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The Niger

Market in Niamey

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Overview

An agricultural nation in the Sahel zone

Rich in mineral resources, development-oriented, and relatively stable politically following the democratic new beginning in 2011 – but at present still desperately poor: that would be one way to sum up the situation in the Niger.

The West African country gained independence from France in 1960. The decades that followed were dominated by a series of different military governments and several coups. Between 1999 and 2009, the Niger was governed by democratically elected President Mamadou Tandja, under whom the country achieved a certain degree of stability. Hopes that the Niger would undergo a process of democratisation and economic development went unfulfilled, however, as Tandja’s rule became increasingly autocratic.

Having refused to step down in 2009 after two terms in office as prescribed under the country’s constitution, President Tandja was ousted in a military coup in 2010. A new constitution affording more civil rights was devised, which was approved by the people of the Niger in a referendum. In early 2011, elections were held at the municipal, regional and national levels. Mahamadou Issoufou, a long-time opposition leader, won the presidential elections in 2011; in 2016 he was re-elected for a further term in office. Despite an attempt by the opposition to boycott them, the elections were legally correct and peaceful. The political climate within the country has improved since President Issoufou began his second five-year term in office.

The Niger government has set itself ambitious development goals. They include reducing poverty and food insecurity, strengthening and consolidating democracy, improving the country’s governance and its economic development, and stabilising the security situation.

Development cooperation

As a consequence of the political crisis in 2009 and 2010, the implementation of agreed development programmes was temporarily suspended. The only activities that continued to be funded were humanitarian measures aimed at addressing acute food shortages.

Following the country’s return to democratic structures, Germany resumed its cooperation with the Niger in 2011. The priority areas of cooperation are decentralisation and good governance, and productive agriculture and food security. Germany also supports the Niger in the areas of basic education and health care (family planning).

Scroll down to get detailed information about the situation in Mali and Germany's development engagement in the country.

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Priority areas of cooperation with the Niger

Development facts and figures from the Niger

Sandstorm in the Tillaberi region, Niger
Political situation

The hopes of the Niger people rest on the President

Since 2011, the hopes of the Niger people have been resting on President Mahamadou Issoufou and his government. Issoufou is expected to bring the West African country back to the path of democracy, introduce political and economic reforms, and find effective solutions for the main social problems.

Reform course mapped out

After being sworn into office, the President embarked on an encouraging course of reforms, initiating a national development strategy and restoring his country’s relations with its regional neighbours and the international community. Included in this agenda are stabilising democracy and the rule of law, and also fighting corruption. Issoufou has launched a food security initiative and has begun elaborating a long-term strategy to promote rural development.

High level of population growth

Sustainable development progress is massively hampered by the extremely high rate of population growth, measuring just under four per cent a year. The country’s economic achievements are not enough to offer the growing young population sufficient prospects for the future. Each year about 400,000 more young people need jobs, services and food.

Faced with a very high rate of population growth, President Issoufou is prepared to talk openly about the necessity of family planning and contraception – a taboo topic in broad sections of Niger society.

Difficult political situation in neighbouring countries

The Niger lies in a crisis region. The difficult political situation in neighbouring Libya, Mali and Nigeria makes meeting basic needs and upholding internal security a challenging task. Conflicts have caused many people from neighbouring countries to seek refuge in the Niger and have also led to internal displacement on a significant scale. Since the Islamist terrorist organisation Boko Haram began launching attacks from bases in Nigeria on targets in south-eastern Niger, too, the situation has deteriorated dramatically, especially in the region of Diffa.

In addition, the Niger is the most important transit country in West Africa for migrants. A significant percentage of the migrants from West and Central Africa pass through the Niger and Libya on their way to the Mediterranean and then to Europe.

The Bridge of Friendship China-Niger (pont de l'amitié Chine-Niger) in Niamey
Challenges

Democracy is not yet sufficiently developed

Despite the progress that has been made, democracy and the rule of law are still not sufficiently developed in the Niger. Day-to-day political life is characterised by the pursuit of individual interests based on ethnic and regional origin. Corruption is ever-present and contributes to the weakness of state institutions. In the Corruption Perceptions Index compiled by the non-governmental organisation Transparency International, the Niger was 112th out of the 180 countries evaluated in 2017. President Issoufou has made fighting corruption a priority of his administration and has taken the first step by setting up an anti-corruption authority (HALCIA).

