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Energy and climate

Ulan Bator, Mongolia: Housing development with solar system for water heating. In the background a coal power plant.

The sectors of climate and energy are closely interrelated. The energy goal of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (SDG 7) envisages ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030. It also envisages substantially increasing the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix and doubling the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency by 2030.

Access to energy in line with needs is the prerequisite for economic growth, employment and poverty reduction, and it is a basis for good education and health care.

Sufficient energy must not only be provided to private households but also to a larger number of agricultural, industrial and commercial consumers than in the past. Providing energy to such consumers is key with a view to ensuring that our partner countries are able to achieve economic development. Enterprises require reliable energy supplies in order to be able to produce, store and transport goods and provide services. Energy is also a key prerequisite for value chain development in manufacturing and mining, agriculture and food processing.

Private households and public institutions, too, need a reliable and affordable energy supply. Energy is needed, for example, to prepare food, provide heating and lighting for homes and schools, run hospitals and provide safe drinking water.

Energy generation and distribution has a great impact on the global climate. The energy sector accounts for about two thirds of all greenhouse gas emissions, for instance from power generation, the heating and cooling of buildings, and the transport of goods. Simultaneously, global demand for energy is growing rapidly: according to International Energy Agency (IEA) projections, primary energy demand worldwide will grow by one third by 2040.

This means that the climate goal of the 2030 Agenda (SDG 13) can only be reached if the international community systematically shifts to renewable energy sources and significantly improves energy efficiency. That is why the Paris Agreement adopted in 2015 highlights energy as a key element in the effort to limit global warming. Renewable energy sources are crucial to giving people access to energy and achieving sustainable economic development. Accordingly, more than 90 per cent of countries have included energy sector measures in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).

Infographic on the topic of "Energy and Climate"

German activities

A viable energy system must be climate-friendly. It is vital to overcome the world's dependency on fossil fuels such as oil and coal and, simultaneously, develop energy systems that provide people with energy in line with their needs on a climate-neutral basis. In order to meet the energy needs of households, government institutions and enterprises while at the same time limiting global warming on a long-term basis, the share of renewable energy in the energy mix must be increased and a transformation of the entire energy sector is needed.

It will be a challenge to ensure stable and reliable energy supplies as the share of renewable sources in power generation rises. This is because the use of renewable sources such as solar and wind power leads to fluctuations in energy generation depending on the time of day and the weather. This means that solutions must be found for grid and system integration. Innovative strategies and holistic planning methods are required.

This includes adjusting regulatory frameworks, expanding renewable energy generation to a sufficient degree, modernising grids and operating them on the basis of digital technology, and integrating power markets across borders. The introduction of innovative technologies (such as virtual power stations, electric vehicles and battery storage) and business models can help to accelerate the transformation of the energy sector.

Elizabeth Mukwimba, a 62-year-old Tanzanian woman, who now has solar lighting and electricity in her home thanks to the international energy partnership Energising Development (EnDev).

Development cooperation

The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) assists some 50 partner countries in pursuing climate-friendly energy paths. In 23 of these countries, energy is a priority area of bilateral development cooperation. In 2018 alone, Germany provided about 2.9 billion euros for renewable energy and energy efficiency efforts in developing countries and emerging economies. This means that in terms of financial volume, energy is one of the largest single items in Germany's development cooperation portfolio.

In order to achieve the targets of the Paris Agreement and the goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the BMZ relies on its implementing organisations KfW and GIZ. It also works together with the private sector and makes use of successful global instruments and multilateral channels.

KfW provides financial support to its partners with regard to the cost-effective expansion of power supply, covering the areas of generation, transmission and distribution, and with regard to suitable energy efficiency measures. To that end, the development bank provides loans and grants to its project and programme partners. GIZ helps to put in place a basis for the transformation of energy systems by providing technical and political advice. This contributes to the creation of a conducive political, legal and financial environment and to local capacity development.

