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Tanzania

Situation and cooperation

Market in Arusha, Tanzania

Owing to the prevalence of infectious diseases such as Malaria and AIDS, life expectancy in Tanzania remains low (64 years in 2013). Despite good progress in recent years, for example on reducing child mortality and HIV prevalence (from 8.1 per cent in 1998 to 5.3 per cent in 2014) and on increasing school enrolment rates (to 90 per cent in 2013), there is still a great need for improvement in the provision of education and health – especially for women.

The economy

Safari in the Tarangire National Park, Tanzania

Tanzania's economy has shown constant growth for more than ten years now. The services sector predominates, accounting for around 43 per cent of the country's gross domestic product. The second most important sector is agriculture, which accounts for about 30 per cent of gross domestic product and employs some 70 per cent of the population. The principal export products are coffee, cotton, tea, tobacco, sisal and cashew nuts. Industry contributes some 25 per cent to Tanzania's gross domestic product but provides only 6 per cent of the jobs. Over the years, tourism has advanced to become the most important source of foreign exchange.

The Government of Tanzania has announced its intention to step up its promotion of the private sector, but the business and investment climate in the country needs to be improved further – in particular by removing bureaucratic obstacles to corporate initiative. There are also serious deficiencies in the energy and transport infrastructure.


Development potential

Stonetown harbour, Zanzibar, Tanzania

Potential for sustainable development does exist in Tanzania. Significant growth potential exists in tourism. With Kilimanjaro, major conservation areas such as the Serengeti and the Ngorongoro Crater, Lakes Tanganyika and Victoria, and beaches on the Indian Ocean, Tanzania has great potential to become a tourist destination offering a wide variety of attractions.

As for agriculture, only a relatively small percentage of existing farmland is actually being used for farming. Production could be further diversified, thus reducing Tanzania’s economic dependence on a few single products and their world-market prices.

The construction industry has also been buoyant ever since the 1990s. The country has deposits of precious stones and precious metals, and gas and uranium have been discovered. The extraction of these raw materials offers huge potential for development.

Tanzania, with its access to the sea, plays a key role as a transit corridor and transhipment point for the landlocked states of central Africa. Opportunities are created by the country’s membership of the East African Community (EAC).


Priority areas of cooperation


Federal Minister Gerd Müller visited the largest refugee camp of the world in Daadab, Kenya, a settlement around 100 kilometres from the border to Somalia.
Open gallery gallery27800010_2../../../../../de/mediathek/bildergalerien/20160331_reise_ostafrika/0020_ostafrika_thumb.jpgMichael Gottschalk/photothek.net Open gallery

Federal Minister Gerd Müller visited the largest refugee camp of the world in Daadab, Kenya, a settlement around 100 kilometres from the border to Somalia.

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There are many children living in the refugee camp in Daadab.

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Federal Minister Müller visiting a food distribution centre in Daadab

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Women waiting for the distribution of food rations in the Daadab refugee camp

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Minister Müller visiting the metal workshop in the vocational training centre "Bosco Boys Kuwinda" close to a slum in Nairobi, Kenya

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Students at the vocational training centre "Bosco Boys Kuwinda" where Minister Müller inaugurated a new sports field

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Federal Minister for Development Gerd Müller and Kenya's Minister for Finance at the signing of an agreement on development cooperation

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Gerd Müller visiting a stable for cows at a Green Innovation Centre in Kenya. It is used to demonstrate the advantages of keeping cows in stables rather than the sides of roads.

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At the Green Innovation Centre in Kenya, Minister Müller inaugurated a milk processing building.

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Visiting a biogas plant at the Green Innovation Centre

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The fish farmer Zinath Deen gives a tour of her fish farm near Lake Victoria. The farm also offers vocational training.

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Zinath Deen demonstrating the transportation of young fish in an airfilled plastic container

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In Tanzania, Minister Müller visited the nurse and midwife training centre of the Aga Khan University in Dar es Salaam. Here he is talking to two midwives and a student.

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Minister Müller on a tour of the nurse and midwife training centre of the Aga Khan University in Dar es Salaam

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In Tanzania, Minister Müller met religious leaders for a discussion on the situation of religious communities in the country. From left to right: Sheikh Musa Kundecha, Chair of the Independent Central Council of Muslims, Gerd Müller, Alex Malasusa, Archbishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Dar es Salaam and Abdulrahman Ame, Secretary General of the Muslim Welfare Organisation Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat

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Gerd Müller and Jumanne Abdallah Maghembe, Minister for the Environment and Tourism in Tanzania, hand over a light plane to the Frankfurt Zoological Society, represented here by Christof Schenck (right) and the future pilots (left). The plane is to be used by the Tanzanian Wildlife Management Authority to monitor the Selous Reserve and to fight poaching.