The judiciary is not yet independent. Court judgements are influenced by political officials, family relationships and patronage networks. Furthermore, Islamic law and traditional law exist side by side with official legislation. The result is that regulations which are at odds with official legislation and are sometimes also discriminatory continue to exist and apply in everyday life.

Some progress has been made towards greater democracy and the rule of law by decentralising parts of the administrative system. However, the population was inadequately prepared for this process. Many municipal officials have had little training. Furthermore, in many places the distribution of financial resources is unclear.

Civil society organisations have become increasingly important in recent years. Many of them have joined together to form umbrella organisations and networks in order to unite forces. However, most of these organisations are too poorly equipped in terms of finances and staff to be able to exert any greater political influence or play any kind of monitoring role.

Women with goats and camels in Makanga
Women in Niamey
Human rights

Women are socially and economically disadvantaged

The Niger has ratified all the important international human rights conventions. Elementary civil rights are also laid down in the country’s constitution. However, there are many areas where national legislation has yet to catch up with these commitments.

Women are underrepresented in both politics and civil society organisations in the Niger. They are socially and economically disadvantaged, for example as regards access to education or earning their own money. Despite the fact that female genital mutilation has been declared a criminal offence, it continues to be practised in individual cases in some ethnic communities. In the Niger, the majority of girls are married while they are still underage.

In 2015, a law was passed to combat human trafficking and the activities of people smugglers, but so far it has had little effect.

Although a law from 2003 makes slavery a criminal offence, international human rights organisations estimate that around ten per cent of the population lives under slave-like conditions.

The protection of freedom of opinion and freedom of the press has improved under President Issoufou. The media in the Niger have repeatedly reported on political ills in the past. The human rights organisation  Freedom House describes the Niger as "partly free".

Hausa women sell milk in a market in the Niger.
Street scene in Niamey
Social situation

Great poverty

The Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world. The current United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) puts it last out of the 188 countries listed.

According to World Bank data, in 2012 just under 40 per cent of under-fives were underweight (no newer figures are available). More than 80 per cent of adults are illiterate. Rural areas in particular suffer from a lack of schools and qualified teaching staff. Although the last decade has seen a steady improvement in the school enrolment rate, roughly one third of schoolchildren drop out before having completed six years of primary school.

Only just under 60 per cent of the population has access to clean drinking water; only about ten per cent is connected to a proper sanitary system; and health services are inadequate. Despite a sharp reduction in infant mortality as a result of targeted vaccination campaigns, in 2016, 91 out of every 1,000 children were still dying before they reached the age of five. At 60 years, average life expectancy is low.

A man in a boat on the Niger River
Men drawing water from a deep well in Southern Niger.
View of the Niger River
Women and children at nutrition therapeutic centre in southern Niger
Children in the Niger
Agriculture
Livestock market in Diffa region, Niger.
Economic situation

Agriculture is the dominant industry

Despite unfavourable conditions for farming, the Niger’s economy is largely based on agriculture. According to the World Bank, in 2016 the agricultural sector accounted for 41.5 per cent of gross domestic product. Large numbers of the population earn a living directly from agriculture – so that they depend on the very irregular rainfall for their livelihoods.

Mining

The government is trying hard to put the economy on a broader footing. To this end, it is encouraging the establishment of industrial businesses and is privatising state-owned enterprises. The main focus of these efforts is on mining. The Niger is one of the world’s biggest producers of uranium and also has deposits of oil, coal, gold, iron, nickel, copper and phosphate. However, uranium mining is largely in the hands of foreign companies and the level of government monitoring has so far been inadequate, resulting in considerable damage to both the environment and people’s health.

Moreover, uranium mining has repeatedly been the cause of violent conflicts in recent years. Uranium deposits are to be found in the north of the country. The people living there – mainly Tuareg – are demanding a greater say in how the land is used as well as a larger share of the revenue generated by uranium exports.

An important prerequisite for sustainable development is transparent and responsible resource governance. The Niger has made important progress in this respect: following a review under the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), the Niger was declared EITI compliant in March 2011 in recognition of its implementation of transparency criteria and political reforms (see also: Raw materials as a factor in development).

