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Mexico

Colorful houses in a suburb of Mexico City

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Overview

An emerging economy of great contrasts

With the US to the north and the South American continent to the south, Mexico occupies an important geostrategic position. This emerging economy is the 15th largest economy in the world, one of the world's top ten oil producers, and a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

The World Bank classifies Mexico as an upper-middle-income country. However, the country is characterised by vast social disparities. More than 40 per cent of the people are living in poverty.

Crime, a lack of transparency in the field of governance, a shortage of skilled workers, human rights abuses and corruption all impede development.

Involvement at international level

Mexico is making important contributions towards addressing global and regional challenges. For instance, the country plays an active role in international organisations such as the United Nations and the Organization of American States (OAS).

As a G20 member, Mexico is engaged in efforts to foster close international consultation on financial, technological and environmental cooperation.

Among the world's emerging economies, Mexico is one of the leaders in the field of climate action. The current Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Patricia Espinosa, is from Mexico.

Development cooperation

Mexico is one of the global development partners with which the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) seeks to engage in a close strategic partnership.

Mexican-German cooperation focuses on a sustainable and needs-based energy supply and on environmental policy and the protection and sustainable use of natural resources. Germany supports no activities which Mexico, thanks to its strong economy, could also fund from its own resources.

In addition to the bilateral programme of development cooperation, Germany is supporting Mexico in itself becoming an active development donor in Latin America. Among other things, it provides advice to Mexico's development agency, AMEXCID. Triangular cooperation arrangements allow Mexico and Germany to share their combined experience with the region and to make a contribution to development in other countries.

Scroll down to get detailed information about the situation in Mexico and Germany's development engagement in the country.

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Priority areas of cooperation with Mexico

Development facts and figures from Mexico

Street scene in Mexico City
Political situation

Threats to internal security

For a long time, the major political parties employed a tactic of mutual obstructionism, thereby hampering the implementation of much-needed reforms. President Enrique Peña Nieto therefore concluded a "Pact for Mexico" (Pacto por México) with the two largest opposition parties right at the beginning of his term in office in December 2012. As a result, the government was able, within one year, to adopt constitutional amendments that facilitated fundamental reforms in the areas of education, energy, taxation and financial management, telecommunications and the election system. In the presidential and congressional elections on July 1, 2018, Lopez Obrador, the candidate of the left Morena party, received the majority of votes. He will most likely be the next President of Mexico.

At present, Mexico's democracy is still characterised by significant shortcomings in terms of the rule of law and legal certainty. Corruption is widespread in politics, administrative authorities and the judiciary. One result is that many criminal acts go unpunished. In recent years Mexico has been slipping down the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) published by the non-governmental organisation Transparency International. On the 2017 index it ranked 135th out of 180 countries (compared to 106th out of 177 countries in 2013).

Violence against women and organised crime

Although Mexico is a signatory to the main human rights treaties, they are not being implemented consistently. The indigenous population in particular faces economic and social exclusion. Violence against women has assumed alarming proportions.

Organised crime is the greatest threat to the country's internal security. It is from Mexico that almost the entire US drug market is controlled. In parts of the country, armed groups that are controlled by the drug cartels have rendered the state monopoly on force null and void. The mafia also exerts an influence on parts of the political apparatus, the private sector, and the police. In 2017 alone, more than 23,000 people fell victim to the "drug war" between government security forces and organised crime, and between the competing cartels. More than 30,000 people have been reported missing.

Journalists who report on corruption, the drug trade, or links between politicians and organised crime, put their lives at risk.

Market trader in San Cristóbal, Mexico
Shoemaker in San Christóbal, Mexico
Social situation

Inequality

Thanks to comprehensive social programmes, the Mexican government has managed to reduce the number of people in extreme poverty. According to World Bank data, some 2.5 per cent of Mexico's people currently live on less than 1.90 US dollars a day.

However, the country has not yet managed to eliminate the structural causes of poverty. The Mexican government calculates the national poverty rate on the basis of a multidimensional index that, in addition to income, also measures access to basic social rights such as health, education, and housing. According to this index, more than 44 per cent of the population still lives in extreme poverty.

The distribution of wealth between regions and population groups is extremely unequal. The regions in the north are relatively wealthy with companies producing to global market standards. The centre is dominated by the Mexico City conurbation, where a large proportion of the country's gross domestic product is generated. The south is not yet very developed. This region has the highest share of indigenous people.

Automotive industry in Puebla, Mexico
Economic situation

High degree of dependency on the United States

Mexico's economy is highly dependent on foreign trade, especially on the export of industrial goods such as vehicles and vehicle parts, machinery and electrical appliances. About 80 per cent of Mexican exports are destined for the United States. The Mexican government wants to diversify the economy and increase the number of its trading partners. Over the past few years, it has built a global network of agreements on free trade and more general issues, including with the EU and Japan. The country is also an active member of various international fora and organisations such as the G20 and the OECD, and of regional organisations, for example the Organization of American States (OAS), the Pacific Alliance, and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños, CELAC).

Following a period of several years with high growth rates, economic growth slowed down in 2016. One reason was the election of US President Trump, who has called the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the United States, Canada and Mexico into question. The World Bank expects that the growth rate over the coming years will be about 2.5 per cent.

Nearly 12 million Mexican-born people live in the United States. About half of them are unauthorised immigrants. In 2016, their remittances to their country of origin amounted to about 26 billion US dollars.

