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Tunisia

A man sells flowers to a passer-by in the old town of Tunis.

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Overview

Country in transition

Tunisia is a beacon of hope in political terms and after a long period of dictatorship is now peacefully transitioning into a state based on the rule of law. Despite some political and social tensions, the way democracy is developing in Tunisia is considered exemplary.

A government of national unity, with Youssef Chahed (from the party Nidaa Tounes) as prime minister, has been governing the country since 2016. With the signing of the Carthage Agreement, the government's programme was endorsed by the coalition and seven other parties and by the main business confederation, the main trade union and the union of agriculture and fisheries.

German development cooperation with Tunisia

Germany has a vested interest in seeing a region that is so close to Europe become stable again. That is why German development cooperation with Tunisia is aimed at supporting the country's transition to democracy. By improving the social and economic situation of the country, this cooperation is helping to lay the foundations for peaceful and socially compatible reform processes.

The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) significantly increased its support for Tunisia following the events that resulted in a political turnaround. Development cooperation activities focus on sustainable economic development, administrative reform and decentralisation, and resource protection (water and energy).

An important element of Germany's involvement in Tunisia is the reform partnership under the Marshall Plan with Africa. The partnership was concluded in 2017 and is a bilateral contribution to the G20 investment partnerships known as the Compacts with Africa; it provides support for reforms in the financial and banking sector.

Scroll down for more detailed information on the situation in Tunisia and on Germany's development activities there.

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Priority areas of cooperation with Tunisia

Development facts and figures from Tunisia

Press releases

Minister of Finance Wolfgang Schäuble, Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel and Development Minister Gerd Müller at the conference "G20 Africa Partnership – Investing in a Common Future" in Berlin / Le ministre des Finances Wolfgang Schäuble, la chancelière fédérale Angela Merkel et le ministre du Développement, Gerd Müller, lors de la conférence "Partenariat Afrique du G20 - Investir dans un avenir commun" à Berlin

Press release 14.06.2017

Successful G20 conference in Berlin supports new partnership with Africa

Three trainees and their instructor in a vocational training school for girls in Accra, Ghana / Trois stagiaires et leur professeur dans une école de formation professionnelle pour les filles à Accra, Ghana

Press release 12.06.2017

Reform partnerships with three African countries agreed by Development Ministry

Federal Minister Müller together with the Moroccan Minister for Trades and social Economy, Fatima Marouane, and trainees at a vocational school for trades in Fès

Press release 29.02.2016

Boosting Mediterranean cooperation, fostering investment in North Africa

The road to democracy

Becoming a state governed by the rule of law

The revolution in January 2011 offered Tunisia the opportunity to become a democratic country governed by the rule of law.

Important steps in this direction have already been taken. For example, international observers described the elections to the constituent assembly held in autumn 2011 and the parliamentary and presidential elections held in late 2014 as free, fair and transparent. In May 2018, the first municipal elections were conducted successfully.

Freedom of the press and freedom of opinion, which were previously severely curtailed, are largely being upheld. Several new political parties and civil society organisations have been set up.

A particularly important milestone on the road to democracy was reached in January 2014 with the adoption of a new constitution. This new constitution states that Tunisia shall be a parliamentary republic in which the country's president enjoys certain prerogatives with regard to matters of foreign, security and defence policy. At the same time, the new political order shall ensure that neither the president nor parliament have the power to unilaterally suspend the fledgling democracy.

Current political situation

Tunisia's peaceful transition is under threat from an instable party system, deficits in building state institutions and a tense security situation. The state of emergency that was imposed after two terrorist attacks on tourist targets in 2015 has been extended several times to date.

Numerous new ministers were appointed in a government reshuffle in autumn 2017. Even though the secularist conservative party Nidaa Tounes remained the strongest force in the cabinet, it lost its majority in parliament because of groups splitting off and members resigning from the party. The frequent government reshuffles have led to important decisions being postponed and reforms not being implemented promptly.

Image gallery

Minister Müller's trip to Tunisia in October 2018

German Development Minister Gerd Müller agreed a training and job package with companies and associations from the textile, automotive and tourism sectors in Tunisia. Here he is finding out about training opportunities at a supplier company for the automotive industry.

German Development Minister Gerd Müller agreed a training and job package with companies and associations from the textile, automotive and tourism sectors in Tunisia. Here he is finding out about training opportunities at a supplier company for the automotive industry.

Production of electronic elements for the automotive industry

Production of electronic elements for the automotive industry

A trainee at work

A trainee at work

An important topic of the meeting between Minister Müller and Prime Minister Youssef Chahed was the reform partnership with Tunisia.