In cooperation with the international community, the BMZ also works on global and regional projects. Among other things, it is a leading donor to the Energising Development (EnDev) partnership. This programme seeks to improve access to electricity and modern cooking energy in 25 partner countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia. Since 2005, EnDev has provided access to electricity or modern cooking energy for 21.3 million people, 46,500 businesses and 21,150 social institutions.

The Global Energy Transformation Programme (GET.pro) set up jointly with the EU and other international donors helps to mobilise private investment in decentralised power generation from renewable sources, advises partner governments on energy transition issues, and provides the secretariat for the Africa-EU Energy Partnership.

Solar power plant in Namibia

Green People's Energy for Africa initiative

On the African continent, there is a particularly great potential for renewable energy. Solar power in particular has a key role to play for development in Africa. But there is great potential in hydropower, too, of which only about 20 per cent has been tapped. Geothermal and wind energy offer great opportunities as well.

Yet there are about 573 million people in Africa who do not have adequate access to electricity. In rural regions in particular, it will not be an option for people to wait until they are connected to the national grid. Grid expansion is costly and takes a lot of time, and it is uncertain how many people will be reached in the end.

This is where the BMZ's "Green people's energy for Africa" initiative comes in. It works with citizens, cooperatives, municipalities and small and medium-sized enterprises to help set up decentralised energy systems on the basis of renewable sources.

In these development cooperation programmes, use is made of experience from Germany. Here, too, electrification did not start with the construction of large-scale power plants and transmission lines. Rather, the drivers of electrification were energy cooperatives, and such cooperatives are now the backbone of Germany's energy transition.

Most German wind turbines, solar installations and biomass plants are owned by cooperatives, individuals and municipalities. 183,000 people in Germany are active in 855 projects for renewable energy. The initiative seeks to share this wealth of experience with people in Germany's partner countries.

The "Green people's energy for Africa" initiative complements Germany's existing development cooperation programmes through an integrated approach. It seeks to improve the general environment for investment in renewable energy and to support the development of needs-based, decentralised supply solutions for productive energy consumption. Examples of such consumption include small-scale businesses and social institutions such as schools and health centres. Such solutions can help develop local value chains and boost local economic development.

Harmonising energy needs and climate action

Developing and emerging economies that have large reserves of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal) often do not only export these resources, they also use them locally to meet the growing domestic demand for energy. Here, it is vital to create sustainable, needs-based alternatives for households, social institutions, small and medium-sized enterprises and industrial facilities. Only a transformation of the energy sector towards renewable energy sources will be able to end countries' one-sided dependency on fossil fuels. This is a prerequisite for reconciling energy and climate goals.

In order to achieve SDG 12 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns), the use of fossil fuels in the establishment of new energy systems must be avoided to the greatest possible extent. And existing energy systems must be transformed: they must provide consumers with reliable, affordable energy in line with needs, and the share of renewable energy in that energy mix must be as high as possible.

Researcher at the Centre of Research in Energy and Energy Conservation at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda. Here, researchers test the energy efficiency of wood-burning stoves.

Needs-based, reliable, sustainable energy for all

Germany primarily supports approaches that consider the partner country's entire energy system and foster the triple strands of renewable energy, energy efficiency and access to sustainable energy. With the help of modern technologies, Germany seeks to help reduce energy poverty and decarbonise the energy sector.

German cooperation programmes focus on needs-based, reliable, sustainable energy supplies for all. This means that sustainable energy of sufficient quality must be available at the right place at the right time in sufficient quantities.

Under its development cooperation programmes, Germany offers its partners tailor-made solutions to create or improve energy access - for households, social institutions, and small and medium-sized enterprises. Attention is also given to the fact that the industrial sector requires more energy.

In order to facilitate energy access, Germany assists its partners in creating the requisite political, legal, administrative and financial environment. This helps partner countries to meet their growing energy needs while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The BMZ draws, not least, on experience from Germany's own energy transition. What technologies have proven successful so far? What legal framework should be put in place? What factors are – or are not – conducive to success? The insights Germany has gained can be applied elsewhere.

