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Timor-Leste

Women who have supplied a weekly market on the island of Atauro return to their villages.

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Overview

On the way to a peaceful future

"Goodbye Conflict, Welcome Development" – this is the motto under which the Government of Timor-Leste, one of the youngest countries in the world, designs its policies. The country only gained independence in 2002. In the following ten years, it received support from the United Nations in the form of various development and peacekeeping missions. The international community regarded the withdrawal of the last UN mission (United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste, UNMIT) as an important step for the country towards a stable and peaceful democratic future. The presidential and parliamentary elections in 2012 and 2017 were peaceful. The country now has healthy prospects for continued positive development.

Development cooperation with Germany

Germany has been supporting the country through development cooperation since 1999. In the initial phase, cooperation focused on food aid, emergency relief and refugee aid, and also on drinking water supply in the eastern part of the country.

Since 2007, German development cooperation programmes have concentrated on the priority area of peacebuilding and crisis prevention. The focus is on an integrated approach to promote employment. This is intended to help particularly disadvantaged groups and create more jobs in rural areas.

The approach is complemented by projects to develop the maritime transport sector and to enable the country to adapt to climate change. Germany also cooperates with Timor-Leste within the framework of thematic and regional programmes.

Scroll down to get detailed information about the situation in Timor-Leste and Germany's development engagement in the country.

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Priority areas of cooperation with Timor-Leste

Development facts and figures from Timor-Leste

A farmer from Timor-Leste
History

A difficult path to independence

Timor-Leste is about 500 kilometres north-west of Australia. It comprises the eastern part of the island of Timor as well as the exclave of Oecussi-Ambeno in the western (Indonesian) part of the island, and the islands of Atauro and Jaco. Until 1974, the country's present territory was a Portuguese colony. Only a few days after the end of Portuguese rule, the country was occupied by Indonesia. During the 24 years that followed, an estimated 100,000 people lost their lives through violent conflict.

In 1999, on the initiative of the United Nations and based on agreement with Indonesia, a referendum was held in which the vast majority of the population voted in favour of independence for Timor-Leste. Pro-Indonesian militias and parts of the Indonesian military responded with violence, devastating the country and destroying most of its infrastructure. Again, many people were killed, and numerous people fled to the western part of the island, to Indonesian territory. Timor-Leste was then placed under transitional administration by the United Nations. Then in 2002, the country gained independence.

Relations between Timor-Leste and the former occupying power, Indonesia, are now good across the board, and based on mutual confidence. The boundary between the two countries has largely been determined. Official visits and reconciliation initiatives have helped to improve relations.

Young people in the capital Dili
Challenges

Overcoming the problems of a post-conflict society

Timor-Leste continues to face the typical problems of a post-conflict society. Economic structures have barely got off the ground, government institutions are weak. A great many people have been left traumatised by the decades of violence. People continue to resort to violence in many cases in order to settle conflicts. This is a great problem among young people in particular. Domestic violence against women and children is also still very common.

Refugees are still returning home – most of them from West Timor – and need to be reintegrated into society.

The violence that followed in the wake of the referendum on independence in 1999 destroyed two thirds of the country's infrastructure. Road networks, health facilities and schools remain in poor condition. In this environment, private investment is a difficult undertaking. The World Bank's Doing Business Report 2017 ranks Timor-Leste 178th out of 190 countries evaluated.

44 per cent of the Timorese population are younger than 15, while just around 4 per cent are older than 65. The very young population still lacks sufficient educational and employment opportunities and, thus, prospects of moving up the socioeconomic ladder.

The national Strategic Development Plan 2011–2030 reflects the government's determination to harness the country's economic potential, its national healing process and the dynamism of its young population for its development.

Road construction in a rural area
Governance

Dealing with the past, human rights, corruption and transparency

Dealing with the past

In the first few years after independence, the government tried to investigate and address the violence of the past. These efforts have now dwindled, meaning that severe injustices that people have suffered will go unpunished.

The legal system in Timor-Leste is inefficient, and is developing slowly. There is a lack of staff with legal training and the appropriate infrastructure is not in place. The authorities are overstretched and no improvement in the staffing situation is likely in the immediate future. So far, the population has therefore developed very little faith in the justice system.

Human rights

Since gaining independence, Timor-Leste has signed up to the key human rights agreements. Implementing these agreements within the country's own legal system and translating them into national legislation is proving difficult, however.

Women in particular continue to face massive restrictions on their rights: forced marriage, trafficking of women, sexual exploitation and domestic violence are widespread. Almost 40 per cent of women over 15 have experienced physical violence. A law against domestic violence was passed in 2010.