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Federal Minister Gerd Müller touring the harbour of Djibouti, the capital of the Djibouti

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A ship with mineral fertiliser is being unloaded by workers who bag the fertiliser and load them onto a truck

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Federal Minister Gerd Müller visited the largest refugee camp of the world in Daadab, Kenya, a settlement around 100 kilometres from the border to Somalia.

There are many children living in the refugee camp in Daadab.

Federal Minister Müller visiting a food distribution centre in Daadab

Women waiting for the distribution of food rations in the Daadab refugee camp

Minister Müller visiting the metal workshop in the vocational training centre "Bosco Boys Kuwinda" close to a slum in Nairobi, Kenya

Students at the vocational training centre "Bosco Boys Kuwinda" where Minister Müller inaugurated a new sports field

Federal Minister for Development Gerd Müller and Kenya's Minister for Finance at the signing of an agreement on development cooperation

Gerd Müller visiting a stable for cows at a Green Innovation Centre in Kenya. It is used to demonstrate the advantages of keeping cows in stables rather than the sides of roads.

At the Green Innovation Centre in Kenya, Minister Müller inaugurated a milk processing building.

Visiting a biogas plant at the Green Innovation Centre

The fish farmer Zinath Deen gives a tour of her fish farm near Lake Victoria. The farm also offers vocational training.

Zinath Deen demonstrating the transportation of young fish in an airfilled plastic container

In Tanzania, Minister Müller visited the nurse and midwife training centre of the Aga Khan University in Dar es Salaam. Here he is talking to two midwives and a student.

Minister Müller on a tour of the nurse and midwife training centre of the Aga Khan University in Dar es Salaam

In Tanzania, Minister Müller met religious leaders for a discussion on the situation of religious communities in the country. From left to right: Sheikh Musa Kundecha, Chair of the Independent Central Council of Muslims, Gerd Müller, Alex Malasusa, Archbishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Dar es Salaam and Abdulrahman Ame, Secretary General of the Muslim Welfare Organisation Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat

Gerd Müller and Jumanne Abdallah Maghembe, Minister for the Environment and Tourism in Tanzania, hand over a light plane to the Frankfurt Zoological Society, represented here by Christof Schenck (right) and the future pilots (left). The plane is to be used by the Tanzanian Wildlife Management Authority to monitor the Selous Reserve and to fight poaching.

Federal Minister Gerd Müller touring the harbour of Djibouti, the capital of the Djibouti

A ship with mineral fertiliser is being unloaded by workers who bag the fertiliser and load them onto a truck


In terms of development cooperation, Tanzania is an important partner country for Germany in Africa. At government negotiations in the capital Dar es Salaam in August 2015, funds of 158.5 million euros over three years were committed to Tanzania. Of this sum, 121 million euros was earmarked for Financial cooperation and 37.5 million euros for Technical Cooperation.

In late 2015, Tanzania received special commitments to be used to provide food for Burundian refugees there through the World Food Programme (14 million euros) and to improve health care (13 million euros).

The German government has agreed the following priority areas of cooperation with the Tanzanian government:

  • Drinking water, water management, sanitation and solid waste management
  • Health, family planning, HIV and AIDS
  • Environmental policy, conservation and sustainable management of natural resources (in particular biodiversity conservation)

Since 2012, Germany has been engaged furthermore in development cooperation activities that support sustainable and climate-friendly power generation in Tanzania. And a new project under Technical Cooperation, for which a commitment was made in 2015, is intended to strengthen good financial management and governance in Tanzania. The aim of the project is to support the reform of public financial management and to strengthen transparency and accountability.

In addition, Germany is supporting other measures in the field of renewable energy and energy efficiency, as well as measures to foster good governance and climate protection.


Drinking water, water management, sanitation and solid waste management

An employee at a water purification plant in Tanga, Tanzania

Currently, almost half of Tanzania's population still does not have adequate access to drinking water; only about 16 per cent of people have access to proper sanitation.

In places where water is scarce and of doubtful quality, the work of fetching it makes heavy demands on women and children in particular. Diseases caused by contaminated water, such as diarrhoea and cholera, are widespread. The main causes of these deficiencies are an antiquated or non-existent infrastructure, and inadequate management of the institutions responsible.

The general framework has greatly improved, however. The national water policy developed with German support establishes principles such as beneficiary participation, cost recovery, sustainable management of water resources, participation of the private sector, and decentralised management.

