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Energy and climate

Ulan Bator, Mongolia: Housing development with solar system for water heating. In the background a coal power plant.

The sectors of climate and energy are closely interrelated. The energy goal of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (SDG 7) envisages, by 2030, ensuring universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services, substantially increasing the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix, and doubling the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency.

Access to energy is the prerequisite for economic growth, employment and poverty reduction, and it is a basis for good education and health care.

Private households and public institutions need reliable and affordable power supplies, for example in order to prepare food, heat homes and schools, run hospitals and provide clean drinking water. Enterprises, too, require reliable energy supplies in order to be able to produce, store and transport goods and provide services. Energy is also needed in the agricultural and food industries.

However, the climate goal of the 2030 Agenda (SDG 13) can only be reached if the world systematically shifts to renewable energy sources and significantly improves energy efficiency. That is why the Paris Agreement adopted in 2015 highlights energy as a key element in the effort to limit global warming. In keeping with this, more than 90 per cent of countries have included energy sector measures in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).

The energy sector accounts for about two thirds of all greenhouse gas emissions, for instance from power generation, the heating and cooling of buildings, and transport. Simultaneously, global demand for energy is growing rapidly: according to International Energy Agency (IEA) projections, primary energy demand worldwide will grow by one third by 2040.

Infographic on the topic of "Energy and Climate"

German activities

 In order to meet the energy needs of households, government institutions and enterprises while at the same time limiting global warming on a long-term basis, a transformation of the energy sector is needed. For that to happen, the share of renewable energy in the energy mix must rise considerably.

The BMZ therefore supports some 50 partner countries in moving to climate-friendly energy systems. In 23 of these countries, energy is a priority area of cooperation. In 2017 alone, Germany provided more than two billion euros for renewable energy and energy efficiency efforts in developing countries and emerging economies. In terms of funding volume, energy is one of the largest single items in the German development cooperation budget – and its volume is continuing to grow.

For example, Germany is a leading donor in the Energising Development (EnDev) programme, which has helped improve access to power and modern cooking energy in 25 partner countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia. Since 2005, EnDev has helped 19.2 million people, 21,900 social institutions and 41,300 small enterprises to get access to renewable energy.

Solar power plant in Namibia

Green people's energy for Africa

On the African continent, there is a particularly great potential for renewable energy. For example, only about ten per cent of the continent's potential for hydropower generation has so far been tapped. Solar energy, too, is a key factor for development in Africa. There is also great potential for geothermal power.

Yet there are still about 620 million people in Africa who do not have adequate access to electricity. In rural regions in particular, it will not be an option for people to wait until they are connected to the national grid. This is where the BMZ's "Green people's energy for Africa" initiative comes in. It works with cooperatives, municipalities and private investors to help set up decentralised energy systems on the basis of renewable sources.

In these development cooperation programmes, use is also made of experience from Germany. Here, too, electrification did not start with the construction of large-scale power plants and transmission lines. Rather, the drivers of electrification were energy cooperatives, and such cooperatives are now the backbone of Germany's energy transition: most German wind turbines, solar installations and biomass plants are owned by cooperatives, individuals and municipalities. 180,000 people in Germany are active in 850 projects for renewable energy. This wealth of experience is to be tapped through development cooperation for the benefit of Germany's partner countries.

"Green people's energy for Africa" complements Germany's existing development cooperation programmes at the regional and national levels. If all people in Africa are to benefit from green energy and sustainable development, an integrated approach will be needed that links local potential and larger issues related to the energy infrastructure.

Harmonising energy needs and climate action

Developing and emerging economies that have large reserves of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal) often do not only export these resources, they also use them locally to meet the growing domestic demand for energy. Here, too, it is vital to create sustainable, needs-based alternatives for households, social institutions, small and medium-sized enterprises and industrial facilities. Only a transformation of the energy sector towards renewable energy sources will be able to end countries' one-sided dependency on fossil fuels and reconcile energy and climate goals.