In 2006 the national human rights institution 'Provedoria dos Direitos Humanos e Justiça' was created, with a mandate to promote human rights and good governance, and prevent corruption. So far its work has had only limited effect, however, as the government implements its recommendations only to a minor extent.

Corruption

Corruption and clientelism remain a challenge for this young country and its government. On its Corruption Perceptions Index 2017, the non-governmental organisation Transparency International ranks Timor-Leste 91st out of 180 countries. Efforts to stem corruption are evident, however. An anti-corruption agency has been created, and high-profile legal proceedings have been launched against corrupt ministers and officials.

The management of the Petroleum Fund and the use of government revenues are scrutinised as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). In January 2018, Timor-Leste was found to have achieved meaningful progress in implementing the EITI Standard.

Decentralisation

During the Indonesian occupation, Timor-Leste's governance system was based on a centralised approach. In 1999, the UN transitional administration had the difficult task of establishing a government and associated institutions for Timor-Leste within a very short space of time. The transition to a decentralised governance system which ensures effectiveness, acceptance and responsiveness to people's needs in all districts, villages and municipalities is one of the most important tasks facing the Government of Timor-Leste. This is being pursued through a step-by-step approach. One factor that must be addressed if the population's expectations are to be met is the lack of well-trained and motivated civil servants, particularly in rural regions.

Since 2003, a system has been in place for each community and village to elect a chief and a local council who are then responsible for local development. Efforts are also being made to achieve decentralisation at the district level. Since 2015, powers and financial resources have been devolved to this level. It is expected that district assembly elections will be held in 2018.

Rural life

The village of Aileo in the highlands of Timor Leste

The village of Aileo in the highlands of Timor Leste

timor leste seetang 980

In some bays on the island of Atauro, seaweed is cultivated and dried for marketing.

timor leste ahnenbefragung 980

The ancestors are still asked for their consent in important local decisions, such as land concessions. A pig is sacrificed in a ceremony in front of the ancestor's seat to ask the ancestors for consent.

timor leste auslieferung kakao 960

Distribution of cocoa seedlings

Social situation

Backlog in education and basic services

Notwithstanding the fact that it has greatly expanded social services for the people, the government has so far not managed to use the high oil and gas revenues for the benefit of the entire population or to achieve a significant reduction in poverty. As many as 42 per cent of the population continue to live below the national poverty line. Life expectancy is 69, which is below the average for other countries in East Asia and the Pacific. The current Human Development Index (HDI) ranks Timor-Leste 132nd out of 189 countries evaluated.

The country still has a lot of catching up to do, especially in the areas of education and the provision of basic services. Nearly 30 per cent of the population have no reliable access to safe drinking water, and around 60 per cent have no sanitation. Energy supplies have improved in recent years. According to World Bank data for 2014, around 45 per cent of people were connected to the electricity grid (compared to 27 per cent in 2002).

The education system is not yet very developed. Only 56 per cent of youth attend secondary school. The illiteracy rate for adults (age 15 and above) is 36 per cent. 

The pupils of the Oecusse School of Agriculture at a teaching unit in the field
Economic situation

Oil and gas: main sources of income

According to World Bank data, it takes post-conflict states 15 to 30 years to make the transition from state fragility to stable institutions. Seen in this light, the social and economic development of Timor-Leste has been remarkably positive.

Oil and gas extraction in the Timor Sea forms Timor-Leste's main source of income. Accordingly, the country's economic development has suffered under the low world market price for oil in the recent past. Moreover, the oil reserves are limited. According to experts, Timor-Leste will cease to produce oil by 2023 unless new oil fields are developed.

In the last few years, much of the revenue from oil and gas extraction has gone to a sovereign wealth fund, the Timor-Leste Petroleum Fund. At the end of 2015, the Fund had reached a volume of 16.2 billion US dollars according to estimates of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). In the short term, the country will be able to use the Fund to mitigate the effects of sinking oil revenues. However, in the long term, Timor-Leste will have to increase its efforts to develop other industries so as to reduce its dependency on oil, create urgently needed jobs, and enhance its competitiveness.

Potentials

Apart from the mineral resources industry, agriculture is the most important sector of the economy. About 50 per cent of the workforce are employed in this sector, but it only accounts for 20 per cent of gross domestic product. Most farmers still practice mainly subsistence agriculture.

Improving the infrastructure could also boost the tourism sector. With its natural beauty, its cultural diversity and its proximity to Australia, there is enough potential for Timor-Leste to become an attractive international travel destination.

