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Mexico

Colorful houses in a suburb of Mexico City

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Overview

An emerging economy of great contrasts

With the US to the north and the South American continent to the south, Mexico occupies a significant geostrategic position. This emerging country is the 15th largest economy in the world and has an important role to play in meeting global and regional challenges. Within the international community, Mexico acts as an intermediary between industrialised and developing countries. The country plays an active role in international organisations such as the United Nations and the Organization of American States (OAS).

The World Bank classifies Mexico as an upper-middle-income country. However, the country is characterised by vast social disparities. More than 40 per cent of the people live in poverty. Crime, governance that lacks transparency, a shortage of skilled workers, human rights abuses and corruption are impediments to development.

Development cooperation

As a G20 member, Mexico is engaged in efforts to foster close international consultation on financial, technological and environmental cooperation.

The country is one of the global development partners with which the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) seeks to engage in a close strategic partnership.

The focus of Mexican-German cooperation is on protecting and conserving global public goods. The emphasis is on supplying sustainable energy in line with the country’s needs, and on the protection and sustainable use of natural resources. Germany does not support any activities that Mexico, thanks to its strong economy, is able to fund using its own resources.

In recent years Mexico has itself taken on a donor role in the field of development policy within Latin America. Germany is supporting this new role. Through triangular cooperation arrangements, Mexico and Germany are able to pass on their combined experience to other countries in the region. In addition, the two countries have set up a Joint Mexican-German Fund to finance governance projects, with each side contributing an equal share of the funding

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Development facts and figures from Mexico

  • View of Mexico City
    Political situation

    Threats to internal security

    At present, Mexico’s democracy is still characterised by significant shortcomings in terms of the rule of law and legal certainty. The new government under López Obrador is using a new strategy to fight corruption and address past abuses of human rights.

  • Shoemaker in San Christóbal, Mexico
    Social situation

    Basic rights not yet realised

    Mexico is a typical emerging economy: on the one hand, the country is an important regional and global player that has achieved considerable economic success and that is actively involved in shaping international politics. On the other hand, it is still facing the social and environmental challenges typically associated with a developing country.

  • Automotive industry in Puebla, Mexico
    Economic situation

    High degree of dependency on the United States

    Mexico’s economy is highly dependent on foreign trade, especially on the export of industrial goods such as vehicles and vehicle parts, machinery and electrical appliances. About 80 per cent of Mexican exports are destined for the United States.

  • Farmer in Puebla, Mexico
    Environmental protection and climate action

    Sustainable use of natural resources

    One of Mexico’s biggest problems is increasing environmental degradation. Urbanisation, the use of large areas of land for crop and livestock farming, and extensive logging are threatening the country’s huge biodiversity.

View of Mexico City
Political situation

Threats to internal security

In July 2018, the leftist politician Andrés Manuel López Obrador (known as AMLO) was elected President of Mexico with a huge majority. His electoral alliance has a clear majority in both chambers of parliament. The priority areas of the new government’s political manifesto are: fighting poverty, inequality and corruption; enhancing the rule of law and addressing the legacy of past wrongs; achieving greater energy autonomy; fostering youth employment; fighting crime.

At present, Mexico’s democracy is still characterised by significant shortcomings in terms of the rule of law and legal certainty. The new government under López Obrador is using a new strategy to fight corruption and address past abuses of human rights. It is evident that the government has embarked on reforms and initial steps in this policy area.

Corruption

Corruption is widespread in Mexico’s politics, administrative authorities and judiciary. One consequence is that very few perpetrators of crimes are prosecuted; estimates indicate an impunity rate of 98 per cent. In recent years Mexico has been slipping down the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) published by the non-governmental organisation Transparency International. On the 2018 Index it ranked 138th out of 180 countries (compared to 106th out of 177 countries in 2013).