In order to achieve SDG 12 of the 2030 Agenda (Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns), the use of fossil fuels in the establishment of new energy systems must be avoided to the greatest possible extent. And existing energy systems must be transformed: they must provide consumers with reliable, affordable energy in line with needs, and the share of renewable energy in that energy mix must be as high as possible.

Researcher at the Centre of Research in Energy and Energy Conservation at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda. Here, researchers test the energy efficiency of wood-burning stoves.

Needs-based, reliable, sustainable energy for all

Germany mainly supports approaches that consider the partner country's entire energy system and foster the triple strands of renewable energy, energy efficiency and access to sustainable energy. With the help of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies, Germany seeks to help reduce energy poverty and decarbonise the energy sector.

German cooperation programmes focus on needs-based, reliable, sustainable energy supplies for all. This means that sustainable energy of sufficient quality must be available at the right place at the right time in sufficient quantities.

Under its development cooperation programmes, Germany offers its partners tailor-made solutions to create or improve energy access – at the household level, for social institutions, and for small and medium-sized enterprises. Attention is also given to increased energy needs in industry. In order to facilitate sustainable energy for all, Germany assists its partners in creating the requisite administrative, legal, political and financial environment. This matches partner countries' need to increase energy supplies while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The BMZ draws, not least, on experience from Germany's own energy transition. What technologies have proven successful so far? What legal framework should be put in place? What factors are – or are not – conducive to success? The insights Germany has gained can be applied elsewhere.

Employees of the solar power station in Ouarzazate, Morocco
Bilateral activities

Facilitating the transition to sustainable energy

Through its bilateral cooperation programmes, the BMZ helps its partners create favourable conditions for a sustainable energy supply and open up the market for renewable energy and energy efficiency products.

Through its development cooperation, Germany provides advice on new laws, strategies, feed-in tariffs, tax rates and subsidy reforms. It assists with the establishment of energy agencies and trains local experts. It raises awareness through education campaigns and supports the dialogue between government representatives, business and civil society.

In order to kick-start the market for sustainable energy, the BMZ is providing not only expertise but also capital in many countries. For example, credit lines for climate-friendly products are set up via national development banks. The money is used, for instance, to promote the use of energy-efficient household appliances in Mexico, and to build low-energy buildings in India and various Eastern European countries. As banks in many countries are still reluctant to provide loans for renewable energies or energy efficiency projects, such credit lines can do much to encourage further expansion.

Men fill a biogas plant at the Green Innovation Center at the Bukura Agricultural College in Kenya.

Tapping the potential in developing countries and emerging economies

Uganda

Power for remote regions

Electricity from renewable sources also plays an important part in providing access to energy in rural parts of the world. Among other things, Germany is supporting efforts in Uganda to provide energy for the remote West Nile region. More than 60,000 people and many companies in that region are now getting all their power from a small hydropower station.

There are plans to build a second hydropower station. The electricity is distributed via a new mini-grid, which has been expanded considerably with German funding. This improves local people's living conditions and facilitates climate-friendly local economic development.

Hydropowerstation in Uganda
Morocco

Solar park for 1.3 million people

One of the largest solar parks of the world is being operated in Ouarzazate, Morocco. The facility is continuously being expanded. On completion, it is intended to provide climate-friendly power for at least 1.3 million people. This will save about 800,000 tonnes of carbon emissions per year compared to conventional power generation. Germany is providing reduced-interest loans totalling more than 800 million euros, which makes it the largest supporter of the project. The project is also receiving funding from the Clean Technology Fund (CTF), the African Development Bank and other donors.

The solar power station in Ouarzazate, Morocco, already provides electricity for 350,000 people, creates jobs, increases independence from energy imports and protects the climate.
India

Green energy corridors

Germany also assists India in realising its ambitious plans for the expansion of renewables. Through the Indo-German Energy Programme, Germany is advising its Indian partners on issues such as integrating the increasing quantities of electricity from clean energy sources into the national grid, because the greatest potential for renewable energy in India can be found at some distance from its industrial and economic centres. In other words, the electricity must be brought to where it is needed. To that end, India is continuously working – with German support – to expand what are called "green corridors". The corridors are intended to complement existing power networks and remedy regional disparities.