An important topic of the meeting between Minister Müller and Prime Minister Youssef Chahed was the reform partnership with Tunisia.

The Centre for Career Guidance and Retraining of the GIZ in Bizerte helps young people to find their way around the Tunisian labour market.

The Centre for Career Guidance and Retraining of the GIZ in Bizerte helps young people to find their way around the Tunisian labour market.

Minister Müller informed himself about the work of the Centre for Career Guidance and Retraining.

Minister Müller informed himself about the work of the Centre for Career Guidance and Retraining.

Minister Müller with the Tunisian Minister for Vocational Training and Employment, Faouzi Abderrahmane

Minister Müller with the Tunisian Minister for Vocational Training and Employment, Faouzi Abderrahmane

Visit to a textile factory in Bizerte

Visit to a textile factory in Bizerte

A seamstress at work

A seamstress at work

Two women cut a cotton cloth to size.

Two women cut a cotton cloth to size.

Visit to a GIZ training centre for bricklayers in Tunis

Visit to a GIZ training centre for bricklayers in Tunis

Minister Müller informed himself about the work of the GIZ training centre in Tunis.

Minister Müller informed himself about the work of the GIZ training centre in Tunis.

Social situation

Inequality and high levels of unemployment

The living conditions of Tunisians have measurably improved in the last few decades. Virtually the entire population now has access to clean drinking water and electricity, and a large middle class has emerged. On the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI), Tunisia is ranked 95th out of 189 states.

These developments notwithstanding, the wealth that has been achieved so far is unevenly distributed. Inland regions, in particular, are not yet benefiting sufficiently from the country's economic development.

One of Tunisia's biggest problems is the high level of unemployment. According to official figures, unemployment stands at around 15 per cent (20 per cent for women), reaching up to 50 per cent in inland regions.

Another reason for discontent is the marked drop in purchasing power. The Tunisian dinar has seen a massive loss in value in recent years while living costs have gone up. People are voicing their dissatisfaction with frequent protests and strikes

Desalination plant in Guellala on the island of Djerba
Economic situation

An economy that is heavily dependent on Europe

Tunisia is a middle-income country with a fairly well diversified economy. More than sixty per cent of the country's gross domestic product is accounted for by the services sector, and more than 25 per cent by industry. Following growth rates of three to four per cent from 2012 to 2014, economic growth slowed to 1.1 and 1.2 per cent in the following two years. Since 2017, the economy has been seeing a modest recovery, with growth rates over two per cent.

However, the economy continues to be heavily dependent on the economic situation in Europe. Around two thirds of Tunisia's foreign trade is with the European Union, and the major share of foreign investment comes from there. Since early 2018, Germany has become the second most important foreign investor in Tunisia after France.

Tunisia was the first country in the Maghreb region to conclude an Association Agreement with the EU, which it did in 1995. In autumn 2012, the country achieved the status of "privileged partnership" and it is now benefiting from wide-ranging programmes designed to enhance its competitiveness. The EU and Tunisia began talks on a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA) in 2015.

Development potential

Investors are attracted to Tunisia because of its proximity to Europe, its high level of industrialisation in comparison to other countries in the region, its competitiveness in terms of prices and its well-developed infrastructure. There is potential for growth in its services sector, in particular, for instance, in information technology, logistics and health care services.

However, the sector that will have a major impact on the development of the economy in the future is tourism. The government is aware that the facilities and attractions on offer to tourists need to be further diversified and modernised in order to attract more and new visitors.

German development cooperation with Tunisia

Germany and Tunisia have engaged in development cooperation since the 1960s.

After the revolution in Tunisia, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) raised its funding for the country considerably, in order to support the process of peaceful transformation.

In 2017, 456.8 million euros was committed, including 367 million euros in loans provided at near-market conditions. At the same time, the BMZ is systematically calling for the implementation of reforms.

The two countries' cooperation focuses on the following priority areas:

  • Sustainable economic development
  • Administrative reform and decentralisation
  • Resource protection (water and energy)

Employment promotion and training are topics that are mainstreamed across all development activities. Projects in these areas are especially being promoted in structurally weak regions further inland, in order to create opportunities for people there and reduce the pressure to migrate.

In addition, Tunisia is also benefiting from the BMZ's special initiative for stability and development in the MENA region.

  • Counter of a café in Tunisia
    Sustainable economic development

    Creating prospects for the future

    Given Tunisia's very young population, it is particularly important to create jobs – thus giving people prospects for the future. Until now, a shortage of training opportunities, a lack of access to financial services and excessive bureaucracy have been acting as a curb on entrepreneurial activities.