Employees of the solar power station in Ouarzazate, Morocco
Bilateral activities

Facilitating the transition to sustainable energy

Through its bilateral cooperation programmes, the BMZ helps its partners create favourable conditions for a sustainable energy supply and open up the market for renewable energy and energy efficiency products.

Through its development cooperation, Germany provides advice on new laws, strategies, feed-in tariffs, tax rates and subsidy reforms. It assists with the establishment of energy agencies and trains local experts. It raises awareness through education campaigns and supports the dialogue between government representatives, business and civil society.

In order to kick-start the market for sustainable energy, the BMZ is providing not only expertise but also capital in many countries. For example, credit lines for climate-friendly products are set up via national development banks. The money is used, for instance, to promote the use of energy-efficient household appliances in Mexico and to build low-energy buildings in India and various Eastern European countries. As banks in many countries are still reluctant to provide loans for renewable energies or energy efficiency projects, such credit lines can do much to encourage further expansion.

Men fill a biogas plant at the Green Innovation Center at the Bukura Agricultural College in Kenya.

Tapping the potential in developing countries and emerging economies

Uganda

Power for remote regions

Electricity from renewable sources plays an important part in providing access to energy in rural parts of the world.

Among other things, Germany is supporting efforts in Uganda to provide energy for the remote West Nile region. More than 60,000 people and many companies in that region are now getting all their power from a small hydropower station. There are plans to build a second hydropower station.

The electricity is distributed via a mini-grid, which has been expanded considerably with German funding. The newly available power supply improves local people's living conditions and facilitates climate-friendly local economic development.

Hydropowerstation in Uganda
Morocco

Solar park for 1.3 million people

One of the largest solar parks of the world is being operated in Ouarzazate, Morocco. The facility is continuously being expanded. In the future, it is to provide climate-friendly power for at least 1.3 million people. This will save at least 800,000 tonnes of carbon emissions per year compared to conventional power generation.

Germany is providing reduced-interest loans totalling more than 800 million euros, which makes it the largest supporter of the project. The project is also receiving funding from the Clean Technology Fund (CTF), the African Development Bank and other donors.

The solar power station in Ouarzazate, Morocco, already provides electricity for 350,000 people, creates jobs, increases independence from energy imports and protects the climate.
India

Green energy corridors

Germany also assists India in realising its ambitious plans for the expansion of renewables. Through the Indo-German Energy Programme, Germany is advising its Indian partners on issues such as integrating the increasing quantities of electricity from clean energy sources into the national grid. This is a matter of great urgency, because the greatest potential for renewable energy in India can be found at some distance from its industrial and economic centres.

In other words, the electricity must be brought to where it is needed. To that end, India is continuously working – with German support – to expand what are called "green energy corridors". The corridors are intended to complement existing power networks and remedy regional disparities.

 

Wind turbines in India
Brazil

Wind and solar power

The share of renewable energy in Brazil's energy mix is already high. Far more than half of its electricity is hydropower. Another 15 per cent comes from other renewable sources. However, water shortages - caused, among other things, by climate change - mean that hydropower is not always available. Brazil has therefore given high priority to expanding power generation from other renewable sources and enhancing energy efficiency. It is projected that installed wind power capacity will double and solar energy capacity will increase sevenfold by 2024.

Germany has provided reduced-interest financing and technical assistance, facilitating the construction of numerous wind farms and photovoltaic installations in Brazil and thus helping these technologies to make a breakthrough. In 2018, the installed capacity of wind and solar power plants in Brazil was about 16,200 megawatts, a share of about 10 per cent in overall power plant capacity. In 2010, by contrast, that share was less than one per cent.

Following an advisory services programme run by GIZ, the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Authority (ANEEL) introduced the "net metering" billing model throughout the country. Brazilians are now able to feed electricity from their own photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines or biogas plants into the grid. Net metering makes private investment attractive, especially in photovoltaic systems, thus fostering decentralised, climate-friendly, reliable and competitive energy supplies. In addition, a pilot study was undertaken with the energy ministry, the energy planning authority and the national grid operator to develop new mechanisms and technical options for integrating renewable energy in the power market.

