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Bolivia

Overview

A plurinational state

After the country gained independence from Spanish colonial rule in 1825, political crises were a dominant feature of life in Bolivia. Decades of military dictatorship left their mark on the state and on society. Since 1982, however, the country has gradually stabilised its political and economic situation. The low-lying region around the city of Santa Cruz, in particular, has become the locomotive of the Bolivian economy.

In the presidential elections of 2005, Evo Morales became the country's first-ever indigenous president. Morales was then confirmed in office in 2009 and 2014. His party, the MAS (Movimiento al Socialismo), has a two-thirds majority in both chambers of parliament.

In 2009, Bolivia's new constitution came into force. It was approved by the majority of Bolivians in a referendum. The government hopes that the new constitution will establish a new model for the state and for society. This goal is also reflected in the name of the country. Since 2009, Bolivia has officially been known as the "Plurinational State of Bolivia".

In recent years, significant progress has been made in reducing poverty. The proportion of Bolivians living in poverty dropped from 66 per cent in 2000 to 39 per cent in 2016. But large sections of the population have yet to see a lasting improvement in their living conditions. There continues to be a deep divide between rich and poor and between urban and rural people.

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Development data for Bolivia

  • Government palace in La Paz, Bolivia
    Political situation

    Government policies meeting with growing opposition

    Since Evo Morales was elected president, Bolivia has changed fundamentally. The country is undergoing a process of social and political upheaval. The government's most important goal is economic development.

  • The Salar de Uyuni in the southwest of Bolivia is the largest salt lake in the world. This is where the world's largest lithium reserves lie.
    Economic situation

    Great dependence on raw materials; government-owned enterprises; lack of legal certainty

    Under President Morales, important sectors of the economy were nationalised. The state enterprise YPFB, for example, once again controls the country's gas and oil reserves, which had been privatised in 1997. 

Government palace in La Paz, Bolivia
Political situation

Government policies meeting with growing opposition

In its 'Agenda Patriótica 2025', which it presented in 2013, and in its national development plan for 2016 to 2020, the Bolivian government laid down ambitious development goals. They are largely in line with the goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, for instance in areas such as poverty reduction, water and sanitation, and protection of natural resources and of the global climate.

In the past few years, progress has been achieved through state-run social programmes, especially with regard to fighting extreme poverty, providing access to education and providing health care. Per capita income has risen to 3,130 US dollars (2017). Bolivia ranks 118th out of 189 countries on the Human Development Index (HDI) and thus falls into the category of countries with medium development.

Domestic situation

Morales's government is starting to lose favour with the population, despite the undisputed success of its reform efforts. The government's policy style is meeting with growing resistance in the form of strikes and street protests.

In a referendum held in February 2016, the majority of the population voted against a constitutional amendment that would have allowed President Morales to run again in the presidential elections in October 2019. However, the constitutional court, notwithstanding the outcome of the referendum, allowed Morales to seek another term as president. In December 2018, the top electoral court in La Paz, too, approved his running for another term.

As the government seeks to enforce its political goals, a widening gap is developing between ambition and achievement. As a result of the concentration of power in the hands of Morales and his party, there is less scope for action for the opposition, civil society and the press.

The performance of government institutions is poor and very much depends on the individual abilities of senior staff. Public administration is highly bureaucratic; civil servants are underpaid and often poorly trained; there are frequent shifts in roles and responsibilities. Corruption is widespread.

The Salar de Uyuni in the southwest of Bolivia is the largest salt lake in the world. This is where the world's largest lithium reserves lie.
Economic situation

Great dependence on raw materials; government-owned enterprises; lack of legal certainty

The economic situation in Bolivia has improved significantly over the last few years. The World Bank expects that the growth rate in 2019 will be about 4.3 per cent. However, the government's development plan is based primarily on revenues from state exports of commodities such as natural gas, minerals and metals. The current economic policy is based on revenue generated by commodities which are subject to volatile world market prices and are a limited resource. The policy may thus prove unsustainable. At present, Bolivia is hoping to exploit the world's largest lithium reserve in the Uyuni salt flats.

Economic development is being held back by poor infrastructure, a weakly developed enterprise culture, a heavily regulated labour market and a lack of legal certainty. Further exacerbating factors are Bolivia's unfavourable climate and difficult geographic terrain. Already, the effects of climate change are making themselves felt. Disputes over water rights are becoming more frequent, and extreme weather events are having devastating effects on agricultural production.

