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Ukraine

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Overview

Some progress in a tense setting

Since early 2014, Ukraine has been in a difficult phase of transition. Major factors that dominate the current situation are the annexation of the Crimean peninsula by Russia in violation of international law and the conflict in eastern Ukraine, but also efforts by the government to carry out reforms. Since February 2015, there has been a ceasefire between the Ukrainian government and pro-Russian militias in the eastern part of the country, but it has been fragile.

Progress has been made in the area of reform, but the need for reform remains high. The government in office between 2014 and 2019 under former President Petro Poroshenko and Prime Minister Volodymyr Hrojsman pursued an overall course of European association and reform.

The 2019 presidential election was won by the challenger Volodymyr Selensky with 73.22 percent of the votes against the former incumbent Poroshenko (24.45 percent) in a run-off election on 21 April. Selensky was sworn in on 20 May 2019 and announced the dissolution of parliament. Early parliamentary elections could possibly take place in July 2019.

Development cooperation

Since 2002, Germany has been supporting Ukraine's efforts to establish a democratic system based on the rule of law and to introduce a market-based economic system. Ukrainian-German development cooperation focuses on democracy, civil society, public administration and decentralisation; energy efficiency; and sustainable economic development.

Straight to

Development facts and figures from Ukraine

  • The Maidan in Kyiv at night
    Political situation

    Continuing conflicts

    In November 2013, then President Viktor Yanukovych surprisingly refused to sign the Association Agreement which had been negotiated with the European Union. This led to mass protests against the government.

  • Employees in a Ukrainian chocolate factory
    Economic situation

    Crisis prevents sustained upswing

    Ukraine's economic development has been severely affected by the continuing national crisis. In 2015, gross domestic product fell by 9.8 per cent. After that, the economy recovered somewhat, beginning to grow in 2016 and growing by 3.3 per cent in 2018.

The Maidan in Kyiv at night
Political situation

Continuing conflicts

In November 2013, then President Viktor Yanukovych surprisingly refused to sign the Association Agreement which had been negotiated with the European Union. This led to mass protests against the government. On 19 and 20 February 2014, the situation escalated. More than 100 people were killed by armed government forces. President Yanukovich fled for Russia during the night.

The Parliament then decided to reinstate the 2004 constitution and ousted Yanukovych. In the presidential elections on 25 May, Petro Poroshenko was elected fifth President of independent Ukraine.

Annexation of the Crimean peninsula by Russia; beginning of conflict in the Donbass region

The power vacuum that emerged after the President had left the country was used by Russia for the surprise takeover of the Crimean peninsula, making use of its armed forces stationed at Sevastopol. Just a few weeks later, separatist forces that had support from Russia began to stoke local unrest in the eastern part of the country, leading to the takeover of administrative buildings, especially in Sloviansk, Donetsk, Luhansk and other cities in the Donbass region. Over the course of several weeks, what were initially limited clashes turned into an armed conflict with heavy arms.

The conflict has continued to the present. It has become a static conflict. There has been no change in the so-called contact line for several years, but there are almost daily casualties. So far, more than 10,000 people have been killed in this conflict. Several ten thousand have been injured, and several million people have been internally displaced or have fled to other countries.

Together with France, Germany is working to mediate in the conflict. What is called the Normandy format goes back to an agreement between the presidents of Ukraine, Russia and France and the German Chancellor on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the allied landings in Normandy in June 2014. The Trilateral Contact Group on Ukraine meets regularly in Minsk. It consists of Ukraine, Russia and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and comes together to discuss progress on the resolution of the conflict. It is based on a package of measures that was negotiated between the parties in February 2015 through the Normandy format.

Human rights

Ukraine has signed the majority of the human rights conventions sponsored by the Council of Europe and the United Nations.

Conditions in prisons have improved significantly, among other things thanks to penitentiary system reforms and the introduction of a probation system. However, conditions in some pre-trial detention centres continue to be problematic.