Wind energy turbine in Brazil
South Africa

Expansion of power grids

In South Africa, too, German development cooperation is supporting the expansion of renewables, by helping to improve the enabling environment for this.

In addition, Germany has committed 400 million euros to help expand the country's electricity networks and is advising South African agencies on how to integrate energy from renewable sources into the grid. The total capacity of renewable power plants in the country that have been connected to the grid has now reached over 3,900 megawatts. In addition, rooftop photovoltaic installations with a combined capacity of more than 300 megawatts have been installed.

Solar panels in South Africa

Africa Renewable Energy Initiative

Together with other industrialised countries, Germany supports the Africa Renewable Energy Initiative (AREI). It was launched with African partners at the G7 Summit in Germany in 2015 and officially founded six months later at the global climate conference in Paris.

AREI is an exclusively African-led initiative. Its purpose is to increase renewable energy generation capacity in Africa by 10 gigawatts by 2020. By 2030, the total increase in such capacity is to reach 300 gigawatts.

At the Paris climate conference, the G7, Sweden, the Netherlands and the European Commission pledged ten billion US dollars for the period up to 2020 to support the goals of AREI, that is, the promotion of renewable energy in Africa. This support is to be provided through existing channels of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. The largest pledges came from Germany and France, which committed three billion euros each.

In 2016, Germany was the largest bilateral donor for renewable energy in Africa, with a total of 1.2 billion euros. This funding was invested in the expansion of climate-friendly energy systems, the transmission and distribution of sustainably produced electricity, and technical cooperation in this area. At present, Germany is supporting energy projects in more than 20 African countries through bilateral cooperation.

 

Logo: Africa Renewable Energy Initiative (AREI)
Infographic: Africa Renewable Energy Initiative (AREI)
Multilateral activities

Working together for a sustainable energy future

At the multilateral level, too, Germany is working to support sustainable, climate-friendly energy systems. It focuses, in particular, on collaboration with international partners and initiatives such as the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the renewable energy policy network REN21 and the World Bank's Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). Germany is also working together with the Sustainable Energy for All initiative (SEforALL). Within the EU Energy Initiative (EUEI), European partners coordinate their energy- and climate-related development cooperation activities.

Global Energy Transformation Programme (GET.pro)

The multi-donor Global Energy Transformation Programme (GET.pro) is an effort launched by the BMZ to get European players (European Commission, Sweden, Netherlands, Austria) to join forces to help achieve international energy and climate goals. To that end, GET.pro uses harmonised instruments to address the fundamental elements needed for an energy transition: the private sector, public players, and international dialogue.

Through GET.invest, the BMZ works to mobilise private investment in decentralised facilities for power generation from renewable sources. GET.invest primarily supports private developers and operators of decentralised energy projects. GET.transform is the BMZ's channel for assisting participating countries in designing their energy transition. Among other things, advice is provided on integrated energy and climate planning and on grid integration.

Through the Africa-EU Energy Partnership (AEEP), the BMZ provides additional support to foster close cooperation between European players and Africa to advance the transformation of energy systems in Africa, a continent of great opportunities.

Energy is also an important issue in the BMZ's cooperation with multilateral development banks. Through its support policies, the BMZ contributes to the implementation of the Paris Agreement, which requires international financial flows to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and boost resilience to climate change.

Working on a wind turbine
  • The Azeba Health Center in the Ganta Afeshum district of Ethiopia received reliable power from a solar system with the help of EnDev. Since electrification, paraffin or torches have no longer been required during the evening hours. The number of births attended by medical staff rose from five per year to over two hundred.
    Cooperation in action

    Energising Development: Access to energy for millions of people

    EnDev (Energising Development) is the largest multi-donor and multi-country energy programme supported under German development cooperation. It aims to provide a total of 21 million people with access to modern, climate-friendly and affordable energy by 2021.

