Content

Togo

A fisherman in the Lomé harbour
Overview

Great challenges and ambitious goals

After almost 40 years of dictatorial rule, Togo is now in a phase of democratisation and liberalisation. The country faces huge challenges in terms of development: Togo is one of the poorest countries in the world and part of the group of fragile states. On the current United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) it is ranked 165th out of 189 countries.

In its "Vision Togo 2030", the government has laid down the ambitious goal of becoming a middle-income country by 2030. In 2018, Togo was accepted into the G20 Compact with Africa initiative. The initiative was launched in 2017 under Germany's G20 Presidency. It seeks to foster private investment in Africa.

German development cooperation with Togo

Togo is one of the development partners with which Germany cooperates closely on the basis of intergovernmental agreements. Like most Western donors, Germany suspended its official development cooperation with the Togolese government in 1993. In the years that followed, support was only provided to projects run by civil society and faith-based organisations that did not involve government authorities and directly benefited the population. In 2012, Germany resumed official cooperation in response to the reform process launched by the Togolese government. Germany is the largest bilateral donor.

The priority areas of cooperation are good governance / decentralisation, agriculture / rural development and sustainable economic development with a focus on vocational training / youth employment.

 

Straight to

Development facts and figures from Togo

  • Voters in Togo at the 2013 parliamentary elections
    Political situation

    Encouraging reforms

    Togo has been making progress on the road to democracy in recent years. Although there are still deficits in the fields of governance and human rights, some encouraging steps have been taken.

  • People in Sokodé, Togo
    Governance and human rights

    Progress and challenges

    The Togolese government is willing to pursue reforms and to engage in dialogue. All elections since 2010 have been internationally recognised. However, the envisaged reform of the election system keeps getting stuck.

  • Child in a hospital in Togo
    Social situation

    Severe deficits with regard to basic services

    The political reforms and the stable economic growth which the country has seen in the past few years have so far had little impact on people's daily lives. About half of all people in Togo live in extreme poverty.

  • Lomé harbour, Togo
    Economic situation

    Trade hub in the Gulf of Guinea

    It is evident that the Togolese government is working to achieve economic stability and increase government revenue. In its current development strategy, it has laid down the goal of making Togo a logistics and trade hub in West Africa.

Voters in Togo at the 2013 parliamentary elections
Political situation

Encouraging reforms

Togo has been making progress on the road to democracy in recent years. Although there are still deficits in the fields of governance and human rights, some encouraging steps have been taken. The policy pursued by President Faure Gnassingbé, who has been in office since 2005, is geared towards development. The government is working to launch political and institutional reforms, improve key social areas such as education, health and infrastructure, and improve the business climate.

The current national development plan (Plan national de développement 2018–2022) explicitly takes up the goals of the United Nations 2030 Agenda and the Agenda 2063 of the African Union.

However, many dissenting voices consider that the government's reform programmes do not go far enough. Starting in August 2017, nationwide protests erupted. Protesters' main demand was to limit the power of the president and to prevent Faure Gnassingbé from serving for a fourth term. With the help of mediation efforts by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), a roadmap was drafted to overcome the crisis. In line with the agreement reached, parliamentary elections were held in December 2018, which were however boycotted by large sections of the opposition.

In May 2019, the parliament passed a constitutional reform which, among other things, limits the terms of the president and of members of parliament and provides for a second round of voting in presidential elections if no candidate reaches an absolute majority in the first round. In June 2019, the country saw the first local elections since 1987.

The situation in the country has since calmed down. However, there is a chance that new tensions might arise in the run-up to the presidential elections in 2020.

People in Sokodé, Togo
Governance and human rights

Progress and challenges

The Togolese government is ready for reform and dialogue. However, there is still a lack of strong and independent institutions and the fight against widespread corruption remains a challenge.
Since 2010, all elections have been internationally recognised. With German support, among other things, the framework conditions for the first local elections since 1987 were created. After several postponements, they took place in June 2019. Progress has also been made in the decentralisation process since 2012.

According to its constitution, Togo is a multi-party democracy with separation of powers. However, key decision-making powers lie with the president. Parliamentary and judicial controls are as yet inadequate. The administration of justice is strongly influenced by politics. Moreover, many conflicts are resolved by traditional authorities based on customary law, which contributes to uncertainty about prevailing law.

Corruption and nepotism are widespread. In the Corruption Perceptions Index compiled by the non-governmental organisation Transparency International, Togo ranks 129th out of the 180 countries evaluated (2018). While a legal basis to fight corruption has been put in place, government authorities are currently unable, due to a lack of both human and financial resources, to enforce compliance with these laws.

Human rights

The human rights situation has improved significantly since the end of the dictatorship in 2005. However, human rights organisations continue to report individual cases of alleged torture, arbitrary arrests and harsh prison conditions. They also criticise the excessive use of force by security forces at rallies.