  • Tram stop in Tunis
    Administrative reform / decentralisation

    Greater political participation

    The constitution adopted in 2014 envisages the restructuring of administrative authorities at the regional and municipal level in Tunisia. Germany is supporting community infrastructure with a view to enabling the delivery of services that are more reliable, more transparent and more responsive to people's needs.

  • Olive harvest near Kairouan, Tunisia
    Protecting resources

    Sustainable use of water resources, clean energy production

    Demand for drinking water in Tunisia is constantly increasing, especially in irrigation-intensive agriculture.  In some regions, this has led to a dramatic drop in groundwater tables. Germany is promoting the sustainable use of water resources.

Counter of a café in Tunisia
Sustainable economic development

Creating prospects for the future

Given Tunisia's very young population, it is particularly important to create jobs – thus giving people prospects for the future. Until now, a shortage of training opportunities, a lack of access to financial services and excessive bureaucracy have been acting as a curb on entrepreneurial activities.

German development cooperation activities therefore focus on promoting SMEs and business start-ups, export activities, innovation, and vocational education and training.

Financial Cooperation measures primarily benefit micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). KfW, for instance, provides reduced-interest loans to Tunisian banks, which they in turn can use to give loans to micro, small and medium enterprises. Support is provided for establishing sovereign guarantee mechanisms with a view to protecting the banks against the risk of default.

Technical Cooperation measures are focused on advising the Tunisian government on implementing the investment act that was passed in 2016. Support is provided, for instance, for the newly founded investment authority. It is meant to serve as the central point of contact for investors and help promote, in particular, investment projects that create jobs.

Tunisian-German Centre for Jobs, Migration and Reintegration

The Tunisian-German Centre for Jobs, Migration and Reintegration in Tunis was opened in March 2017 by Federal Minister Müller. It is an important provider of advisory services regarding employment, further training, legal migration and voluntary return. It supports Tunisian returnees by helping them to find jobs and training courses, providing information on further training opportunities and assisting them in starting their own business. In addition, the centre provides information about legal options for labour migration to Germany and about the dangers involved in irregular migration.

Tram stop in Tunis
Administrative reform / decentralisation

Greater political participation

The constitution adopted in 2014 envisages the restructuring of administrative authorities at the regional and municipal level in Tunisia. Germany is supporting community infrastructure with a view to enabling the delivery of services that are more reliable, more transparent and more responsive to people's needs, and with the aim of ensuring greater political participation.

This is intended to help foster people's trust in public institutions and systems, and strengthen the political system.

Promoting youth work

There is a special focus on improving the opportunities for young people to get involved at the local level. That is why explicit support is being offered to help communities promote youth initiatives and participation mechanisms, such as, for instance, community youth councils. Furthermore, training courses for local officials and representatives of associations and federations engaged in youth work are also being designed.

Olive harvest near Kairouan, Tunisia
Protecting resources

Sustainable use of water resources, clean energy production

Drinking water is scarce in Tunisia. At the same time, demand is constantly increasing, especially in irrigation-intensive agriculture. Surface water resources are not sufficient to meet this demand, hence more and more groundwater is being consumed. In some regions, this has led to a dramatic drop in groundwater tables.

Germany is promoting the sustainable use of water resources. Acting on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), GIZ is assisting the Tunisian Ministry of Agriculture in reforming water legislation and in implementing the country's national water strategy. Awareness-raising campaigns help people to understand the value of clean drinking water. Financial Cooperation projects involve measures to repair existing irrigation systems and introduce new, more efficient irrigation techniques (for instance drip irrigation systems).

A Green Innovation Centre is helping small farmers join together to create producer groups and thus tap into new earning opportunities.

Renewable energies

Another area where Germany is engaged in development cooperation activities is climate-friendly energy production. Tunisia has set itself the ambitious goal of producing 30 per cent of its energy from renewable sources by 2030.

Germany is contributing funding for the construction of photovoltaic systems and wind farms, offering technical advice on implementing the transformation of the energy system, assisting with the training of experts, for instance technicians capable of installing photovoltaic systems, and is supporting approaches that seek to increase energy efficiency.

Seepage water treatment at a landfill site in Bizerte, Tunisia

Further information

Map of Tunisia

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Tunisia Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Tunisia Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Tunis, approximately 2 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 163,610 sq km (2017) 357,380 sq km (2017)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 95 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further reading

BMZ publications

Recommended links

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Tunisia

BMZ glossary

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