  • View of the geothermal power station Olkaria in Kenya
    East Africa: Cooperation in action

    Climate-friendly energy from the earth

    The future of electricity in East Africa lies in the earth – because the potential for generating geothermal power along the East African Rift Valley is enormous. Yet only about 20 per cent of the people in the region have access to electricity.

  • Soroti solar power plant in Uganda
    Uganda: Cooperation in action

    Better power supply, better climate change mitigation

    In order to respond to the growing demand for power in a climate-friendly way, the Ugandan government is relying on renewable energy and the improvement of energy efficiency.

  • The Programm Energising Development (EnDev) promotes access to and use of small solar devices in Africa.
    Malawi: Cooperation in action

    Solar-powered lamps improve the lives of many families

    In Malawi, one of the poorest countries in the world, only around 12 per cent of the approximately 18 million inhabitants are connected to the electricity grid. The remainder of the population relies on firewood, charcoal and plant residues for its cooking and heating needs.

  • The village of Jalpa in Khotang District in Nepal was electrified by the international energy partnership Energising Development (EnDev).
    Nepal: Cooperation in action

    Small hydropower plants improve lives in rural areas

    In Nepal, about one in five people living in rural areas has no access to electricity. Up until four years ago, the inhabitants of the community of Jalpa in the District of Khotang had to rely on kerosene and firewood for lighting.

  • Construction of the Rwaza hydropower plant in Northern Rwanda
    Rwanda: Cooperation in action

    Rwaza small hydropower plant provides clean energy

    It is estimated that the 1994 genocide in Rwanda killed up to one million people. The civil war also destroyed a large proportion of the country's infrastructure. In particular, many energy generation and distribution facilities were affected.

The Azeba Health Center in the Ganta Afeshum district of Ethiopia received reliable power from a solar system with the help of EnDev. Since electrification, paraffin or torches have no longer been required during the evening hours. The number of births attended by medical staff rose from five per year to over two hundred.
Cooperation in action

Energising Development: Access to energy for millions of people

EnDev (Energising Development) is the largest multi-donor and multi-country energy programme supported under German development cooperation. The BMZ is the lead donor to the programme, and together with the Netherlands, Norway, the UK, Switzerland and Sweden it aims to provide a total of 22 million people with access to modern, climate-friendly and affordable energy by 2021. EnDev is currently active in 25 countries, with a focus on the least developed African nations.

In the period up to the end of 2018, EnDev helped 21.3 million people, 21,150 social institutions (such as health centres and schools) and 46,500 small enterprises across the world to get access to modern energy services.

These programmes have helped avoid the emission of more than 2 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year, and also the emission of other harmful gases and black carbon particles. This is equivalent to avoiding the carbon dioxide emissions of all intra-European flights during 12 days, or planting 5.5 million trees.

EnDev is helping to transform partner countries' energy sectors towards the goal of a global energy transition. Through renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies, the programme seeks to help reduce energy poverty and decarbonise the energy sector.

EnDev supports the provision of

  • household energy for lighting and small electronic devices (such as mobile phones) and for cooking, baking and heating purposes;
  • energy for schools, hospitals and community centres (social infrastructure) for lighting and electrical appliances and for stoves and ovens; and
  • energy for small and medium-sized enterprises to enable them to increase productivity, process goods more easily, and offer improved services.

Through its activities, EnDev not only seeks to provide people with modern and sustainable energy. Its idea goes beyond that. Access to energy and the efficient use of energy are crucial for the achievement of far-reaching impacts. This applies, in particular, to improved social services and increased productivity through more sustainable energy. Moreover, opportunities are created for the generation of new jobs and additional income.

For example, tradespersons now use electrical machinery such as welding machines; shop owners extend their opening hours and offer cooled products; and small farmers process their harvest themselves in order to get a better price in the market for value-added products.

