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Nepal

View of Mount Everest from Kala Patthar at 5,545 meters

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Overview

Ambitious reform programme in a landlocked country

Since the end of the civil war in 2006, Nepal has been undergoing a process of fundamental political transformation. Nepal's government and society are faced with the challenge of completing the peace process and achieving political stability.

Simultaneously, the country has had to cope with the consequences of the disastrous 2015 earthquake.

From 1996 to 2006, Maoist rebels fought against the government and the king. More than 13,000 people were killed in the conflict. A peace agreement signed in 2006 ended the war; in 2008, the monarchy was abolished and the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal declared.

The following years were characterised by frequent changes of government. Time and time again there were riots, violent protests and terrorist attacks. One major milestone was the successful election of a Constituent Assembly in 2013.

In September 2015, it adopted a new constitution, establishing a federal system of government, introducing a bicameral parliament as well as the separation of state and religion, and laying down rules on citizenship legislation and on the judicial system.

In 2017 and 2018, national, regional and local elections were held. Simultaneously, a comprehensive structural reform was carried out. 753 municipalities were set up.

Whether these reforms and the new constitution will become a viable basis for national stabilisation remains to be seen.

Earthquake

In April and May 2015, a severe earthquake and several strong aftershocks undid years of economic and social development in Nepal. At least 35 of the country's 75 regions were affected, including the capital, Kathmandu. More than 8,800 people were killed, and more than 30,000 were injured. The earthquake destroyed over 900,000 homes and 16,000 schools, as well as valuable cultural heritage sites.

The international community pledged a total of 3.43 billion US dollars to Nepal for reconstruction. The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) is providing 33 million euros for the restoration of health posts and other public buildings, transport routes, and drinking water supply and sanitation.

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Development facts and figures from Nepal

Buildings destroyed by the earthquake in Rasuwa, Nepal
  • A man looks out of a window at a courtyard in Kathmandu.
    Political situation

    Reforms, corruption, inadequate rule of law

    In 2014, the Nepalese government launched a territorial reform, establishing numerous new municipalities and a federal structure consisting of seven provinces. The restructuring of the government system has presented the government with tremendous challenges.

  • Two women in Nepal offer dried flowers for sale.
    Social and economic situation

    Slowdown of growth

    Nepal is one of the poorest countries in South Asia. Annual gross national income per capita is 790 US dollars (2017). The adult literacy rate is only about 65 per cent.

A man looks out of a window at a courtyard in Kathmandu.
Political situation

Reforms, corruption, inadequate rule of law

In 2014, the Nepalese government launched a territorial reform, establishing numerous new municipalities, and the 2015 constitution laid down that the country would now have a federal structure consisting of seven provinces. The restructuring of the government system that was needed as a result has presented the government with tremendous challenges. Among other things, the new regional and local authorities had to be provided with sufficient budget funds, and local elections had to be held.

There are still significant deficits with regard to the rule of law. Discrimination based on gender, caste, ethnic background and religion is widespread. There have also been repeated reports of instances of torture and other severe forms of abuse by the police. The victims have very little chance of taking legal action. The relevant authorities often prosecute human rights violations in a sluggish manner, if at all. Court decisions are often not enforced.

Widespread corruption is another problem. In the Corruption Perceptions Index compiled by the non-governmental organisation Transparency International, Nepal ranks 122nd out of the 180 countries evaluated.

Nepal is an advocate of greater regional cooperation and is engaged, for example, in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD). Both institutions have their headquarters in Nepal's capital city, Kathmandu.

Two women in Nepal offer dried flowers for sale.
Social and economic situation

Slowdown of growth

Nepal is one of the poorest countries in South Asia. Annual gross national income per capita is 790 US dollars (2017). The adult literacy rate is only about 65 per cent. Nepal ranks 149th out of 189 countries on the Human Development Index (HDI).

The long years of civil war have massively impeded development in Nepal. While Nepal has made significant progress on poverty reduction in recent years, the severe earthquakes of 2015 meant a major setback for the country. The natural disaster plunged at least an additional 700,000 people into poverty. The worst affected are women and children, members of minorities and traditionally disadvantaged groups such as the Dalits. The Dalits, or "untouchables", make up around 20 per cent of the population.