Wind turbines in India
Brazil

Wind and solar power

Brazil, too, has huge untapped potential for using wind and solar power; and demand for energy is rising. But the potential for further expanding large-scale hydropower generation, which has traditionally provided the bulk of renewable energy in Brazil, has declined drastically over the past few years.

Through its development cooperation, Germany is supporting Brazilian partners in making better use of other renewable sources, for example by developing a wind data system in order to better assess the potential for wind power in various places. Germany has also helped the country introduce feed-in tariff regulations for power from decentralised installations.

And Germany has financed nine wind farms with a total capacity of 450 megawatts, which is equivalent to about 10 per cent of total installed wind power capacity in Brazil. In total, the wind parks are saving more than eight million tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions a year.

Wind energy turbine in Brazil
South Africa

Expansion of power grids

In South Africa, too, German development cooperation is supporting the expansion of renewables, by helping to improve the enabling environment for this.

In addition, Germany has committed 400 million euros to help expand the country's electricity networks and is advising South African agencies on how to integrate energy from renewable sources into the grid. The total capacity of renewable power plants in the country that have been connected to the grid has now reached over 3,900 megawatts. In addition, rooftop photovoltaic installations with a combined capacity of more than 300 megawatts have been installed.

Solar panels in South Africa

Africa Renewable Energy Initiative

Together with other industrialised countries, Germany supports the Africa Renewable Energy Initiative (AREI). It was launched with African partners at the G7 Summit in Germany in 2015 and officially founded six months later at the global climate conference in Paris.

This is an African-led initiative. Its purpose is to increase renewable energy generation capacity in Africa by 10 gigawatts by 2020. By 2030, the total increase in such capacity is to reach 300 gigawatts.

At the Paris climate conference, the G7, Sweden, the Netherlands and the European Commission pledged ten billion US dollars for the period up to 2020 to support the goals of AREI, that is, the promotion of renewable energy in Africa. This support is to be provided through existing channels of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. The largest pledges have come from Germany and France, which have committed three billion euros each.

In 2016, Germany was the largest bilateral donor for renewable energy in Africa, with a total of 1.2 billion euros. This funding was invested in the expansion of climate-friendly energy systems, transmission and distribution of sustainably produced electricity, and technical cooperation in this area. At present, Germany is supporting energy projects in more than 20 African countries through bilateral cooperation.

Logo: Africa Renewable Energy Initiative (AREI)
Infographic: Africa Renewable Energy Initiative (AREI)
Multilateral activities

Working together for a sustainable energy future

At the multilateral level, too, Germany is working to support sustainable, climate-friendly energy systems. It focuses, in particular, on collaboration with international partners and initiatives such as the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the renewable energy policy network REN21 and the World Bank's Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). Germany is also working together with the Sustainable Energy for All initiative (SEforALL). Within the EU Energy Initiative (EUEI), European partners coordinate their energy- and climate-related development cooperation activities.

Through GET.invest, the BMZ works to develop decentralised markets for renewable energy in its partner countries. GET.invest primarily supports private developers and operators of decentralised energy projects in difficult and innovative markets. The programme focuses on providing better access to finance, thus accelerating investment in projects of this type. In the Africa-EU Energy Partnership (AEEP), energy players from Africa and Europe exchange ideas with a view to jointly overcoming challenges in the energy sector.

Energy is also an important issue in the BMZ's cooperation with multilateral development banks. The BMZ supports the banks' efforts to align their funding policies with the Paris Agreement, which requires international financial flows to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and boost resilience to climate change.