Efficient stoves

Worldwide, more than a billion people have no access to electricity; three billion people depend on firewood, charcoal and plant residues for their cooking and heating.

In rural areas, EnDev not only seeks to expand the use of renewable energy. It also fosters the upscaling of efficient and climate-friendly energy technology, such as efficient stoves. Such cookstoves require less resources. By reducing the demand for firewood, improved stoves thus contribute to forest conservation. Simultaneously, emissions of black carbon and other climate pollutants go down, which is a significant contribution towards better health, especially for women.

Two men in Ouagadougou,Burkina Faso, building an energy-saving stove
View of the geothermal power station Olkaria in Kenya
East Africa: Cooperation in action

Climate-friendly energy from the earth

The future of electricity in East Africa lies in the earth – because the potential for generating geothermal power along the East African Rift Valley is enormous. Yet only about 20 per cent of the people in the region have access to electricity.

Kenya and Ethiopia are currently the only countries in the region using geothermal resources to generate electricity. Exploratory drilling is expensive. In addition, the risk of failing to find suitable resources is high, even after extensive preliminary geological investigations. Many investors therefore shy away from the investment involved, despite the fact that geothermal power – once tapped – is a constant, clean and low-cost source of energy.

It is for this reason that the BMZ has set up a Geothermal Risk Mitigation Facility (GRMF), which also receives financial support from the EU and the UK. The Facility co-finances geological analyses of geothermal fields and provides grants to support the first rounds of exploratory drilling, thus reducing the financial risk to investors. It also finances geological studies in preparation of exploratory drilling.

Public and private geothermal power projects from eleven East African countries are eligible for grants from the GRMF. The first GRMF-supported rounds of exploratory drilling took place in 2016.

In the first five rounds of applications for support, 30 projects received funding from the GRMF. Grants went to 14 studies and 16 exploratory drilling projects. There is considerable interest in the scheme: thought is currently being given to holding a sixth round of funding decisions.

View of the geothermal power station Olkaria in Kenya

Kenya: Leading the way on renewable energy

Kenya has adopted an ambitious target for its energy supply. In order to achieve it, the country is increasingly relying on geothermal power – with support from Germany. (Video in German)

Soroti solar power plant in Uganda
Uganda: Cooperation in action

Better power supply, better climate change mitigation

Due to population growth and economic growth, demand for energy in Uganda is high. But there are deficits in the power supply system. Among other things, there are frequent power failures in the cities. Moreover, the share of rural people who have access to electricity is very low.

Renewable energy and enhanced energy efficiency are a climate-friendly alternative that can help the country meet the energy needs of households and businesses. Uganda's motivation for making full use of renewable energy options is also rooted in its desire to meet the climate targets of the Paris Agreement.

Support for a new energy policy

On behalf of the BMZ, GIZ has set up a programme to foster renewable energy and energy efficiency. With support from the programme, advisors are now assisting the Ugandan energy ministry in defining a new political framework for renewable energy.

The purpose of the new energy policy is to create a conducive environment for local and foreign investment in climate-friendly renewable energy. Another purpose is to reduce energy waste through the efficient use of energy, for example in the private sector and in public institutions.

In order to enhance energy efficiency in public and private settings, the programme has provided training for 50 auditors. The auditors have already carried out energy management audits in more than 200 small and medium-sized enterprises and schools. And in 17 pilot districts in Uganda, energy management has been made part of municipal authorities' planning and budgeting activities.

The programme has also supported capacity building for companies trading in renewable energy and energy efficiency products and technologies. This is evident from the founding of five industry associations in the energy sector with more than 400 members from the sectors of biomass, biogas, solar energy and energy efficiency.

Access to climate-friendly technologies

In Uganda, only ten per cent of rural people have access to electricity. Both in urban and rural settings, people mainly use firewood and charcoal for their cooking. Most people are neither aware of the negative climate impacts of the intensive use of such fuels nor of the need to use climate-friendly renewable energy instead.