All governments over the past few years have endeavoured to liberalise Nepal's economy, achieve pro-poor economic growth that generates jobs, close the wide urban-rural gap and rebuild the ruined infrastructure. However, Nepal's development is being held back by political instability in combination with constantly changing government coalitions, bureaucratic inertia, serious energy shortages, an inadequate education system and a shortage of skilled labour, all of which are also a deterrent to investors.

For a number of years, economic growth in Nepal reached three to five per cent. However, as a result of domestic unrest and of the blockade of trade with India, the growth rate slumped in 2016 (to a mere 0.6 per cent). In 2017, Nepal saw significant economic growth again (7.9 per cent). It is expected that the growth rate will be four to five per cent over the next few years.

Some 90 per cent of all Nepalese enterprises are small businesses. They account only for a small proportion of Nepal's gross domestic product. About one third of the national budget is financed by the international donor community through development cooperation. Another important source of capital flows to Nepal is remittances from Nepalese people working abroad, whose number is estimated at six million. Such remittances account for about one quarter of Nepal's gross domestic product.

Agriculture

Nepal is an agrarian country, with predominantly subsistence-based agriculture. Although only a small percentage of the land area is suitable for farming, and agriculture is heavily dependent on the monsoon, more than two thirds of the country's working population work in this sector. The increasing tendency to cultivate land that is unsuitable for agricultural use has led to soil erosion in many places, which in turn has led to a greater risk of landslides and flood disasters.

The situation is further aggravated by global climate change. As a result of global warming, glaciers in the Himalayas are melting. This is leading to floods, and to changes in rainfall patterns, which is having a negative impact on the agricultural sector, for instance through more frequent storms and droughts.

German development cooperation with Nepal

Since the end of the civil war in 2006, the German government has significantly increased its funding for development cooperation with Nepal. Germany is one of the country's most important bilateral donors. Through its support, the German government seeks to help Nepal achieve greater political stability, overcome the after-effects of the civil war and reduce poverty.

At the government negotiations in September 2018, Germany made a new commitment of 55.6 million euros for bilateral cooperation with Nepal. Of this, 21.3 million euros has been earmarked for Financial Cooperation and 19.3 million euros for Technical Cooperation. In addition, Nepal will receive 15 million euros from the German Climate Technology Initiative (DKTI).

Bilateral cooperation between Germany and Nepal focuses on the following priority areas:

  • Renewable energy and energy efficiency
  • Health
  • Sustainable economic development

In addition to these priority areas, the BMZ also supports municipalities that were newly formed after the territorial reform, assisting them on matters such as municipal administration and good governance.

Priority area "Renewable energy and energy efficiency"

Making better use of hydropower

Nepal's economic development is being hampered very considerably by bottlenecks in the country's electricity supply. But Nepal has enormous hydropower potential. The entire country could be supplied with climate-friendly electricity without any disruptions. Germany is supporting Nepal in harnessing this potential. Among other things, two hydropower stations have been built on the Marsyangdi, a river in central Nepal.

Power for rural communities

As part of the multi-donor energy partnership "Energising Development" (EnDev), support is being provided for rural electrification. Assistance is given to municipalities as they begin to operate local power networks and to take responsibility for the billing and fee collection process between the national power authority and individual consumers.

So far, households comprising more than 200,000 people, 600 social facilities, and nearly 3,000 small and medium-sized enterprises in 46 municipalities have been connected to the public power grid with German support.

And Germany is helping to bring power supply to remote rural regions through decentralised small-scale hydropower plants. In order to provide financial stability for the operators of such facilities, a debt fund was established at two local commercial banks.

So far, the operators of 26 small-scale hydropower plants have used this new opportunity to take out loans.

Enhanced energy efficiency

Another focus of Germany's support is on improving energy efficiency. KfW Development Bank has been supporting the construction of new transmission lines in order to bring climate-friendly energy to Nepal's economic hubs without significant losses.

