political and administrative posts in the country are held by the governing CNDD-FDD party (Conseil national pour la défense de la démocratie – Forces de défense de la démocratie). There are hardly any checks on the work of the government any more.

In response to the violations of democratic principles committed by the Burundian government, several major donors, including Germany and the European Union, have partly or fully suspended their development cooperation with Burundi. This has severe consequences for the country, as about half of its national budget had previously been funded by international donors.

Displacement

The civil war in Burundi displaced about one million people, some of them internally and some to other countries. Their reintegration presents the country with enormous challenges. The returnees are increasing the pressure on Burundi's land resources, which are scarce as it is. Burundi is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa and has a high rate of population growth (about 3.2 per cent in 2018).

Moreover, the domestic crisis that began in 2015 has caused new displacement. According to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), nearly 400,000 refugees from Burundi were registered in other countries in the region in May 2019, about half of them in Tanzania.

A voter in the parliamentary elections in Burundi in July 2010 gets paint on his finger to indicate that he has already voted.
Governance and human rights

Massive infringement of fundamental rights

Under Burundi's President Pierre Nkurunziza, there have been great shortcomings in the area of governance. Often, policymakers pursue individual interests, giving more attention to staying in power and to their personal enrichment than to national development. Crime, corruption and impunity are widespread, and the judiciary is susceptible to political influence. Administrative capacity is poor. When appointments are made for important posts, loyalty to the governing party is often considered more important than relevant expertise.

Development plan

In June 2018, the Burundian government presented an updated development plan for the period of 2018 to 2027. It makes reference to the development goals of the UN 2030 Agenda, the African Union's Agenda 2063, and the Vision 2050 of the East African Community. The plan presents eleven pillars for structural change in the national economy and for the improvement of people's living conditions, including agriculture, energy, technology, natural resources and infrastructure. However, in practice, important reform and infrastructure projects keep getting postponed.

Restricted freedom of the press and freedom of association

Burundi has ratified all fundamental international human rights conventions. After the end of the civil war, an active civil society and a diverse landscape of parties and media had developed at first. Since 2014, however, there has been massive government interference once again in the freedom of opinion and association, and there have been crackdowns on opposition and human rights activists. The freedom of the press and the work of non-governmental organisations are subject to significant legal restrictions.

Violence committed by government and party bodies

In October 2017, Burundi became the first State Party to the International Criminal Court to withdraw from the ICC. The Court has taken up investigations into alleged crimes against humanity committed between April 2015 and October 2017.

According to a Commission of Inquiry established by the UN Human Rights Council, the Burundian secret service and other government security forces as well as the militant youth organisation of the governing party CNDD-FDD (Imbonerakure) commit regular violations of fundamental human rights, such as the right to bodily integrity. There are reports of systematic violence in the form of extrajudicial arrests and executions, assault, torture, rape and disappearances. The Imbonerakure in particular are openly calling for violence against opponents of the government and creating a climate of fear in society.

In March 2019, the Burundian government forced the United Nations to close its human rights office in the former capital, Bujumbura, after 23 years.

Trader with calculator at the market in Bujumbura, Burundi
Social situation

People suffering from poverty and hunger

Due to the political and economic crisis, the humanitarian situation in Burundi has deteriorated further. More than 70 per cent of the people live in extreme poverty. Life expectancy is only 58 years. More than 90 per cent of the workforce are active in the agricultural sector, which is mainly characterised by subsistence farming and is not productive enough to provide food security for the entire population.

It is estimated that nearly 1.7 million of the country's approximately 11 million inhabitants do not have enough to eat. The EU has ceased to provide budget support. There is a lack of foreign investment due to the unstable political situation. As a result, the country is faced with a shortage of foreign exchange, which has a direct impact on food production. The government also lacks the money for social programmes.

Health and education

The overall health of the population has worsened considerably as a consequence of the civil war and the political crisis; medical care and access to safe drinking water are severely limited. As a result of the shortage of foreign exchange, there is no reliable drug supply any more.

The level of education is very low; nearly 40 per cent of the people are illiterate. After school fees were abolished, the school enrolment rate rose from 42 per cent in 2000 to 97 per cent in 2017. However, only about 70 per cent of all children complete primary school. Public budget cuts in education are now forcing schools to demand fees from parents in order to keep operating.

Peacebuilding

Burundi's society continues to be divided due to social and economic inequality between Hutus and Tutsis.