Thanks to the Energising Development (EnDev) programme, which is co-financed by the BMZ and the governments of the Netherlands, Norway, the UK, Switzerland and Sweden, access to innovative energy technologies in rural and urban areas has been improved. More than 680,000 people now have market-based access to improved cookstoves. 537 social institutions and 525 small and medium-sized enterprises have been provided with modern solar systems for lighting and with energy-efficient electrical appliances. According to an estimate made in 2018, the activities of EnDev in Uganda are saving an annual 61,737 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions.

The Programm Energising Development (EnDev) promotes access to and use of small solar devices in Africa.
Malawi: Cooperation in action

Solar-powered lamps improve the lives of many families

In Malawi, one of the poorest countries in the world, only around 12 per cent of the approximately 18 million inhabitants are connected to the electricity grid. The remainder of the population relies on firewood, charcoal and plant residues for its cooking and heating needs. For lighting, small kerosene or battery-powered lamps are used, which are dangerous and environmentally harmful energy sources.

This is where Energising Development (EnDev) – an energy partnership financed by Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK, Switzerland and Sweden – comes in: the partnership promotes access to modern energy in a total of 25 countries across Africa, Latin America and Asia.

2,200 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year saved

With support from EnDev, 65,800 people in Malawi have bought small solar devices since mid-2015, which they use to light their homes. Some also use the equipment to charge their cellular phones. One such person is Clara Sayineti from the village of Mwadenje. Her solar lamps save her the equivalent of 4.80 euros a week, as she does not need to buy expensive and environmentally harmful kerosene. The lighting has also made it easier for her children to complete their homework assignments in the evenings. She herself is now able to sew in the evenings in the bright light provided by her solar lamp, as well as run a small food stand in front of her house, which contributes to her income.

The small solar devices that have been distributed by EnDev in Malawi have already resulted in carbon dioxide emission savings of 2,200 tonnes per year. That is the equivalent of more than 1,000 roundtrip flights of one passenger (economy class) from Berlin to Lilongwe, the capital of Malawi. And demand for the devices continues to grow.

The market for solar products is growing

According to estimates, by the end of 2017 about 125,000 solar lamps had been sold in the country, which means that only one per cent of the population living in energy poverty has been reached. Over the past four years, EnDev has been making a significant contribution to the development of a sustainable market for solar products along the entire value chain.

To that end, the energy partnership has supported education campaigns and provided funding to companies to assist with the distribution of more than 74,000 solar devices. This has increased public awareness of the economic advantages of high-value solar products.

Thanks to the growing solar market in Malawi, many more people will start using solar products in the coming years, which are more climate-friendly and economical than traditional fuels.

The village of Jalpa in Khotang District in Nepal was electrified by the international energy partnership Energising Development (EnDev).
Nepal: Cooperation in action

Small hydropower plants improve lives in rural areas

In Nepal, about one in five people living in rural areas has no access to electricity. Up until four years ago, the inhabitants of the community of Jalpa in the District of Khotang had to rely on kerosene and firewood for lighting. They had to walk for six hours to Diktel, the closest city, to buy kerosene. One litre of kerosene cost 85 cents and was used up in a week.

Through the Energising Development (EnDev) programme, which is co-financed by Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK, Switzerland and Sweden, the living conditions of the people of Jalpa have improved. In Nepal, EnDev supports, amongst other things, the construction of small hydropower plants, including in the District of Khotang.

Committee administers and operates the power station

Currently, 195 families are benefitting from the climate-friendly electricity being produced by the Lumju-Khola small hydropower station. Purna Bahadur Rai, who lives in Jalpa, pays an average of 88 cents per month for the sustainably produced electricity – and thus saves 2.80 euros a month: "It used to be very difficult, especially for women and children, because they had to spend many hours in dark and smoky places. That was very harmful to their health. Now our home is no longer so sooty, and we stay healthy. We need less firewood and that preserves our forests," Rai explains and points to an LED lamp that he has installed in his house.

