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Peru

Women in traditional costume at a parade in Peru

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Overview

Cooperation for democracy, climate action and resource conservation

Since the turn of the millennium, Peru has evolved from being a virtually failed state to become a model for democratic stabilisation and, at the same time, achieved impressive economic growth. Great progress has been made in lifting people out of poverty. In 2006, almost half the population was living below the national poverty line. Today only around one in five people count as poor.

However, there are stark social and regional differences. Whilst, in 2014, the poverty ratio in urban areas was 15 per cent, in rural regions it was as high as 46 per cent. Large numbers of people are often still excluded from the positive developments that have taken place. Moreover, the state’s weak presence and capacity in remote regions is a key challenge for the country’s sustainable development.

Natural resources as a basis for economic success

Economic growth is largely based on exploiting the country’s natural and mineral resources. Conflicts between different population groups and even with the state over the use of resources are a regular occurrence.

Peru has the fourth biggest area of tropical forests on earth and is one of the world’s most biodiverse countries. However, its rapid economic development is also contributing to the destruction of these natural assets. Logging, slash-and-burn cultivation and illegal mining in particular are threatening to destroy parts of the Amazon rainforest.

Development cooperation

Germany and Peru have a long, shared history of development cooperation. Peru has traditionally been a focus of German development cooperation in Latin America. German-Peruvian cooperation is fully aligned with the development goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The focus is on managing natural resources and protecting global public goods in times of climate change, environmental and climate protection in cities, and strengthening democracy, civil society and the rule of law.

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Priority areas of cooperation with Peru

Development data for Peru

Lima Cathedral
Political situation

Recent history: turbulent times

The 1980s were overshadowed by the terrorist activities of the Maoist guerrilla movement known as Shining Path. Then came an authoritarian government, led by President Alberto Fujimori. In 2001, Peru returned to the path of democracy. Since then, the country has seen five democratic changes in government.

Despite this stable political progress in recent decades, Peru is still in the process of establishing democratic state institutions. This includes working towards the key goals that the Peruvian government has set itself, namely implementing decentralisation and preventing or cracking down on corruption.

Social situation

Success in reducing poverty but social inequality remains high

In Peru, wealth and income are very unevenly distributed. A large number of Peruvians still depend on subsistence farming or on poorly paid jobs in the informal sector for a living.

The declared goal of the government is to reduce poverty and expand social policies. At the same time, however, the government wants to continue its current economic policy, which is based on strict budget discipline.

Strong economic growth has increased the level of public revenue in Peru. The government, in turn, has committed significantly more resources to social programmes. In October 2011, a ministry just for social affairs (Ministerio de Desarrollo e Inclusión Social, MIDIS) was established with a view to mainstreaming social policies across all sectors and improving their effectiveness.

A woman selling chewing gum on a street
Economic situation

The benefits are not felt by everyone

Between 2002 and 2013, Peru’s economy grew by an average of 6.1 per cent. In recent years, economic growth has slowed down, particularly because of falling commodity prices, e.g. for copper, and the economic impact of the "El Niňo Costero" climate phenomenon, which caused heavy flooding in 2017.

The main factors driving Peru’s economic growth are foreign trade and extensive investment in mining and the extraction of natural gas.

Up to now, however, the government’s efforts to pass on the gains of economic growth to poorer sections of the population have not been very successful. Social programmes and arrangements for transferring funds from the national to the regional level of government have only had a limited impact on rural development.

Organised crime

Organised crime is a major challenge for further strengthening the rule of law and for stabilisation in Peru. The country is the world’s second largest coca producer after Colombia. Illegal trading in timber, gold and endangered species and human trafficking are further lucrative sources of income. These criminal activities are linked to illicit financial flows, corruption and money laundering, which further undermine the rule of law and deprive the country of important development resources.

Glaciers in Huascarán National Park, Peru
Environment

Progress on environmental protection, risks caused by climate change

The Peruvian government has been stepping up efforts to align economic development with the country’s social and ecological needs. For instance, Peru has committed to various goals, some of them very ambitious, at the national and the international level, for instance through its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and by endorsing the Aichi Biodiversity Targets under the Convention on Biological Diversity. As part of its efforts to become an OECD member, Peru is also very active in boosting its environmental sector.