Private enterprises are finding it difficult to do business in Bolivia. The World Bank's Doing Business Report for 2019 placed Bolivia 156th out of 190 countries. Domestic and foreign direct investment in innovative business sectors is too low as well, which is increasingly having a negative impact on the economy.

German development cooperation with Bolivia

Germany has for many years been one of Bolivia's most important bilateral partners. Development cooperation concentrates on medium- to long-term structural reforms and focuses on poverty reduction and environmental and climate protection.

The programme of cooperation with Bolivia addresses three priority areas:

  • Drinking water supply and basic sanitation
  • Rural development and environment
  • Energy (renewable energy and energy efficiency)

Support for decentralisation, civil society and climate action are important cross-cutting issues that are also being addressed as part of bilateral cooperation.

At the government negotiations in May 2017, Germany pledged a total of 50.4 million euros to Bolivia for 2017 and 2018. The next government negotiations are expected to be held in Berlin in May 2019.

The drinking water treatment plant of Pampahasi is providing water to the La Paz and El Alto region.
Priority area "Drinking water supply and basic sanitation"

Socially and environmentally sustainable services for the people

The purpose of Germany's development cooperation in this field is to improve people's access to quality, socially sustainable water supply and sanitation services. To that end, Germany is pursuing a holistic approach that takes account of the entire water cycle and integrates aspects related to water resource protection and climate change adaptation. Links with topics such as nutrition, decentralisation, vocational training, environment and energy are becoming more and more important.

Among other things, Germany is providing advice to the Ministry of Environment and Water on the development of reform strategies. In order to foster decentralisation in the water sector, support is being provided to municipalities and 'Departamentos' with regard to planning and implementing investments, monitoring quality and resolving tariff issues. Germany is supporting a training programme to help build technical capacity.

Under Financial Cooperation, Germany is providing funding for the construction and upgrading of water supply and sanitation systems and of wastewater treatment plants. In view of continuing urban growth, the geographical focus of Bolivian-German cooperation in this sector is on economically weak urban fringe areas, especially in the cities of Santa Cruz, Tarija and Sucre.

A farmer in the Andes
Priority area "Rural development and environment"

Making agriculture more resilient

Bolivia is one of the countries which are likely to be particularly badly affected by the consequences of climate change. Scientific calculations indicate that the country's mean temperature as well as the amount and distribution of precipitation will change – with serious consequences for the agricultural sector.

That is why Germany is supporting Bolivia in its efforts to improve people's resilience to the impacts of climate change. Advice is being provided to relevant authorities at the national, regional and local levels on watershed management, irrigation, and agricultural production systems (farming, diversification, storage and processing).

Another focus of cooperation is on sustainable forest management in the Chiquitania region. The two sides are working to reduce deforestation and improve local forest-based value chains. Bolivia is losing an average of 350,000 hectares of forest a year to illegal logging and the expansion of farmland. Germany is assisting local authorities in managing their forests and helping them to improve the production, processing and marketing of local products.

 A technician working on a power line in the Andes
Priority area "Energy"

Improving people's access to energy, introducing renewable energy sources

At present, Bolivia's power supply is mainly based on natural gas and hydropower. Even though the potential for other forms of renewable energy besides hydropower is good, the share of wind, solar, biomass and geothermal power in the energy mix is currently only about three per cent. According to the national energy plan, that share is to rise to twelve per cent by 2020.

The purpose of Germany's development cooperation programmes in the priority area of energy is to help improve the efficient and reliable provision of affordable, sustainably generated energy for the people of Bolivia.

Among other things, Germany assists the Bolivian government in providing energy to people not yet connected to the national grid. The BMZ is providing funding for grid densification programmes and for pilot projects to bring electricity to remote areas. German experts provide advice on the planning, construction, operation and maintenance of wind turbines, photovoltaic installations and hybrid systems.

Support is also being given to the relevant regulatory and supervisory authorities with regard to improving the legal environment, developing technical standards and introducing a feed-in tariff system for power from renewable sources.

Another focus is the improvement of energy efficiency, for instance in public buildings and with regard to street lighting, urban transport management and electric vehicles.

Potosí, Bolivia

Map of Bolivia

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Bolivia Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Plurinational State of Bolivia Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Capital: Sucre, approximately 260,000 inhabitants; seat of government: La Paz, approximately 1 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 1,098,580 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 118 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Bolivia

BMZ glossary

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