For a long time, civil society activities were subject to major restrictions. It was only in the early 1990s that the first civil society organisations were able to form. Today, Togo has numerous initiatives, associations and non-governmental organisations that work on a large number of different issues and are largely free in their activities.

Child in a hospital in Togo
Social situation

Severe deficits with regard to basic services

The political reforms and the stable economic growth which the country has seen in the past few years have so far had little impact on people's daily lives. About half of all people in Togo live in extreme poverty. The north of the country and rural regions are particularly affected. A large proportion of Togo's people have no access to safe drinking water, and very few households have adequate sanitation.

16 per cent of the people are malnourished. Some 70 per cent of all under-five-year-olds are anaemic. The health system is weak, and maternal and child mortality is high. Nearly 40 per cent of adults are illiterate.

Rapid population growth

Togo's population has more than doubled over the past three decades (from 3.5 million in 1987 to 7.9 million in 2018). It is expected that its population will double again over the next 30 years. Stable economic growth notwithstanding, the young generation has poor prospects of finding jobs. Unemployment and underemployment are a huge potential source of social conflict.

Situation of women

Officially, women in Togo enjoy equal rights, and they are very active in public life, especially trade. However, they are barely represented in political bodies, as traditional patriarchal thinking is still deeply rooted in politics and society. The current cabinet consists of twenty men and six women. Great progress has been made in the fight against female genital mutilation: in November 2012, Togo announced the official abolition of this cruel practice.

Lomé harbour, Togo
Economic situation

Trade hub in the Gulf of Guinea

It is evident that the Togolese government is working to achieve economic stability and increase government revenue. In its current development strategy, it has laid down the goal of making Togo a logistics and trade hub in West Africa. The well-developed deepwater port of Lomé, the capital, serves as a transshipment point for the movement of goods to the Sahel countries and North Africa. The country has also expanded its international airport and improved numerous highways.

Private investment needed

However, the high levels of spending on infrastructure development have led to financial constraints in Togo. In an agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the government made a commitment in 2017 to drastically reduce public spending. It is thus trying to improve the environment for private investment.

The World Bank's 2019 Doing Business Report, which assesses the business climate in 190 countries, ranks Togo one of the world's top ten reformers. Compared to the previous year, it moved up 19 places. It has now reached position 137. The Report praises, in particular, the progress made on the following aspects: starting a business, getting electricity, and registering property. The volume of direct investment in Togo rose by 24 per cent in 2017. Many companies, including German firms, are interested in investing in Togo. However, potential investors are often deterred by inadequate infrastructure, political tensions, legal uncertainty and corruption.

Value chain development on the ground

Economic growth in Togo has been four to six per cent over the last few years. The country's only significant extractive resource is phosphate, of which it has the world's fourth largest reserves.

So far, the country has mainly been exporting unprocessed raw materials, which is making it vulnerable to price volatility in world markets. The government is working to foster local processing and is developing agricultural value chains with high employment and export potential. At present, most farmers are engaged in subsistence farming.

German development cooperation with Togo

After almost 20 years, Germany resumed its official development cooperation with Togo in 2012. In 2016, German Development Minister Gerd Müller made a commitment to deepen bilateral cooperation and expand it to cover all five regions of the country. In keeping with the Marshall Plan with Africa, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) wants to help create opportunities for young people in Togo and contribute to sustainable development in one of the least developed countries of the world.

Official development cooperation focuses on the following priority areas:

  • Good governance / decentralisation
  • Agriculture / rural development
  • Sustainable economic development with a focus on vocational training / youth employment

The BMZ also assists the country in its efforts to strengthen its health system, especially with regard to maternal and child health and family planning, and in its efforts to establish decentralised, climate-friendly energy systems in rural areas.

At the government negotiations in March 2019, Germany made a pledge to Togo for 49.7 million euros in funding over two years. Of this sum, 33.7 million euros has been earmarked for Financial cooperation and 16 million euros for Technical Cooperation. In addition, the BMZ is making available up to 16.8 million euros under its special 'One World – No Hunger' initiative.

Market in Togo
Priority area "Good governance / decentralisation"

Improved infrastructure and services at the local level

In the early 1990s, the Government of Togo launched a process of decentralisation. However, the process then stalled. Since 2016, it has gathered momentum again. The government has adopted a decentralisation roadmap, reformed administrative structures and created new municipalities. Local elections, which had been postponed several times, took place in June 2019 – for the first time since 1987.

However, local authorities still lack the trained personnel and financial resources to fulfil their new role. German support is geared towards improving the provision of basic economic infrastructure and public services and enhancing popular participation in politics at the local level.

More revenue and investment

Support is being provided, as a first step, to local authorities in six pilot municipalities to help them increase their revenues and improve the responsiveness of their services to citizens' needs. Among other things, local development plans are being drafted, tax registers are being set up, citizens' affairs offices are being established to provide services to local people, and training is being provided to municipal workers. Efforts are also under way to modernise the civil registration system. There are campaigns to educate the public about the importance of birth certificates for children's access to school.

