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Central and Eastern Europe:
IPA – A new instrument for pre-accession since 2007


Reconstruction of infrastructure in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Copyright: EUWith the end of the Cold War, the development cooperation of the EU gained a new facet. Since then, the EU has also been supporting the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the successor states of the former Soviet Union in their reform efforts.

The new Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA), which entered into force on 1 January 2007, combines all previous EU accession aid within one single instrument. It thus replaces the financing instruments in place between 2000 and 2006, namely PHARE, ISPA, SAPARD, the pre-accession instrument for Turkey, and CARDS for the Western Balkans.

For the period 2008 – 2010 the IPA has a funding volume of 4.49 billion euros at its disposal. With this it is providing support for candidate countries and potential candidate countries.

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia, Iceland and Turkey have candidate status. Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo have potential candidate status.

The IPA comprises five components: transition assistance and institution-building, cross-border cooperation, regional development, human resources development and rural development.

The existing projects being conducted as part of the former programmes PHARE, ISPA, SAPARD and CARDS will be continued. All new pre-accession measures will in future be managed within the framework of the IPA.

The ten new member states that joined the EU in 2004 were able to draw on funds from a transition facility between 2004 and 2006. Pursuant to Article 31 of the protocol governing the accession of Bulgaria and Romania to the EU, this facility was also extended to these two countries for one year as of their accession on 1 January 2007. This was designed to provide continuous financial assistance for a number of important areas which require further development.

For more information on the European Neighbourhood Policy, click here

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