The forestry law, which came into force in 2015, and the strategy for forests and climate change focus on protecting forest ecosystems. The national and regional authorities responsible for enforcing the rules and regulations are implementing measures to control illegal logging, in particular. However, Peru is still a very long way away from having a comprehensive national forest strategy. In addition, there are still major gaps with regard to establishing statutory environmental standards. There is no viable concept for formalising the forestry sector and for effectively fighting deforestation.

As a result of its geography, Peru is especially affected by the effects of climate change. Global warming is already triggering extreme weather events, irregular precipitation patterns and major variations in temperature, and causing the glaciers in the Andes to melt.

In many parts of the country, glacier run-off is used to irrigate fields and to supply drinking water. If glaciers continue to shrink and the supply gap increases, this will lead to extreme water shortages.

Droughts, flooding, landslips and mudslides are a recurring threat for people living in coastal regions and in the Andes, and are leading to increased crop risks.

 

Residents attempt to salvage their belongings after flooding in the Peruvian city of Piura in March 2017

German development cooperation with Peru

Peru and Germany share a long history of successful cooperation. In the 2015/2016 commitment period, Germany pledged 244 million euros in new funds to the Peruvian government. Of this sum, 215 million euros was allocated to Financial cooperation and 29 million euros to Technical Cooperation. In view of Peru’s economic strength, the commitments were primarily in the form of low-interest loans.

Development cooperation between Germany and Peru is aligned with the 2030 Agenda and focuses on the following three priority areas:

  • environmental policy and protection and sustainable use of natural resources
  • sustainable urban development in times of climate change
  • democracy, civil society and public administration.

In addition, Germany is also providing development assistance by supporting various regional and sectoral projects and programmes in a large number of areas, including mining and illicit financial flows. Moreover, Germany is promoting various collaborative initiatives with private executing agencies, political foundations and businesses. In triangular cooperation initiatives, Peru is able to pass on its experience from German-Peruvian cooperation to other developing countries.

Within the German government, activities are closely coordinated with the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, which is also extensively involved in Peru within the framework of the International Climate Initiative.

  • Cabin in the rainforest in the Peruvian Amazon region
    Environmental policy, protection and sustainable use of natural resources

    Protecting tropical forests through sustainable forestry

    Peru has the second largest area of tropical rainforest in South America. These forests not only provide a livelihood for many people but are also of pivotal importance for the global climate.

  • Street view in Sullana, Peru
    Sustainable urban development in times of climate change

    Making infrastructure fit for the future

    The aim of this priority area of German-Peruvian cooperation is to secure a sustainable supply of goods and services for the growing urban population in times of climate change. In order to achieve this aim, activities are focused on four areas of action.

  • Justice Palace in Lima, seat of the highest court in Peru
    Democracy, civil society and public administration

    Building administrative structures that are responsive to people's needs

    Germany is assisting the government of Peru in its efforts to fundamentally modernise the state and to develop the capacity of its institutions.

Cabin in the rainforest in the Peruvian Amazon region
Environmental policy, protection and sustainable use of natural resources

Protecting tropical forests through sustainable forestry

Peru has the second largest area of tropical rainforest in South America. These forests not only provide a livelihood for many people but are also of pivotal importance for the global climate.

The protection of global public goods and climate protection are a key element of German-Peruvian cooperation. German activities here focus on the management of protected areas, forest protection, the promotion of sustainable forest management, natural resource management, and environmental policy and standards.

One of the aims being pursued here is making Peru’s forest production more competitive. To that end, illegal trade in tropical timber is to be combated, and the share of certified wood from sustainable forest management is to be increased. In order to achieve this and to expand sustainable value chains in the forestry sector, Germany and Peru are also collaborating closely on TVET initiatives for forestry and timber.