The pilot municipalities have already succeeded in increasing their revenue by up to 45 per cent and raising public investment by 23 per cent. Since 2017, cofinancing from the EU has made it possible to expand the programme to all five regions of Togo.

Local infrastructure development

In parallel, the German government has been funding the development of local infrastructure through KfW Development Bank. Support is being provided, in particular, for the construction of markets in medium-sized towns, as markets play an important role for local and regional economies. People can use their mobile phones to take part in the planning and monitoring of programme activities.

The BMZ has also announced that it will provide additional support for the construction of town halls in the newly created municipalities.

A woman in Togo harvesting salad
Priority area "Agriculture / rural development"

Achieving food security and creating opportunities

Agriculture is vital to Togo's economic development, food security and labour market. However, at the moment the agricultural sector is still very traditional - there is little technology involved and the focus is on subsistence farming. At present, there are only few agricultural products that are processed within Togo. Thus, young people in particular see little prospect of finding a job in rural areas and tend to move to the cities.

From production all the way to marketing

Germany's activities are geared towards working closely with smallholders' cooperatives, small and medium-sized processing companies and merchants to improve selected value chains on a pilot basis (coffee, cocoa, cashew, vegetables, pineapple and other fruit). There will be tailor-made courses to enable farmers to increase their yields through sustainable methods, meet international quality standards, lower their production costs, secure sufficient food for themselves and their families, and make an additional income by selling some of their products. New jobs in rural areas are to be created through the local marketing of agricultural products.

New financial products and development of rural roads

At the national level, advice is being provided to the Togolese government on how to improve the environment for agricultural production and for the export of agricultural goods. Moreover, in cooperation with financial service providers loan programmes are being developed that are tailored to the specific conditions of smallholder agriculture. Through the West African Development Bank (BOAD), for example, microcredit is being provided for smallholder farms.

Financial Cooperation funding is used to repair and improve rural roads in order to provide good access and transport conditions to fields and farms throughout the year. The focus is on regions where export crops (cotton and coffee) are grown.

Special initiative 'One World - No Hunger'

Togo is one of the countries which the BMZ supports through its special One World - No Hunger initiative, with the purpose of fostering national food security and increasing people's resilience against hunger crises. Moreover, innovation in the agriculture and food sector is hoped to help increase regional food supplies, boost the incomes of smallholders, and create more employment opportunities. As part of the initiative, a Green Innovation Centre has been set up in Togo.

A farmer in Togo draws water from a pond to irrigate his fields.
Vocational students enrolled in a motor vehicle mechanics course at a vocational school in Sokodé, Togo, are repairing a motorcycle.
Priority area "Sustainable economic development with a focus on vocational training / youth employment"

Creating training opportunities and jobs for young people

Even though Togo's economy is suffering under a shortage of skilled labour, it is very difficult for young people to find training opportunities or jobs. The vocational training system has serious shortcomings. There is a lack of money, equipment, teachers with practical training and adequate opportunities for girls and young women and for persons with disabilities. Moreover, the curricula often do not meet the needs of the economy.

"Dual" training - at school and on the job

With support from Germany, efforts are under way to improve young people's training, employment and income opportunities in specific growth regions in Togo. To that end, a "dual" (school-based and company-based) vocational training system has been set up in cooperation with associations and chambers of crafts and trades. At present, young people can choose between five different skilled trades for which they can train in the dual-cooperative system in six cities in Togo. The first set of trainees completed the programme in the autumn of 2018. The young people are now being aided in finding a job.

The programme also provided training to more than 40 experts from Togo on the modernisation of curricula and teaching materials. In this way, a foundation has been laid for Togo to develop further training programmes for specific trades on its own.

Germany is also assisting Togo in rehabilitating, expanding and equipping vocational schools, so that they will be able to enrol more pupils and buy modern tools and machinery. Germany is also providing funding for teacher training.

Support for business start-ups

In addition, entrepreneurial training is being provided to young people who wish to start their own business or improve the management of a business they already have. There is a special focus on the needs of young women and men who have little or no schooling, and on persons with physical disabilities. Togo's job placement agency is being assisted in improving its activities on careers information and guidance.

Upholsterer in Togo

Map of Togo

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Togo Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Togolese Republic Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Lomé, 1.2 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 56,790 sq km (2018) 357,580 sq km (2018)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 165 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.SMSS.ZS

People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population)

The percentage of people using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated offsite. Improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines: ventilated improved pit latrines, compositing toilets or pit latrines with slabs.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.GHED.GD.ZS

Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on health from domestic sources as a share of the economy as measured by GDP.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SMDW.ZS

People using safely managed drinking water services (% of population)

The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TOTL.ZS

Services, value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Students at Yelivo village's only primary school, Togo.

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Togo

BMZ glossary

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