Working on a wind turbine
  • The Azeba Health Center in the Ganta Afeshum district of Ethiopia received reliable power from a solar system with the help of EnDev. Since electrification, paraffin or torches have no longer been required during the evening hours. The number of births attended by medical staff rose from five per year to over two hundred.
    Cooperation in action

    Energising Development: Access to energy for millions of people

    EnDev (Energising Development) is the largest multi-donor and multi-country energy programme supported under German development cooperation. It aims to provide a total of 21 million people with access to modern, climate-friendly and affordable energy by 2021.

  • View of the geothermal power station Olkaria in Kenya
    East Africa: Cooperation in action

    Climate-friendly energy from the earth

    The future of electricity in East Africa lies in the earth – because the potential for generating geothermal power along the East African Rift Valley is enormous. Yet only about 20 per cent of the people in the region have access to electricity.

  • Soroti solar power plant in Uganda
    Cooperation in action: Uganda

    GET-FIT promotes renewable energy

    Up until recent years, Uganda regularly faced power shortages. In order to respond to the growing demand in a climate-friendly way, the Ugandan government is relying on renewable energies.

  • The Programm Energising Development (EnDev) promotes access to and use of small solar devices in Africa.
    Malawi: Cooperation in action

    Solar-powered lamps improve the lives of many families

    In Malawi, one of the poorest countries in the world, only around 12 per cent of the approximately 18 million inhabitants are connected to the electricity grid. The remainder of the population relies on firewood, charcoal and plant residues for its cooking and heating needs.

  • The village of Jalpa in Khotang District in Nepal was electrified by the international energy partnership Energising Development (EnDev).
    Nepal: Cooperation in action

    Small hydropower plants improve lives in rural areas

    In Nepal, about one in five people living in rural areas has no access to electricity. Up until three years ago, the inhabitants of the community of Jalpa in the District of Khotang had to rely on kerosene and firewood for lighting.

  • Construction of the Rwaza hydropower plant in Northern Rwanda
    Rwanda: Cooperation in action

    Rwaza small hydropower plant provides clean energy

    During the genocide in Rwanda in 1994, which is estimated to have killed up to one million people, much of the country's infrastructure was destroyed. In particular, many energy generation and distribution facilities were affected.

The Azeba Health Center in the Ganta Afeshum district of Ethiopia received reliable power from a solar system with the help of EnDev. Since electrification, paraffin or torches have no longer been required during the evening hours. The number of births attended by medical staff rose from five per year to over two hundred.
Cooperation in action

Energising Development: Access to energy for millions of people

EnDev (Energising Development) is the largest multi-donor and multi-country energy programme supported under German development cooperation. The BMZ is the lead donor to the programme, and together with the Netherlands, Norway, the UK, Switzerland and Sweden it aims to provide a total of 21 million people with access to modern, climate-friendly and affordable energy by 2021. EnDev is currently active in 25 countries, with an emphasis on the least developed African nations.

In the period up to the end of 2017, EnDev helped 19.2 million people, 21,900 social institutions (such as health centres and schools) and 41,300 small enterprises across the world to get access to modern energy services. These EnDev programmes have helped avoid the emission of more than 2 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year, and also the emission of other gases and black carbon particles. This is equivalent to avoiding the carbon dioxide emissions of all intra-European flights during 12 days, or planting 4.9 million trees.

EnDev is helping to transform partner countries' energy sectors towards the goal of a global energy transition. Through renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies, the programme seeks to help reduce energy poverty and decarbonise the energy sector.

EnDev supports the provision of

  • household energy for lighting and small electronic devices (such as mobile phones) and for cooking, baking and heating purposes;
  • energy for lighting and electrical appliances as well as stoves and ovens in schools, hospitals and community centres (social infrastructure); and
  • energy for small and medium-sized enterprises to enable them to increase productivity, process goods more easily, and offer improved services.

 Through its activities, EnDev not only seeks to provide people with modern and sustainable energy. Its goals go beyond that. Access to energy and the efficient use of energy are crucial for the achievement of more far-reaching impacts. This applies, in particular, to improved social services and increased productivity through more sustainable energy, which opens up opportunities for creating new jobs and additional income. For example, tradespersons now use electrical machinery such as welding machines; shop owners extend their opening hours and offer cooled products; and small farmers process their harvest themselves in order to get a better price in the market for value-added products.