So-called "energy auditors" are being trained at the chambers of commerce and industry. They provide advice to industrial enterprises on how to make production processes more energy-efficient. GIZ is helping Nepal to make energy efficiency an integral element of the energy supply system.

In regions that have no access to the grid, KfW finances the construction and expansion of solar and biogas plants.

Two women in Nepal offer dried flowers for sale.
A Nepali doctor checks the blood pressure of a patient
Priority area "Health"

Supporting a socially equitable health system

Over the past few years, the health status of Nepal's people has improved considerably. In particular, the country has managed to reduce the number of maternal and newborn deaths significantly. However, there are still great gaps between the rich and poor and between urban and rural areas. The quality and availability of basic health care continue to be inadequate for large portions of the population.

Social health protection

The BMZ assists the Government of Nepal in implementing its health sector strategy (2015-2020). The strategy seeks to improve the quality of health services, ensure that the financing of such services will be sustainable and socially equitable, and enhance care for disadvantaged groups.

For example, there is a Technical Cooperation project that has made a decisive contribution to the political debate on health financing and social protection in health. In 2014, the Nepalese government decided to introduce a national health insurance system. So far, the system has been established in 36 of Nepal's 75 district. It already provides financial coverage for illness for one million people.

Better care for pregnant women

Another focus of Germany's programmes is on sexual and reproductive health. As part of Financial Cooperation, health facilities in remote areas are being modernised and expanded in order to provide better treatment, for example, in the context of pregnancy-related emergencies and complications. The programme of cooperation also includes efforts to enhance training for health personnel and the administration of health facilities.

Among other things, new training programmes are being introduced at obstetric facilities. Moreover, significant progress has been made in the political debate about establishing midwifery as an occupation, and the first midwives are already being trained at two facilities. In order to reach as many people as possible directly, text messages are sent out regularly to people's mobile phones as part of an information campaign on sexual education and contraception.

Mother and child at the Hospital
Cycle rickshaw in Kathmandu
Priority Area "Sustainable Economic Development"

Enabling more people to benefit from growth

The growth rate of Nepal's economy has not been sufficient to achieve sustained poverty reduction in the country.

One important objective of Nepalese-German cooperation is to ensure that economic development is socially balanced and thus contributes to income security, employment and peace. Attention is being given to the needs of inhabitants of Nepal who are suffering disadvantages on social, ethnic or religious grounds. Simultaneously, efforts are under way to improve the general environment for economic activities by cooperatives and small enterprises.

Incomes are improving

Germany is supporting the dialogue between the private sector, government and civil society, and is providing advice to small and medium-sized businesses, chambers of trade and industry, industry federations and cooperatives at the local and regional levels. Efforts are also under way to promote the economic empowerment of target groups by strengthening selected value chains. Half of the more than 14,000 participants in this programme were able to increase their annual income by more than 200 euros.

Support is also being provided to banks, especially in rural areas, with a view to the further development of the credit and financial system, in order to give small and medium-sized enterprises better access to loans so that they can improve their competitiveness.

Support for tax authorities

The tax-to-GDP ratio in Nepal is one of the lowest in South Asia. On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, GIZ is providing advice to the Nepalese tax authority with a view to improving tax collection systems. Specifically, Germany is assisting the authority in making sure that all groups of enterprises are covered, and in improving the quality of service, management, administration and information systems.

Production of lemongrass essential oil in Nepal
Additional area of cooperation

Local administration

In 2015, a new constitution was adopted which provides for the introduction of a federal, decentralised system of government. In March 2016, the Nepalese government began to restructure the local level of administration. This process resulted in the establishment of 753 municipal authorities. In order to enable them to do their administrative work, Germany is providing, through its development cooperation programme, training for staff and specialists on topics such as municipal administration and public financial management, and on how to apply planning and construction regulations.

A man in Nepal is working on a computer

Map of Nepal

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Bus ride in Nepal

Development facts and figures

  Nepal Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Kathmandu, Greater Kathmandu approximately 3.5 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 147,180 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 149 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Nepal

BMZ glossary

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