Organised crime

The biggest threat to the country’s internal security is posed by organised crime. Virtually the entire US drug market is controlled from Mexico. In parts of the country, armed groups that are controlled by the drug cartels have rendered the state monopoly on force null and void. The mafia also exerts an influence on parts of the political apparatus, the private sector and the police. Each year the "drug war" being waged between government security forces and organised criminals, and between competing cartels, claims thousands of lives.

Journalists who report on corruption, the drug trade, or the links between politicians and organised crime put their lives at risk.

Increasing migration

Mexico is a transit country for a growing number of refugees and migrants from southern and central American countries trying to enter the US. The tense situation in the region along the border with the US is a major political and humanitarian challenge for the Mexican government.

Market trader in San Cristóbal, Mexico
Shoemaker in San Christóbal, Mexico
Social situation

Basic rights not yet realised

Mexico is a typical emerging economy: on the one hand, the country is an important regional and global player that has achieved considerable economic success and that is actively involved in shaping international politics. On the other hand, it is still facing the social and environmental challenges typically associated with a developing country. The current Human Development Index (HDI) ranks Mexico 74th out of the 189 countries assessed. Thanks to comprehensive social programmes, the country has managed to reduce the number of people living in extreme poverty. According to World Bank data, some 2.5 per cent of Mexico’s people currently live on less than 1.90 US dollars a day.

However, the country has not yet managed to eliminate the structural causes of poverty. The Mexican government calculates the national poverty rate on the basis of a multidimensional index, according to which more than 40 per cent of the country’s people are living in poverty.

The distribution of wealth is extremely unequal, with huge differences between regions and between population groups.

Violence against women

Although Mexico is a signatory to the main human rights treaties, they are not being implemented consistently. In particular, violence against women has reached alarming proportions. In response to the rising number of women murdered, "femicide" has been made a crime in its own right in several Mexican states.

Automotive industry in Puebla, Mexico
Economic situation

High degree of dependency on the United States

Mexico’s economy is highly dependent on foreign trade, especially on the export of industrial goods such as vehicles and vehicle parts, machinery and electrical appliances. About 80 per cent of Mexican exports are destined for the United States.

In 2017, the Mexican economy grew by two per cent. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) expects slightly higher figures for the period up to 2020.

The Mexican government wants to diversify the economy and expand its trading partnerships. Over the past few years, it has built a global network of agreements on free trade and more general issues, including with the EU and Japan. In November 2018, Mexico signed a new trade agreement with the US and Canada (the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, USMCA). This new agreement replaces the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) concluded in 1994, which had been cancelled by US President Donald Trump.

Nearly 12 million people who are Mexicans by birth live in the United States. About half of them are unauthorised immigrants. In 2018, Mexican migrants transferred more than 30 billion US dollars to their home country.

Farmer in Puebla, Mexico
Environmental protection and climate action

Sustainable use of natural resources

One of Mexico’s biggest problems is increasing environmental degradation. Urbanisation, the use of large areas of land for crop and livestock farming, and extensive logging are threatening the country’s huge biodiversity. Air pollution is severe, especially in major cities, for instance the capital, Mexico City. Although modern environmental laws are in place, they are not consistently implemented because there is a widespread lack of awareness among the population and the authorities.

With its national development plan for 2013 to 2018, the Mexican government gave itself the goal of achieving sustainable economic growth. In December 2015, the parliament adopted an act for an energy transition that laid down specific targets for increased reliance on renewable energy sources. In 2015, Mexico became the first emerging economy to present a Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

German development cooperation with Mexico

Mexico is what is known as a global development partner for German development cooperation. Since 2015, regular government talks have been taking place between Mexico and Germany in the form of a Binational Commission that is chaired by the two countries’ foreign ministers. In addition, there are specialised commissions that report to the Binational Commission. On the German side, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) together have lead responsibility for the specialised commission on cooperation for sustainable development, environment and climate.