The geographical focus of German activities is the tropical Ucayali region. Germany is advising the Peruvian Ministry of Environment and the national forest authority SERFOR, founded in 2014, on creating a more conducive environment for sustainable forestry.

Protected areas

More than 17 per cent of the country's territory is currently designated as protected area. Germany is supporting Peru’s system of protected areas, for instance by financing infrastructure in national parks, improving the administration of protected areas and buffer zones, and promoting sustainable financing for protected areas.

See also

Street view in Sullana, Peru
Sustainable urban development in times of climate change

Making infrastructure fit for the future

Today, around 79 per cent of Peruvians live in cities, and almost a third of the population lives in the greater Lima region (about ten million inhabitants). The aim of this priority area of German-Peruvian cooperation is to secure a sustainable supply of goods and services for the growing urban population in times of climate change. In order to achieve this aim, activities are focused on four areas of action.

Water supply and sanitation

Both in the capital of Lima and in the densely populated areas along the Pacific coast, water resources are scarce and often polluted. Sanitation systems and, above all, sewage treatment plants are not available everywhere. Particularly when it comes to rural areas, water quality still varies from region to region.

The primary goal of German development cooperation is to improve the supply of drinking water and sanitation systems for poorer sections of the population and, with private sector involvement, to adapt water resource management to climate change.

To that end, Germany is providing advice, among others to the Peruvian government and to the newly established national authority for the management of water utilities (OTASS). Cooperation between public and private players is being scaled up, and utilities are receiving support to help them make technical upgrades, reduce water losses, introduce concepts for efficient management, reform their tariff systems and improve vocational training.

In addition, the BMZ is promoting the construction, extension and modernisation of drinking water supply systems, sewage systems and wastewater treatment plants.

Urban mobility

German experts are advising Peruvian ministries and municipalities on how they can translate the requirements of national climate strategies into sustainable transport concepts – making the shift from individual transport, which is still very dominant, to a robust, safe, accessible, green and climate-friendly urban transport system. To that end, for instance, KfW Entwicklungsbank is supporting the extension of public transport systems in selected towns and cities under Financial Cooperation.

Promoting energy efficiency and renewable energies

In the field of energy policy, the Peruvian government is pursuing two key objectives, namely achieving security of supply through national energy sources, and diversification of energy supply. Overall, the focus of Peruvian energy policy is on expanding hydropower and the natural gas sector.

Germany is engaged in activities designed to ensure inclusive, efficient and socially and ecologically sustainable energy supply in Peru (SDG 7 of the 2030 Agenda). In addition, the BMZ is working towards increasing the use of renewables and improving energy efficiency.

Waste management

Peru’s waste sector has seen a stark increase in both volume and hazardousness of waste in recent years. The Peruvian national environmental management plan for the period 2011 to 2021 stipulates that systems for proper collection and disposal of 100 per cent of municipal waste are to be introduced by 2021. Through its development cooperation activities, Germany is assisting its partners in Peru in establishing environmentally sound, resource-saving and economically viable waste management systems.

A shantytown in Lima
Justice Palace in Lima, seat of the highest court in Peru
Democracy, civil society and public administration

Building administrative structures that are responsive to people's needs

The modernisation of administrative structures in Peru has not kept pace with the country’s rapid economic development. Germany is assisting the government of Peru in its efforts to fundamentally modernise the state and to develop the capacity of its institutions. The aim of this collaborative effort is to make efficient public services more accessible to poorer sections of the population.

This cooperation focuses on important reform processes in the regions. These include improving results-based public financial management, restructuring social programmes and providing social benefits and services. Germany is helping to make public sector activities more transparent in Peru and strengthen state control mechanisms.

Under this priority area, Germany also provided funding to establish a national memorial for the victims of the armed conflict that raged in Peru between 1980 and 2000. The aim of the memorial is to help people come to terms with the traumatic experiences of that time. The memorial, which is called the Place of Memory, Tolerance and Social Inclusion, was inaugurated in December 2015.

Map of Peru

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

  Peru Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Peru Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Lima, Greater Lima approximately 9.9 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 1,285,220 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 89 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Peru

BMZ glossary

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