German development cooperation measures are embedded in this Tanzanian government programme. Germany is contributing in the following areas:

  • Infrastructure (in particular urban water supply)
  • Supporting the implementation of sector reforms
  • Institutional development and capacity building
  • Support for commercial water utilities
  • Improving donor coordination

Germany’s engagement has already spawned some major successes. In the region around Arusha, for example, the percentage of the population connected to the water supply has increased from 75 to 98 per cent, thanks to the work of the programme. Water losses have been halved, to 26 per cent, and the annual revenue of the municipal water utility has increased fivefold to 2.1 million euros (local equivalent). The incidence of water-borne diseases has been substantially reduced. Germany's development cooperation with Tanzania in this sector is mainly focused on investments in urban and peri-urban water supply and sanitation.


Health, family planning, HIV and AIDS

Selling condoms at a stall in Tanzania

The Tanzanian health sector faces many challenges: life expectancy of only 64 years, a high rate of maternal mortality, and population growth of around three per cent a year. At the same time, the health system is suffering from a severe lack of qualified personnel.

The Government of Tanzania has responded to this situation with comprehensive reforms. Its aims are: decentralisation; securing access to primary health care; human resource development to overcome staff shortages; establishing a sustainable system of health financing; setting up a social health insurance system; encouraging private sector participation; and implementing measures to reduce infectious diseases such as AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.

Germany is focusing in its development cooperation mainly on improving the health status of at-risk and disadvantaged sections of the population. Its main areas of intervention are the provision of a social security safety net in the event of illness, quality improvement and decentralised governance. Important cross-cutting issues in this cooperation are the strengthening of civil society and fostering cooperation with the private sector.

In close consultation with other donors, Germany is supporting the preparation of a long-term strategy on health financing. In the field of reproductive health and HIV prevention, Germany is an advocate for a human rights-based approach aimed at reducing discrimination and providing full access to information and services.

Germany's efforts have contributed markedly to the successes achieved in the Tanzanian health sector. These include improvements in the country's decentralised health care services and reductions in child mortality (in children under the age of five from 63 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2010 to 49 deaths in 2015) as well as in the prevalence of HIV infections (from 6.1 per cent in 2010 to 5.3 per cent in 2014). Tanzania has also achieved high immunisation coverage and made progress on controlling malaria and tuberculosis.


Environmental policy, conservation and sustainable management of natural resources (in particular biodiversity conservation)

Giraffe in the Serengeti, Tanzania

In 2012 and 2015, Germany pledged funds for a biodiversity programme that is to focus in particular on maintaining the ecosystems in the Serengeti and the Selous Game Reserve, as well as on capacity building measures for the new protection authority TAWA. Besides improving the management of the protected areas, the programme is also intended to improve the living conditions of the local communities. In order for the commitments made under this programme to be implemented, the protected areas must remain UNESCO World Heritage Sites.


Goat shepherds in the Serengeti, Tanzania

A vital aspect for implementation of the programme is also tackling the problem issue of poaching. The Frankfurt Zoological Society (ZGF) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) are aiding Tanzanian efforts in this regard.

Germany is also helping Tanzania to find an alternative transit route south of the Serengeti Range in order to preserve the eco-system and the unique migratory patterns of the wildlife there.


Other activities under German development cooperation

A functioning energy sector is an important prerequisite for sustainable economic and social development, whereas lack of access to reliable and affordable energy supplies can be a major impediment to development.

This is why Germany is engaged in development cooperation activities to bring energy generated from renewable sources to a more areas and in measures to improve energy efficiency. The focus of Germany's Financial cooperation in this context lies on electrification and on connecting the northwest of Tanzania (Kagera) to the national and the regional grid. This region has a huge need for reliable energy supplies and is currently the hardest hit by existing energy shortages.

In addition, Tanzania's Energy Ministry, its regulating authority for energy and water and its Rural Energy Agency will be advised on improving sector-policy conditions, designing state-sector mechanisms to encourage development, and making use of private-sector know-how.

A new Technical Cooperation project, committed in 2015, which aims to promote good financial governance, will help to support the reform of public financial management and strengthen transparency in Tanzania.


Other German support

Germany also makes a contribution to the European Union's development activities in Tanzania through its payments to the European Development Fund (EDF). The focus of the European Union's involvement is on good governance, energy and agriculture.

Germany also contributes to Tanzania's development by supporting the work of multilateral organisations such as the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the United Nations, GAVI and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM).


More information

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In 2016, more than 1,000 rhinos and 20,000 elefants were killed by poachers in Africa alone. Germany is supporting the fight against poaching, for example in Tanzania.

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