Efficient stoves

Worldwide, more than a billion people have no access to electricity; three billion people depend on firewood, charcoal and plant residues for their cooking and heating.

EnDev seeks to expand the use of renewable energy in rural areas and the upscaling of efficient and climate-friendly energy technology. Cookstoves based on such technology require less resources. By reducing the demand for firewood, improved stoves thus contribute to forest conservation. Simultaneously, emissions of black carbon and other climate pollutants go down, which is a significant contribution towards better health, especially for women.

Two men in Ouagadougou,Burkina Faso, building an energy-saving stove
View of the geothermal power station Olkaria in Kenya
East Africa: Cooperation in action

Climate-friendly energy from the earth

The future of electricity in East Africa lies in the earth – because the potential for generating geothermal power along the East African Rift Valley is enormous. Yet only about 20 per cent of the people in the region have access to electricity.

Kenya and Ethiopia are currently the only countries in the region using geothermal resources to generate electricity. Exploratory drilling is expensive. In addition, the risk of failing to find a suitable resource is high, even after extensive preliminary geological investigations. Many investors therefore shy away from the investment involved, despite the fact that geothermal power – once tapped – is a constant, clean and low-cost source of energy.

It is for this reason that the BMZ has set up a Geothermal Risk Mitigation Facility (GRMF), which also receives financial support from the EU and the UK. The Facility co-finances geological analysis of geothermal fields and provides grants to support the first rounds of exploratory drilling, thus reducing the financial risk to investors. It also finances geological studies in preparation of exploratory drilling.

Public and private geothermal power developers from eleven East African countries are eligible to apply for grants from the GRMF. The first GRMF-supported rounds of exploratory drilling took place in 2016.

In the first four rounds of applications for support, 27 projects received funding from the GRMF. Grants went to 11 studies and 16 exploratory drilling projects. There is considerable interest in the scheme: numerous project proposals have again been submitted and are now being scrutinised as part of the fifth round of funding decisions.

View of the geothermal power station Olkaria in Kenya

Kenya: Full steam ahead for renewable energies

Kenya has set itself an ambitious target for its energy supply. With German support, geothermal energy is increasingly being used to achieve this goal. (Video in German)

Soroti solar power plant in Uganda
Cooperation in action: Uganda

GET-FIT promotes renewable energy

The economy in Uganda is growing – and along with it, the country's demand for electricity. Up until recent years, the country regularly faced power shortages. In order to respond to the growing demand in a climate-friendly way, the Ugandan government is relying on renewable energies. The potential for renewables is big: Uganda is the source of the White Nile and also features several of Africa's Great Lakes – Lake Victoria and Lake Albert, as well as Lake George. Sunshine is also available in abundance.

In order to push ahead with the country's energy transition, the Ugandan government and the local Electricity Regulatory Authority (ERA), together with KfW Development Bank on behalf of the BMZ, have developed the GET-FIT Programme. GET-FIT stands for Global Energy Transfer Feed-in Tariffs. The programme provides financial incentives and a reliable legal framework for increased renewable energy generation by private investors.

Renewable energy market becoming more attractive

Previously, the Ugandan energy market, with its low feed-in tariff for energy producers, its risky policy and economic framework, and its lack of capital, was an unattractive place for investing in renewable energy. With support from Germany, Norway, the UK and the European Union, GET-FIT has paved the way for private investment. Thanks to subsidies to the existing feed-in tariff, investors now find that engagement with the sector pays off. In addition, contractual documents have been standardised in order to shorten approval processes.

Electricity for 1.2 million people

Within the framework of GET-FIT, 17 small power stations with a capacity of up to 160 megawatts are under construction. The new facilities will raise Uganda's energy production by around 20 per cent over a period of three to five years and will provide energy access to approximately 1.2 million people.