Farmer in Puebla, Mexico
Environmental protection and climate action

Sustainable use of natural resources

One of Mexico's great problems is the increasing environmental degradation brought about by rapid population growth and the dominant economic model. Urbanisation, the use of large areas of land for crop and livestock farming, and logging are threatening the country's huge biodiversity. Air pollution is severe, especially in major cities, for instance the capital, Mexico City. Mexico has introduced modern environmental legislation, but it is not being implemented consistently.

With its national development plan for 2013 to 2018, the Mexican government has set itself the goal of achieving sustainable economic growth. In December 2015, the parliament adopted an act for an energy transition that laid down specific targets for increased reliance on renewable energy sources. The share of "clean" energy (renewables, nuclear, and combined heat and power) is to rise to 35 per cent by 2024. In 2015, Mexico became the first emerging economy to present a Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

German development cooperation with Mexico

Mexico is one of the global development partners with which the BMZ seeks to engage in a close partnership. Since 2015, government negotiations on development cooperation between Mexico and Germany have been taking place within the framework of a Binational Commission that is chaired by the two countries' foreign ministers.

Below the level of the Binational Commission, there are specialised commissions. The BMZ and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) together are the lead agencies on the German side for the specialised commission on cooperation for sustainable development, environment and climate.

At the Binational Commission meeting in May 2017, 449.9 million euros was committed to Mexico in project funding for the years 2016 and 2017. Given Mexico's strong economic performance, most of this funding is made available in the form of reduced-interest loans.

Bilateral development cooperation focuses on environmental policy, protection and sustainable use of natural resources, and a sustainable, needs-based energy supply. The BMZ coordinates its work closely with the Federal Ministry for the Environment, which is also active in Mexico in the areas of climate action, renewable energy and biodiversity conservation as part of its International Climate Initiative (IKI).

Germany and Mexico have also agreed to expand their triangular cooperation with other Latin American countries and to implement projects jointly with third countries.

  • Rubbish dump in Mexico City
    Environmental protection and resource use

    Effective implementation of national programmes

    One of the serious problems that Mexico is facing is the uncontrolled disposal of domestic waste and industrial hazardous waste. Germany aims to help ensure that national urban industrial environmental protection programmes are implemented effectively.

  • Wind farm in Mexico
    Sustainable and needs-based energy supply

    Supporting Mexico's energy transition

    Germany is supporting Mexico in its efforts to make greater use of renewable energy sources and increase energy efficiency.

Rubbish dump in Mexico City
Environmental policy, protection and sustainable use of natural resources

Effective implementation of national programmes

One of the serious problems that Mexico is facing is the uncontrolled disposal of domestic waste and industrial hazardous waste. Only few enterprises have clean production processes, treatment plants or filters. Mexico City is particularly affected by severe air, water and soil pollution.

Through development cooperation, Germany aims to help ensure that national urban industrial environmental protection programmes are implemented effectively. Pilot projects were carried out in three cities (Toluca, La Paz and Salamanca) to make the transport system more environmentally friendly, improve air quality, reduce energy consumption in urban infrastructure facilities, and improve wastewater and waste management. The experience gained in the pilot cities will be put to use in further municipalities.

Butterflies

Biodiversity

Another focus of Mexican-German cooperation in the area of environment is biodiversity conservation. Mexico is one of the so-called mega-biodiverse countries. The two countries' cooperation concentrates on the implementation of the national biodiversity strategy that was presented in December 2016. Among other things, it addresses the creation of ecosystem networks through eco-corridors and the promotion of integrated landscape planning in pilot regions. Germany and Mexico are developing sustainable financing strategies for nature conservation and incentives for the sustainable use of biological resources. Germany is also helping to provide further training to the staff of nature reserve authorities and municipalities.

Wind farm in Mexico
Sustainable and needs-based energy supply

Supporting Mexico's energy transition

Germany is supporting Mexico in its efforts to make greater use of renewable energy sources and increase energy efficiency. Support is provided to key actors in the public sector as they implement the energy act of 2015 and improve the general environment for the use of renewable energy. Relevant efforts include the creation of promotion programmes and the training and certification of skilled personnel.

Another area of cooperation is waste-to-energy, for example through biogas plants, the use of waste as a fuel in cement production, and the production of biogas to serve as a fuel. On behalf of the BMZ, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) provides advice to the Mexican Environment Ministry and to decision-makers in order to put in place the political and practical prerequisites for such endeavours.

Under Financial cooperation, Germany is supporting the construction of low-energy apartment buildings. It is helping the national housing construction commission to adjust planned construction work to the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) which Mexico has adopted voluntarily to bring down its greenhouse gas emissions.

EcoCasas in Mexico
Triangular cooperation

Sharing experience

Germany and Mexico have agreed to share the experience they have jointly gained, passing it on to other Latin American countries through triangular cooperation, and to implement joint programmes with third countries. The two countries have engaged in this type of cooperation since 2006.

  • In Colombia, they helped to develop mechanisms for energy-efficient housing construction and to set up a system providing high-resolution satellite images. This gives the country precise data on events that threaten ecosystems, such as logging, forest fires and erosion.
  • In Bolivia, Mexico and Germany are working with the country to improve wastewater management, for example with a view to using treated wastewater for irrigation.
  • In the Dominican Republic, Mexican experts, assisted by Germany, have established a network of environmental advisors for solid waste management.
  • Mexico's experience from triangular cooperation has also informed the work of the Latin American Network for the Prevention and Management of Contaminated Sites (Red Latinoamericana de Prevención y Gestión de Sitios Contaminados, ReLASC).
The Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacán, Mexico

Map of Mexico

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Mexico Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 United Mexican States Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Mexico City, approximately 22 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 1,964,380 sq km (2017) 357,380 sq km (2017)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 74th of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Mexico.

BMZ glossary

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