Since the beginning of fighting between government forces and pro-Russian militias in 2014, the overall human rights situation has deteriorated. Reports published by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) regularly note that, notwithstanding a general decline in violence following the Minsk ceasefire, massive human rights violations continue to occur. This particularly goes for the eastern parts of the country that are not controlled by the government.

Accommodation for internally displaced persons in the Kharkiv region of eastern Ukraine
Employees in a Ukrainian chocolate factory
Economic situation

Crisis prevents sustained upswing

Ukraine's economic development has been severely affected by the continuing national crisis. In 2015, gross domestic product fell by 9.8 per cent. After that, the economy recovered somewhat, beginning to grow in 2016 and growing by 3.3 per cent in 2018. According to International Monetary Fund (IMF) projections, economic growth in 2019 will be 2.7 per cent. However, the country has not yet reached the level of 2013 again.

Ukraine's economy had experienced a dramatic downturn after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It recovered temporarily in the late 1990s, but the international financial crisis put an end to these developments from 2007 onwards. Industrial production slumped, unemployment climbed, banks experienced liquidity problems and government finances came under strong pressure.

Ukraine's main industries are the chemical and metal industries, food and agriculture, mechanical engineering, and, increasingly, information technology and the automotive supplier industry. Internationally, Ukrainian industry remains largely uncompetitive because its production facilities are outdated and use too much energy. As the steel sector accounts for a significant proportion of Ukraine's export earnings, the country is very vulnerable to price volatility in the world steel market. But there are also some very advanced industries, for instance the aircraft and aerospace industry.

Social divide

Ukraine is officially classed as a lower-middle-income country by the World Bank. The Human Development Index (HDI) compiled by the United Nations Development Programme ranks Ukraine 88th out of a total of 189 countries listed. There is an income divide between the capital, Kyiv, and the rest of the country. Senior citizens and people with low levels of training or education often live below the poverty line.

Development potential

Ukraine offers many advantages for investors: with a population of around 45 million, the country has a large and attractive domestic market. There is a high level of unmet demand for consumer goods and a substantial need for modernisation. Ukraine's geographical proximity to EU and Eastern European markets is also an advantage. Ukraine has a well-functioning school system. The population has a good level of education, while wage levels are comparatively low. Continued stabilisation of the political situation and progress on the fight against corruption and legal uncertainty are prerequisites for further economic recovery.

German development cooperation with Ukraine

Ukraine is one of Germany's development cooperation partner countries, meaning that there is a programme of close cooperation based on intergovernmental agreements. The German government has committed 82 million euros for 2019 for bilateral development cooperation with Ukraine. Since 2014, the BMZ has made available a total of about 544 million euros to Ukraine for new cooperation projects under official bilateral development cooperation.

The priority areas of cooperation are

  • Democracy, civil society, public administration and decentralisation
  • Energy efficiency
  • Sustainable economic development

In addition to cooperation in these priority areas, Germany also supports Ukraine through its special initiative "Tackling the root causes of displacement, reintegrating refugees". The BMZ has also considerably expanded its support for Ukraine's response to the crisis in the eastern part of the country. 10 million euros was committed in 2018 for a new special support programme for Eastern Ukraine (government-controlled areas). Among other things, the funding will support municipalities in improving health services and social services. Further activities include support for job creation and the provision of housing.

Building of the Parliament of Ukraine (Verkhovna Rada) in Kyiv
Priority area "Democracy, civil society, public administration and decentralisation"

Reforms for the rule of law

During the Maidan protests, key demands included calls for political, social and economic reforms. As part of its Association Agreement with the European Union and its agreements with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Ukraine has made a commitment to implement a variety of reforms. Even though there have been positive trends, the reform processes are not always moving forward smoothly.

Corruption is a major challenge for Ukraine. The 2018 Corruption Perceptions Index drawn up by the non-governmental organisation Transparency International ranks Ukraine 120th out of 180 countries assessed.

The territory of Ukraine consists of 27 administrative units. There are 24 'oblasts', whose governors are appointed and dismissed by the president. Then there is the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the cities of Kyiv and Sevastopol, which have a special status. In the past, the system of government in Ukraine was highly centralist. Thus, there were only few structures for regional and local self-government. The Crimean peninsula is an exception here, as it enjoyed a special autonomous status (until it was annexed by Russia in contravention of international law).