Overcoming the mutual distrust between the ethnic groups and an overall effort to address the events that occurred during the civil war are especially important for peace in the country. That is why the international community and the Burundian government agreed to set up a truth and reconciliation commission along with the relevant courts. The commission started to operate in 2016, but it does not have a justice component.

Farmers on their way back from the country's largest city, Bujumbura, to their farms in the surrounding hills
Economic situation

Great impediments for private enterprises

Burundi's economy is barely diversified. The high population density, the scarcity of mineral resources and the lack of job opportunities outside agriculture all place severe constraints on the country's economic development. The main export commodities are coffee and tea, with export earnings depending heavily on weather conditions and world market prices.

The civil war has set Burundi's economic development back at least 15 years. Between 1996 and 1999, an economic embargo imposed by Burundi's neighbouring countries further exacerbated the situation. The economy also suffered as a result of several drought periods.

Following the peace agreement, the economy initially began to recover. However, the political crisis that has lasted since 2015 has slowed down economic development significantly. In 2017, economic growth was only 0.5 per cent, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) expects that the rate will remain low over the coming years.

Poor business climate

There are development opportunities in the areas of tourism, construction, regional trade and micro industry. However, private sector development is hampered by red tape and political obstacles. Potential investors are put off by the political instability, the absence of the rule of law and widespread corruption. In addition, the country's infrastructure is inadequate, with poor transport routes and a continuous electricity shortage.

In the World Bank's Doing Business Report, Burundi has moved down the list continuously over the last few years, ranking 168th out of 190 countries evaluated in 2019.

In January 2004, Burundi signed the free trade agreement of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). In mid-2007, the country also joined the East African Community (EAC).

Market in Bujumbura, Burundi

German development cooperation with Burundi

Following the end of the civil war, the donor community announced that they were willing to increase their development cooperation with Burundi significantly. In return, the Burundian government promised to respect democracy, human rights and the rule of law, and to ensure transparent public financial management. President Nkurunziza has failed to meet these promises.

In view of massive human rights violations and increasing non-compliance with the principles of democracy and the rule of law, the German government suspended its official bilateral government-to-government development cooperation in June 2015. There have been no government negotiations since.

Securing basic services

What German development programmes still exist are being operated without cooperation with the government.

For the time being, Germany only supports activities in Burundi that are run by local and international partners and serve directly to meet the basic needs of the people. Cooperation focuses on the following priority areas:

  • Health
  • Water
  • Decentralisation

The German Development Ministry also provides support for water and land management in disaster-prone regions. The purpose of these activities is to improve food security and enhance the resilience of smallholders against climate change. Support is also being provided, through a social cohesion fund, to Burundi's civil society and independent Burundian media.

Priority area "Health"

Education campaigns and family planning

The high rate of population growth in Burundi poses great challenges for the health system. Social and cultural attitudes are making it difficult to address topics such as sexual education and family planning in a positive way.

The purpose of Germany's activities is to improve the quality of health services, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health. Among other things, the programme has helped to establish a dialogue between religious leaders and health personnel. Moreover, information campaigns on family planning have been held at schools run by faith-based organisations.

A woman is advised on the use of contraceptives at a health centre in Bujumbura, Burundi.
Technical employee in the control centre of the pumping station of a KfW water project in Bujumbura, Burundi
Priority area "Water"

Safe drinking water, improved sanitation

Even though visible progress has been made in the past few years, the provision of drinking water and sanitation services continues to be among Burundi's most pressing challenges.

Working through international non-governmental organisations, Germany is providing financial assistance for the improvement of urban and rural infrastructure. Under Technical Cooperation, Germany is providing advice to one urban utility and about 100 rural municipalities on how to manage their drinking water systems.

Training is also being provided to urban and rural water utilities on prospecting for groundwater resources, managing them sustainably and protecting them.

Priority area "Decentralisation"

Fostering local economic development

In the course of decentralisation, Burundi's municipalities were given new tasks and their own budgets. However, their capacity to provide public services, especially for poorer groups, has so far been limited.

Germany is assisting Gitega and Mwaro Provinces, in the central part of the country, in the fields of local economic development and employment promotion and development of municipal capacity. There is a special focus on cooperation with local civil society.

Three women on a country road in the Gitega region, Burundi

Map of Burundi

Development facts and figures

  Burundi Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Burundi Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Gitega, approximately 120,000 inhabitants Berlin, 3.75 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 27,830 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 185 of 189 (2018) 4 of 189 (2018)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Beach at Lake Tanganyika near Rumonge, Burundi

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Burundi.

BMZ glossary

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