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Ethiopia

City view of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia

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Overview

Large country with huge challenges

Ethiopia is still one of the least developed countries in the world, yet the country is well on the way to achieving sustained improvements in the living conditions of its people. This has become possible thanks to the enormous development efforts undertaken by the Ethiopian government and donor countries, as well as to the level of economic growth that has been achieved in recent years.

With the exception of its occupation by the Italian Fascist regime from 1936 to 1941, Ethiopia is the only African state never to have come under colonial rule. The country was a monarchy until 1974, and subsequently a communist military dictatorship. Even into the 1990s, Ethiopia was largely cut off from the West.

Today the country has the form of a federal democratic republic and plays a key role for regional stability in the Horn of Africa. In terms of population and size, Ethiopia is the biggest country in East Africa (twice as big as its neighbour Kenya on both counts), and with a population of almost 100 million people – a figure exceeded only by Nigeria – it is the second-largest country in Africa.

Ethiopia has structural problems – in particular recurring periods of drought, a high rate of population growth and poorly developed infrastructure – that are hampering development. Climate, vegetation and frequency of rainfall vary greatly from region to region.

The frequent droughts often cause serious crop failures. Achieving long-term food security continues to be a major challenge.

Ethiopia is one of the countries that have taken in the largest numbers of refugees worldwide. At present, there are more than 880,000 registered refugees and asylum seekers in Ethiopia, mainly from neighbouring South Sudan, Somalia and Eritrea (as at September 2017).

Development cooperation

Germany is currently supporting programmes in Ethiopia in the priority areas of education, food security and agriculture, and conservation and sustainable use of natural resources and biodiversity.

Scroll down to get detailed information about the situation in Ethiopia and Germany's development engagement in the country.

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Priority areas of cooperation with Ethiopia

Development facts and figures from Ethiopia

Federal Minister for Development Gerd Müller, Tobias Fischer (H&M) and M.A. Rahim (DBL Group) at the signing of a letter of intent to create a TVET centre for the textile industry in Ethiopia

Press release 04.04.2017

Development Minister Müller launches TVET centre for the textile sector in Ethiopia

Minister Müller visiting Ethiopia: villagers in the Somali region

Press release 03.04.2017

Catastrophic drought in the Horn of Africa – Development Ministry pledges further 100 million euros

Parliamentary State Secretary Thomas Silberhorn making a speech at a warehouse run by UNICEF in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia.

Press release 22.04.2016

Silberhorn pledges 10 million euros for UNICEF's work to help the hungry in Ethiopia

13-year-old Momina Ali has to take a day off from school to look for water.
Political situation

Governance and human rights

There are still considerable deficits when it comes to Ethiopia's governance, in particular with regard to political participation.

The Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), an alliance of parties, is governing the country in an increasingly authoritarian fashion. The last opposition member to remain in parliament lost their seat in the parliamentary elections in May 2015. Now all of the 547 members of parliament are from the EPRDF governing coalition. In the elections for the regional parliaments, only 21 out of 1,987 seats went to the opposition. It has thus become virtually impossible for the parliaments to exercise their supervisory role.

Protests that have flared up in various parts of the country since late 2015 are vigorously suppressed.

The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) of the non-governmental organisation Transparency International ranks Ethiopia 108th out of the 176 countries that were assessed.

Human rights

The human rights situation continues to be problematic. There are several laws that curtail civil liberties. Arrests, including of opposition politicians and journalists, based on an anti-terrorism law, give cause for concern. Human rights organisations have decried this law because it does not clearly define what constitutes an offence, leaving the way free for it to be used arbitrarily against political opponents.

Freedom of the press and freedom of speech are significantly restricted, as is civil society organisations' scope for action. A law was passed in 2009 which says that Ethiopian organisations which are politically active can only receive up to ten per cent of their funding from international sources. Independent human rights organisations now lack the funding they need to do their work.

Despite a constitutional ban on discrimination and the government's active policy on women, women's rights in Ethiopia are not consistently upheld.

Violent conflicts

There are militant liberation movements operating in Ethiopia, which are regarded as terrorist organisations by the government. They have committed several terrorist attacks.

Women workers in a textile factory in Ethiopia
Social situation

Results of development orientation are becoming visible

The current government has extremely ambitious reform plans for modernising the state and reducing poverty. However, it is relying on an increasingly authoritarian style of government to achieve its plans (see chapter on governance).

Its goal is for Ethiopia to achieve the status of a middle-income country (MIC) by 2025. The development orientation of the government is high. Through its five-year Growth and Transformation Plan for 2016 to 2020 it is following a course for growth based on a state-controlled economy with clear targets: the development of manufacturing industries, export orientation and agricultural industrialisation.