German activities

In this priority area, German development cooperation with Ukraine is geared towards implementing reforms at national, regional and local authorities. Advice is being provided to the finance ministry, the supreme audit institution and the parliamentary budget committee with regard to the introduction of EU standards. The application of such standards is a requirement under the Association Agreement and will help improve external auditing. Moreover, the standards are helpful with a view to tax reform and strategic budget planning.

Cooperation programmes also include capacity building for municipalities, especially in rural areas. Often, local authorities lack the money and powers needed to finance social services and infrastructure. Germany supports the Ukrainian Social Investment Fund (USIF). The Fund finances infrastructure projects in villages and small towns that are planned and implemented by the local population.

Decentralisation

Under German development cooperation, support is provided to decentralisation within the framework of the EU multi-donor U-LEAD programme (Ukraine Local Empowerment, Accountability and Development Programme).

The related activities focus on providing training and advice and helping with the establishment of a governmental decentralisation structure. Among other things, one central and several regional reform offices are being set up, and there is cooperation with the newly formed municipalities.

Simultaneously, the BMZ is supporting reforms concerning the delivery of government services. For example, with Germany's support, legislation has been adopted to optimise working procedures, and intermunicipal cooperation has been improved.

Promotion of transparency

The BMZ supports the development of the "eData" web portal, which will enable Ukraine's civil society to access data on the use of budget funds. Thanks to this endeavour and the government tendering platform "ProZorro" (which gives participating companies and the general public access to data on government tenders), government transparency is improving, which is hoped to prevent corruption and embezzlement.

Transformer substation
Priority area "Energy efficiency"

Modernising supply systems, reducing dependence on imports

The Ukrainian economy is dependent on energy imports. For example, about one third of the demand for natural gas must be met from foreign sources. For coal, the share of imports is 82 per cent. The economy thus suffers under price volatility and supply constraints. Moreover, energy use in Ukraine has so far been inefficient. Outdated power plants and network systems cause high losses and place an unnecessary burden on the environment and the global climate.

German activities

Through KfW Development Bank, Germany is providing Ukraine with loans that the country can use to modernise parts of its power supply infrastructure. For example, substations for the distribution of power from the high-voltage grid to local low-voltage networks are being renovated. Furthermore, KfW Development Bank is providing loans through local banks to Ukrainian companies, especially SMEs, which they can use to finance, at favourable terms, investments in improved energy efficiency.

Germany is also advising the competent authorities on developing strategies to improve energy efficiency in municipal buildings, and on introducing EU-compliant technical standards. German GIZ experts, acting on behalf of the BMZ, are working with their Ukrainian colleagues to draw up municipal energy plans and train energy managers.

Market in the Ukrainian capital Kyiv
Priority area "Sustainable economic development"

Improving the enabling environment, fostering growth

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can become a driver of growth for the Ukrainian economy, and reduce unemployment and poverty. However, the general environment is unfavourable to private sector engagement: excessive bureaucracy and state control, non-transparent administration, corruption, a shortage of management personnel and inadequate access to financial services (which are usually excessively expensive) are all deterrents to potential investors.

German activities

Under the Association Agreement with the EU, including the establishment of a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA), Ukraine has made a commitment to introduce a broad range of legal and economic standards. The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), on behalf of the BMZ, is assisting Ukraine in implementing the free trade agreement with the EU, adapting its legislation and introducing new standards.

Also on behalf of the BMZ, KfW Development Bank is supporting Ukraine through loans. The capital enables local banks to secure financing for themselves and, thus, to refinance loans for SMEs.

In the future, support is also to be provided to the reform of the vocational training system.

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Map of Ukraine

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Ukraine Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Ukraine Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Kyiv, approximately 2.7 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 603,550 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 88 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Village scene in Sumy Oblast, Ukraine

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Ukraine

BMZ glossary

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