In the summer of 2017, the first solar energy plant in Uganda – and the largest to date in East Africa – was connected to the grid. The plant is located near the city of Soroti in eastern Uganda and supplies electricity, with its 10 megawatt capacity, to approximately 40,000 households. Thanks to the GET-FIT programme, which used subsidies to mobilise private capital, the solar plant was completed in a record time of nine months.

The transformation of Uganda's energy sector in such a short period is so significant that it is gaining international attention. Bloomberg Ratings has issued an excellent report on the country, ranking Uganda in second place in Africa in terms of investments in renewable energies. And in 2018, Uganda's regulatory authority was ranked the best in Africa.

The Programm Energising Development (EnDev) promotes access to and use of small solar devices in Africa.
Malawi: Cooperation in action

Solar-powered lamps improve the lives of many families

In Malawi, one of the poorest countries in the world, only around 12 per cent of the approximately 18 million inhabitants are connected to the electricity grid. The remainder of the population relies on firewood, charcoal and plant residues for its cooking and heating needs. For lighting, small kerosene or battery-powered lamps are used, which are dangerous and environmentally harmful energy sources.

This is where Energising Development (EnDev) – an energy partnership financed by Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK, Switzerland and Sweden – comes in: the partnership promotes access to modern energy in a total of 25 countries across Africa, Latin America and Asia.

2,100 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year saved

With support from EnDev, 33,000 people in Malawi have received small solar devices since mid-2015, which they use to light their homes. Some also use the equipment to charge their cellular phones. One such person is Clara Sayineti from the village of Mwadenje. Her solar lamps save her the equivalent of 4.80 euros a week, as she does not need to buy expensive and environmentally harmful kerosene. The lighting has also made it easier for her children to complete their homework assignments in the evenings. She herself is now able to sew in the evenings in the bright light provided by her solar lamp, as well as run a small food stand in front of her house, which contributes to her income.

The small solar devices that have been distributed by EnDev in Malawi have already resulted in carbon dioxide emission savings of 2,100 tonnes per year. That is approximately the equivalent of 1,000 roundtrip flights of one passenger (economy class) from Berlin to Lilongwe, the capital of Malawi. And demand for the devices continues to grow.

The market for solar products is growing

According to estimates, by the end of 2016 about 62,000 solar lamps had been sold in the country, which means that only one per cent of the population living in energy poverty has been reached. Over the past two years, EnDev has been making a significant contribution to the development of a sustainable market for solar products along the entire value chain. To that end, the energy partnership has supported education campaigns and provided funding to companies to assist with the distribution of more than 46,000 solar devices. This has increased public awareness of the economic advantages of high-value solar products. Thanks to the growing solar market in Malawi, many more people will start using solar products in the coming years, which are more climate-friendly and economical than traditional fuels.

The village of Jalpa in Khotang District in Nepal was electrified by the international energy partnership Energising Development (EnDev).
Nepal: Cooperation in action

Small hydropower plants improve lives in rural areas

In Nepal, about one in five people living in rural areas has no access to electricity. Up until three years ago, the inhabitants of the community of Jalpa in the District of Khotang had to rely on kerosene and firewood for lighting. They had to walk for six hours to Diktel, the closest city, to buy kerosene. One litre of kerosene cost 85 cents and was used up in a week.

Through EnDev, which is co-financed by Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK, Switzerland and Sweden, the living conditions for the people of Jalpa have improved. In Nepal, EnDev supports, amongst other things, the construction of small hydropower plants, including in the District of Khotang.

Committee administers and operates the power station

Currently, 195 families are benefitting from the climate-friendly electricity being produced by the Lumju-Khola small hydropower station. Purna Bahadur Rai, who lives in Jalpa, pays an average of 88 cents per month for the sustainably produced electricity – and thus saves 2.80 euros a month: "It used to be very difficult, especially for women and children, because they had to spend many hours in dark and smoky places. That was harmful to their health. Now our home is no longer so sooty, and we stay healthy. We need less firewood and that preserves our forests," Rai explains and points to an LED lamp that he has installed in his house.