The first results of this development orientation are now visible – Ethiopia has made enormous progress over the last few years. According to World Bank figures, the proportion of people in extreme poverty dropped from 66.4 per cent (1995) to 33.5 per cent (2010). Child mortality fell by almost 70 per cent between 1995 and 2015. The proportion of people with access to safe drinking water rose significantly (from 19.5 per cent in 1995 to 57.3 per cent in 2015). The school enrolment rate was almost 86 per cent in 2014 (1995: 22 per cent).

The country's high population growth (in 2015, the population was 99.4 million) is putting pressure on the environment and the country's resources. For more than 20 years now, the population has grown by at least 2.5 per cent a year. If this trend continues, Ethiopia will be one of the ten most populous countries in the world by 2050.

Tramway in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Economic situation

Modernisation of infrastructure and agriculture necessary

Between 2005 and 2015, Ethiopia's economy grew by an average of ten per cent a year. In 2016, the growth rate was slightly lower (8 per cent). The International Monetary Fund (IMF) expects a rate of 8.5 per cent for 2018 (as at February 2018).

On the Human Development Index, Ethiopia ranks 174th out of 188 countries (HDI 2015).

Aspects that are problematic include Ethiopia's low government revenues, high foreign debt and its negative balance of trade – the country imports considerably more than it exports.

Although some reforms have been implemented, the state still exerts a huge influence on the economy. In important sectors (e.g. telecommunications, aviation, energy), state-owned enterprises and enterprises with close ties to the governing party either exercise a monopoly or are market leaders. Private ownership of land is prohibited under the constitution. It has been impossible for the private sector to develop under these circumstances.

Agriculture is the mainstay of the Ethiopian economy. It provides work for around 80 per cent of the workforce and generates roughly 40 per cent of the country's gross domestic product (GDP).

The biggest development challenges faced by the country include poorly developed infrastructure and an agricultural sector geared to smallholder subsistence farming, which is also heavily dependent on rainfall. A major shortage of qualified personnel, for example in public administration, makes it more difficult to implement any reforms.

Wind energy laboratory in Ethiopia
Development potential

Agriculture, energy and tourism

Ethiopia has great development potential. Among other things, there is enormous scope for boosting agricultural productivity. The country's main crops are coffee, maize, teff, wheat, sorghum, legumes, oil seeds, sugarcane and vegetables. The country also has mineral reserves such as gold, tantalum ore, phosphorus, iron, salt, potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate, gemstones and coal. Great hopes are being placed in the discovery of gold and oil deposits in the Ogaden Basin.

In addition, Ethiopia has environmentally friendly energy sources such as hydropower and geothermal energy. In 2010, the country started operating three new large hydropower plants and more than doubled its installed capacity as a result. Further power plants are either under construction or in the planning stage. Ethiopia exports power to neighbouring Djibouti and to Kenya and Sudan.

Improvements in power generation and infrastructure are also intended to benefit tourism, a new sector with growth potential.

Scientists in a wind energy laboratory in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Further reading

BMZ publications

German development cooperation with Ethiopia

At the government negotiations in September 2014, the German Development Ministry (BMZ) pledged a total of 129 million euros to Ethiopia for the period 2015 to 2017. In addition, some 60 million euros from the BMZ's special ONE WORLD – No Hunger initiative will be going to Ethiopia for activities geared towards long-term food security. Under its special initiative "Tackling the root causes of displacement, reintegrating refugees", the BMZ has committed 14.5 million euros for Ethiopia. These resources will be used to improve services for displaced persons in host communities and to enhance their integration in the job market.

Since the second half of 2015, Southern and East Africa have suffered under a food crisis triggered by a drought caused by the El Niño climate phenomenon and subsequent floods in the wake of heavy rains. Ethiopia has been particularly affected. There are currently 13.5 million people who are suffering from hunger and are dependent on assistance. So far, the BMZ has made available 73.8 million euros to support food security and preventive health care as well as water and sanitation programmes in Ethiopia. The Ministry is planning to make further commitments in the course of 2017, especially in support of programmes run by UNICEF and the World Food Programme.

Since 2014, development cooperation has focused on three priority areas:

  • Education
  • Agriculture and food security
  • Conservation and sustainable use of natural resources; biodiversity

Ethiopia is a pilot country under the joint programming scheme of the European Union and its member countries.

  • Vocational school in Mekele (Ethiopia)
    Education

    Investment in the future

    In recent years, Ethiopia has made enormous progress in the education sector – in terms of both the quality and the quantity of what is on offer. Germany is supporting Ethiopia in making vocational training and higher education teaching and research more practice-oriented.

  • Drip irrigation on a field in Ethiopia
    Agriculture and food security

    ONE WORLD – No Hunger

    The Ethiopian government has set itself the goal of guaranteeing long-term food security for the country's people. To achieve this, land management will need to be improved. Efforts are under way to reduce land degradation through the conservation and sustainable use of resources such as land, forests and water, better cultivation methods and effective erosion control.