Labour market

One of the greatest challenges is the poor labour market situation. According to official figures, unemployment stood at 4 per cent in 2017. However, the figure for informal jobs provides a better picture of the situation: more than 70 per cent of all working people in Timor-Leste are own-account workers with no social protection. Youth unemployment is significantly higher than unemployment in general. The lack of hope arising from this means an increased risk for young people to be willing to join criminal gangs.Apart from the mineral resources industry, agriculture is the most important sector of the economy. About 50 per cent of the workforce are employed in this sector, but it only accounts for 20 per cent of gross domestic product. Most farmers still practice mainly subsistence agriculture.

Rice paddy at the coast

German development cooperation with Timor-Leste

Since 2007, and with reinforced efforts since 2015, cooperation between Timor-Leste and Germany has concentrated on the priority area of peacebuilding and crisis prevention, with a special focus on an integrated approach to employment promotion. The purpose of these efforts is to support particularly disadvantaged groups and to create more jobs in rural areas.

This approach is complemented by projects to develop the maritime transport sector and to enable the country to adapt to climate change. Germany also cooperates with Timor-Leste within the framework of thematic and regional programmes.

At the government consultations between Germany and Timor-Leste in Dili in October 2015, a commitment of 12 million euros was made for Technical Cooperation. By the end of 2017, the German government had provided another 5.44 million euros for ongoing projects in order to ensure that they would reach their goals on a sustained basis.

Germany made a commitment to help implement the New Deal for Engagement in Fragile States. Through its priorities in Timor-Leste, the BMZ is contributing to the New Deal's implementation.

  • Young people in the countryside
    Peacebuilding

    Supporting young people, securing peace

    Timor-Leste is home to very large numbers of young people, most of whom live in rural regions. So peacebuilding means, above all, creating opportunities for these young people. The Social Cohesion for Peaceful Development programme in Timor-Leste is helping to address the causes of conflict, fragility and violence.

  • The ferry Berlin-Nakroma
    Maritime transport

    Two ferries for Timor-Leste

    Timor-Leste consists of the main land in the east of the island of Timor, the exclave Oecussi-Ambeno and the islands Atauro and Jaco. Transport links between the different parts of the country are only possible by sea. A regular ferry connection set up with German support facilitates the marketing of agricultural products and provides access to education and social services.

Young people in the countryside
Peacebuilding

Supporting young people, securing peace

Timor-Leste is home to very large numbers of young people, most of whom live in rural regions. So peacebuilding means, above all, creating opportunities for these young people. However, at present, not enough is being done to use the potential of the young. Many cannot adequately participate in political, economic and social life. Low educational achievement and high rates of unemployment reduce their chances of moving up the socioeconomic ladder. This gives rise to a high risk of conflict and might pose a fundamental threat to peace and security nationwide.

The Social Cohesion for Peaceful Development programme in Timor-Leste is helping to address the causes of conflict, fragility and violence. It pursues an integrated approach which combines methods of non-violent conflict management with efforts to improve people's skills and employability. Accompanying projects are currently being developed to improve young people's income and employment opportunities.

The programme includes a peace fund to support non-governmental organisations and local initiatives that plan and implement projects to empower youth and foster peace. Moreover, the programme reaches out to governmental and non-governmental actors involved in youth work, offering them training and networking opportunities. This is intended to help establish a national institutional setup for youth development in the medium term.

Moreover, Germany is working with the Government of Timor-Leste to help job placement agencies, training facilities and youth centres to develop training programmes for young people to improve their job opportunities and their general opportunities in life.

The ferry Berlin-Nakroma
Maritime transport

Two ferries for Timor-Leste

Timor-Leste consists of the main land in the east of the island of Timor, the exclave Oecussi-Ambeno in the western part of Indonesia and the islands Atauro and Jaco. Transport links between the different parts of the country are only possible by sea. A regular ferry connection set up with German support facilitates the marketing of agricultural products and provides access to education and social services.

By funding the ferry "Berlin-Nakroma", Germany has made a significant contribution towards establishing a transport link between the different parts of the country and Dili, the capital city of Timor-Leste. Germany is planning to provide funding for a second ferry in order to further increase people's mobility and strengthen the country's economic and social development. The Government of Timor-Leste is making a significant financial contribution of its own here, thus underlining the political priority it is attaching to the second ferry.

As part of Technical Cooperation, the BMZ is assisting APORTIL, the port authority, in becoming a player that functions well, including in an international context. Germany is also providing support for maritime skills development.

An employee of the port authority APORTIL. Germany supports the responsible ministry and the authorities in improving passenger and cargo traffic in Timor-Leste.
Further reading

BMZ publications

Map of Timor-Leste

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Timor-Leste Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Dili, approximately 300,000 inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 14,870 sq km (2017) 357,380 sq km (2017)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 132 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

Here you can find selected links to websites with more information on development policy in Timor-Leste.

BMZ glossary

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