At the government negotiations in May 2017, the BMZ pledged a total of around 212 million euros to Mexico (Financial cooperation: 190 million euros, Technical Cooperation: 21.6 million euros). Within the framework of the Binational Commission, a total of 449.9 million euros was committed for development cooperation in the 2016–17 period. Given Mexico’s strong economic performance, most of this funding is made available in the form of reduced-interest loans.

Development cooperation focuses on the following priority areas:

  • Sustainable and needs-based energy supply
  • Environmental policy, protection and sustainable use of natural resources

In addition to the priority areas that have been agreed, the BMZ also supports projects to promote good governance and a dual system of vocational education (on-the-job plus school-based training). Germany and Mexico have also agreed to expand their triangular cooperation with other Latin American countries and to implement projects jointly with third countries.

Wind farm in Mexico
Priority area "Sustainable and needs-based energy supply"

Supporting Mexico's energy transition

Mexico’s energy generation is still based mainly on fossil fuels – the country is one of the top ten oil producers in the world. Mexico has huge potential for solar and wind power in particular that is not yet being used.

Germany is supporting Mexico in its efforts to make greater use of renewable energy sources and increase energy efficiency. On behalf of the BMZ, GIZ is advising key players from politics, industry and science with a view to driving forward the market introduction of solar energy. Activities include the elaboration of strategies for making use of solar energy in industry. Staff from Bancomext, the national bank for development and foreign trade, are receving assistance in assessing solar projects in terms of their economic viability and financial risks, and in developing new funding models.

Another area of cooperation is waste-to-energy, for example through biogas plants, or the use of waste as a fuel in cement production. With support from Germany, the political and practical prerequisites for such measures are being put in place.

Within the framework of Financial Cooperation, KfW Entwicklungsbank is supporting the installation of wind farms and solar plants, and the construction of houses with very low energy needs.

EcoCasas in Mexico
Rubbish dump in Mexico City
Priority area "Environmental policy, protection of natural resources"

Effective implementation of national programmes

The uncontrolled disposal of household waste and hazardous industrial waste is a big problem in Mexico. Only a few enterprises have clean production processes, treatment plants or filters. Mexico City is particularly affected by severe air, water and soil pollution.

Through its development cooperation, Germany is helping to ensure that national urban-industrial environmental protection programmes are implemented effectively. Greater attention is to be paid to resource efficiency and to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Pilot projects on issues such as environmentally friendly transport, resource-conserving production, improving air quality, environmentally sound disposal of wastewater and solid waste, sustainable tourism and environmental education have been launched in several cities.

Specific support is being provided to strengthen civil society organisations engaged in action to protect the environment. The intention is that the experience gained in the pilot cities will then be transferred to other municipalities.

Conserving biodiversity

Another field of work that is part of Mexican-German environmental cooperation is biodiversity conservation; Mexico, with its rich diversity of animals and plants, is what is known as a mega-diverse country. The two countries’ cooperation concentrates on the implementation of the national biodiversity strategy that was presented in December 2016. Activities include setting up ecological corridors in order to link ecosystems with one another.

The concept of integrated landscape planning is being implemented in several pilot regions. This means that approaches developed at the central level, such as promoting sustainable agriculture and improving land planning processes, are implemented on a decentralised basis. Furthermore, Germany and Mexico are developing financing strategies for nature conservation and forest protection, and incentives for the sustainable use of biological resources and the conservation of biodiversity.

Triangular cooperation

Sharing experience

Germany and Mexico have agreed to share the experience they have gained from their own joint cooperation with other Latin American countries; it will be shared with them through triangular cooperation and by implementing joint programmes with third countries. The two countries have been working together in this way since 2006, pooling their financial resources and their knowledge in order to solve problems in the region – for the benefit of all concerned. Germany and Mexico are currently engaged in twelve different triangular cooperation measures with various partner countries.

The Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacán, Mexico

Map of Mexico

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Mexico Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 United Mexican States Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Mexico City, approximately 22 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 1,964,375 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 74th of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Mexico.

BMZ glossary

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