  • By afforestation, erosion is to be reduced in a washed out river bed in the village of Abdi Buch in Eastern Ethiopia.
    Environment

    Conservation and sustainable use of natural resources; biodiversity

    Ethiopia is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world. It is home to a great variety of animals and plants, and lies within two areas which are considered biodiversity hotspots of global significance.

Vocational school in Mekele (Ethiopia)
Future investment

Education

In recent years, Ethiopia has made enormous progress in the education sector – in terms of both the quality and the quantity of what is on offer. Germany is supporting Ethiopia in making vocational training and higher education teaching and research more practice-oriented.

Technical training in vocational schools is being improved by adapting it to the needs of the private sector and to job opportunities available in the formal and informal sectors. The university training of engineers and vocational school teachers is also being improved. At pilot institutions, programmes are under way to improve management, introduce practice-oriented curricula and provide in-service training for teaching staff.

German experts are also advising the Ministry of Education and its downstream authorities on managing the ongoing reforms and on working together with Ethiopia's private sector. Pilot employment promotion projects are being launched in the regions. Furthermore, the German government is supporting the establishment of technology and business start-up centres at universities.

This programme has already reached over 350,000 vocational school students and more than 750,000 higher education students. By the end of 2016, over 6,100 vocational school teachers had received training, benefiting more than 900 vocational schools. And by the beginning of 2017, over 2,500 vocational and higher education professionals and small-scale entrepreneurs had received training on operating a business, technology transfer, teaching methods and other topics.

So far, 121 enterprises have been included in efforts to provide practice-oriented vocational education. Their participation is the first step towards the envisaged introduction of a cooperative vocational education system.

Pupils in a primary school in a village in the Somali region of Ethiopia

BMZ publications on education and training

Drip irrigation on a field in Ethiopia
ONE WORLD – No Hunger

Agriculture and food security

The Ethiopian government has set itself the goal of guaranteeing long-term food security for the country's people. To achieve this, land management will need to be improved. Efforts are under way to reduce land degradation through the conservation and sustainable use of resources such as land, forests and water, better cultivation methods and effective erosion control. This will enable farmers to significantly increase the size of their harvests.

Farmers are being helped to diversify their production and use water resources responsibly. New crop varieties and improved seeds are being introduced; farmers are being taught methods of biological erosion control; and tillage, harvesting and irrigation methods tailored to Ethiopia's soils are being developed.

Through these measures some 390,000 hectares of degraded land have been rehabilitated and made fit for use again, benefiting some 200,000 households. In the supported areas, agricultural output has increased, leading to higher incomes for farmers.

A Green Innovation Centre was set up with funding from the ONE WORLD – No Hunger initiative. The Centre provides training on ways of increasing productivity. Support is also being provided to projects to enhance drought resilience and to protect and rehabilitate farmland and pastureland.

Furthermore, the German government is advising the Ethiopian authorities on improving the institutional and legal environment. Transport routes are likewise being improved in order to reduce problems with food distribution and marketing in the country.

By afforestation, erosion is to be reduced in a washed out river bed in the village of Abdi Buch in Eastern Ethiopia.
Environment

Conservation and sustainable use of natural resources; biodiversity

Ethiopia is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world. It is home to a great variety of animals and plants, and lies within two areas which are considered biodiversity hotspots of global significance. 14 per cent of the country's territory has been designated as protected areas. However, so far the responsibility for managing the protected areas has been fragmented across different authorities, leading to a lack of efficiency. In the past, Ethiopia's biodiversity has declined dramatically as a result of land settlement, intensive grazing and large-scale investments in the agricultural sector.

In the priority area of "Conservation and sustainable use of natural resources; biodiversity", Germany's development cooperation is geared towards improving the protection and sustainable use of biodiversity hotspots while at the same time improving people's living conditions. To that end, activities address a variety of areas:

  • Sustainable management of biosphere reserves; development of effective monitoring arrangements to verify and enforce compliance with legal requirements
  • Regulation of the use of genetic resources, for example through land use plans that are developed in a participatory manner, and through incentives for the protection of biologically valuable areas through benefit sharing
  • Forest conservation and reforestation

Activities in this priority area are closely linked with the projects on sustainable land management and improved drought resilience.

See also

Map of Ethiopia

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Ethiopia

Development facts and figures

  Ethiopia Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Addis Ababa, approximately 3.5 million inhabitants Berlin
Surface areaa16180096 1,104,300 sq km (2017) 357,380 sq km (2017)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 174 of 188 (2015) 4 of 188 (2015)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

Here you can find a selection of websites with development policy background information on Ethiopia.

BMZ glossary

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