He heads the committee that administers and operates the power station. With a proper billing system and clear records of household consumption, the administrative committee has won the trust of the villagers. Power bills are paid through a financial cooperative. The inhabitants know the operation and maintenance costs of their hydropower plant and are able to plan ahead. Among other things, they have been able to set up a repair fund, which proved its worth following the strong earthquakes of 2015.

Electricity for more than 27,000 people

More than 27,000 people in rural areas of Nepal have, with help from EnDev, gained access to electricity through small hydropower plants. The families in Jalpa and in other communities are benefitting on multiple levels: the provision of electricity is reliable and they no longer require expensive and environmentally harmful kerosene. In addition, less wood is cut from the forests for firewood. The small hydropower plants that EnDev has supported in Nepal save an annual 673 tonnes of carbon dioxide, the equivalent produced by 132 average automobiles.

The village of Jalpa in Khotang District in Nepal was electrified by the international energy partnership Energising Development (EnDev).
Construction of the Rwaza hydropower plant in Northern Rwanda
Rwanda: Cooperation in action

Rwaza small hydropower plant provides clean energy

During the genocide in Rwanda in 1994, which is estimated to have killed up to one million people, much of the country's infrastructure was destroyed. In particular, many energy generation and distribution facilities were affected. As a result, only about one fourth of the people of Rwanda have access to electricity.

The government is working to restore the energy infrastructure, using, among other things, hydropower, methane, solar energy and geothermal power. It has set itself the target of providing stable access to electricity for 70 per cent of the people by 2018.

Power for 20,000 households

Germany is assisting Rwanda in implementing its energy strategy. With German support, the Rwaza small hydropower plant is being built on the Mukungwa River in northern Rwanda, not far from the city of Musanze.

The plant is to be ready for operation at the end of 2018. It will then produce 20 gigawatt hours a year, or 2 per cent of total electricity output in Rwanda. This will cover the annual power needs of 20,000 Rwandan households. As the power station will feed electricity into the local grid, local enterprises and industrial facilities will benefit from more stable power supplies.

Financing company for energy projects in Africa

In order to support energy projects in Africa such as the construction of the Rwaza small hydropower plant, KfW Development Bank set up a project development and financing company in 2014 on behalf of the German Development Ministry, the responsAbility Renewable Energy Holding (rAREH). This is a public-private company that takes part in the development, financing and operation of small to medium-sized energy facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. In the holding company, the partner on the private side is responsAbility, a Swiss-based asset management company. KfW Development Bank contributed 20.5 million euros to the holding company.

Since mid-2014, rAREH has been supporting the construction of the Rwaza small hydropower station as an investor, together with a Danish investor, Frontier Energy. Implementation lies in the hands of a local developer, DC Hydropower, which is supported by the American Power Africa Initiative.

Construction of the Rwaza hydropower plant in Northern Rwanda
Energy and climate

BMZ publications

Videos on the topic of "energy and climate"

Renewable energies

The 2030 Agenda and the Paris Agreement have set the world on a new course for achieving development that is truly sustainable. Renewable energy is at the core of sustainable development and climate action.

Kenya: Full steam ahead for renewable energies

Kenya has set itself an ambitious target for its energy supply. With German support, geothermal energy is increasingly being used to achieve this goal. (Video in German)

New kitchens to combat climate change

Wood is still Bolivia's most important source of energy in rural areas. In order to protect the environment and reduce consumption, the Malena Kitchen Project is working on the construction of new stoves. (Video in German)

develoPPP.de – solar power for Mozambique

A public-private development partnership between Phaesun, a German company, and the Deutsche Investitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft is bringing off-grid solar systems to Mozambique, thus giving rural people new opportunities. (Video in German)

Reducing air pollution with E-Trikes

In Naga City in the Philippines, a company has specialised in the construction of E-Trikes. The electric vehicles are designed to reduce air pollution. 90 percent of the required materials are supplied from the immediate vicinity, only 10 to 15 percent have to be imported.

Wind farm near Zafarana, Egypt
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