He heads the committee that administers and operates the power station. With a proper billing system and clear records of household consumption, the administrative committee has won the trust of the villagers. Power bills are paid through a financial cooperative. The inhabitants know the operation and maintenance costs of their hydropower plant and are able to plan ahead. Among other things, they have been able to set up a repair fund, which proved its worth following the strong earthquakes of 2015.

Electricity for more than 34,000 people

More than 34,000 people in rural areas of Nepal have, with help from EnDev, gained access to electricity through small hydropower plants. The families in Jalpa and in other communities are benefitting on multiple levels: the provision of electricity is reliable and they no longer require expensive and environmentally harmful kerosene. In addition, less wood is cut from the forests for firewood. The small hydropower plants that EnDev has supported in Nepal save an annual 861 tonnes of carbon dioxide, the equivalent of what 169 average automobiles produce per year.

The village of Jalpa in Khotang District in Nepal was electrified by the international energy partnership Energising Development (EnDev).
Construction of the Rwaza hydropower plant in Northern Rwanda
Rwanda: Cooperation in action

Rwaza small hydropower plant provides clean energy

It is estimated that the 1994 genocide in Rwanda killed up to one million people. The civil war also destroyed a large proportion of the country's infrastructure.

In particular, many energy generation and distribution facilities were affected. As a result, only about one fourth of the people of Rwanda have access to electricity.

The government is working to restore the energy infrastructure, using, among other things, hydropower, methane, solar energy and geothermal power.

It has set itself the target of providing stable access to electricity for 70 per cent of the people by 2020.

Power for 20,000 households

Germany is assisting Rwanda in implementing its energy strategy. With German support, the Rwaza small hydropower plant is being built on the Mukungwa River in northern Rwanda, not far from the city of Musanze.

Since the third quarter of 2018, the Rwaza power station has provided power for the Rwandan grid. It will produce 20 gigawatt hours a year, or 2 per cent of total electricity output in Rwanda. This will cover the annual power needs of 20,000 Rwandan households.

As the power station is now feeding electricity into the local grid, local enterprises and industrial facilities will benefit from more stable power supplies.

Financing company for energy projects in Africa

In order to support energy projects in Africa such as the construction of the Rwaza small hydropower plant, KfW Development Bank set up a project development and financing company in 2014 on behalf of the German Development Ministry, the responsAbility Renewable Energy Holding (rAREH). This is a public-private company that takes part in the development, financing and operation of small to medium-sized energy facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. In the holding company, the partner on the private side is responsAbility, a Swiss-based asset management company. KfW Development Bank contributed 20.5 million euros to the holding company.

Since mid-2014, rAREH has been supporting the construction of the Rwaza small hydropower station as an investor, together with a Danish investor, Frontier Energy. Implementation lies in the hands of a local developer, DC Hydropower, which is supported by the American Power Africa Initiative.

Construction of the Rwaza hydropower plant in Northern Rwanda
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Videos on the topic of "energy and climate"

Renewable energies

The 2030 Agenda and the Paris Agreement have set the world on a new course for achieving development that is truly sustainable. Renewable energy plays an important role in that context. It helps to reduce poverty, encourage innovation and create jobs. And it boosts energy security and mitigates climate change.

Kenya: Leading the way on renewable energy

Kenya has adopted an ambitious target for its energy supply. In order to achieve it, the country is increasingly relying on geothermal power – with support from Germany. (Video in German)

develoPPP.de – solar power for Mozambique

A public-private development partnership between Phaesun, a German company, and the Deutsche Investitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft is bringing off-grid solar systems to Mozambique, thus giving rural people new opportunities. (Video in German)

Reducing air pollution with e-trikes

In Naga City in the Philippines, a company has specialised in the construction of e-trikes. The electric vehicles are designed to reduce air pollution. With 90 per cent of the required materials sourced from the immediate vicinity, only 10 to 15 per cent need to be imported.

Wind farm near Zafarana, Egypt
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Topic "Climate change and development"

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