Market in Niamey, the capital of the Niger
Refugees from Mali
Migration and displacement

Host and transit country for displaced people

The crises taking place in Mali, Nigeria and Libya are also taking their toll on the Niger’s development. The country is being forced to deal with multiple challenges that threaten its stability and domestic security.

First of all, the Niger is hosting a large number of people from Mali and Nigeria who have fled their homes to get away from terrorist attacks by Islamist organisations such as Al Qaida in Maghreb and Boko Haram. The displaced people also include many citizens of the Niger who had settled in Nigeria and have now returned to their home country seeking refuge. Since February 2015, Boko Haram has attacked targets in south-eastern Niger, too. The number of internally displaced persons in the border region of Diffa has risen sharply since then.

Secondly, the Niger is an important transit country for refugees and migrants from West and Central Africa. The two main migration routes from the south and south-west of the country cross through the desert city of Agadez. The city is the starting point for those seeking to travel onwards to Libya and Algeria, and from there across the Mediterranean and into Europe.

The Niger has been particularly affected by the failure of the state in Libya: traditional trading relations have been disrupted and numerous labour migrants from the Niger have been obliged to return home. There, however, their chances of finding similar employment are fairly small. In the border regions, which are difficult to control, it is particularly those trafficking arms, drugs and people, along with the terrorist groups, who benefit most from the unstable political situation in the Niger’s neighbouring countries.

Reception centre of the the International Organisation for Migration in Agadez, Niger
German efforts to support refugees and migrants

Measures worth 66 million euros agreed

In order to support the Niger in its efforts to deal with the refugee and migrant situation, measures worth 66 million euros were agreed at the German-Niger government negotiations in 2017. The Niger is to receive support in meeting migration challenges. In the region around Agadez in particular, local communities are to be helped so they can better meet the needs both of local people and of migrants, displaced persons and returnees.

The focus of the agreed measures is on tackling the factors that drive displacement and migration. For example, schools are being built and equipped; support in the form of labour-intensive programmes is being provided for the development of basic infrastructure (health posts, markets), in order to create jobs for the local population.

Other projects include vocational training, qualifications and promoting employment (including rural workers, mechanics, tailors), help with business start-ups through seed capital, literacy campaigns, and campaigns for sex education and family planning. An advisory project is supporting the Niger’s efforts to develop and implement a comprehensive, coordinated policy for dealing with the challenges of migration.

Federal Development Minister Gerd Müller meets Mahamadou Issoufou, President of the Niger

German development cooperation with the Niger

After the Niger returned to democracy, the development cooperation activities that had been temporarily suspended were resumed in 2011. Government negotiations between Germany and the Niger take place every three years. In 2014, commitments of 62 million euros were made for the period from 2014 to 2017. In 2015 and 2016, an additional 30 million euros was pledged. Germany is the third biggest bilateral donor after France and the US.

Cooperation between Germany and the Niger focuses on two priority areas:

  • Decentralisation and good governance
  • Productive agriculture and food security

Furthermore, the Federal Republic of Germany is also supporting the Republic of the Niger in the areas of basic education and health.

  • Villagers in southern Niger
    Decentralisation and good governance

    Strengthening municipal structures

    The Niger has been pursuing a policy of decentralisation since 2004 aimed at strengthening the country’s municipal structures. One of the challenges the Niger is facing in this context is how to ensure that in addition to being given authority for certain aspects of local government, municipalities are also provided with the funds they need to carry out these tasks.

  • Millet is one of the main staples in the Niger.
    Agriculture and food security

    Protecting natural resources

    Deforestation, overgrazing and overcultivation in the Niger mean that more and more land is being depleted of vital nutrients and becoming infertile. The country is already regularly suffering droughts because of changes in normal rainfall patterns, a situation which is likely to be further exacerbated by the effects of climate change.

  • School children in Niamey
    Health and basic education

    Improving the quality of education, setting up health centres

    Germany is supporting the implementation of the Niger government’s programme for the education sector. The assistance being provided includes the construction and equipping of schoolrooms, further training for teachers, and increasing the intake capacities of primary schools.

Villagers in southern Niger
Decentralisation and good governance

Strengthening municipal structures

The Niger has been pursuing a policy of decentralisation since 2004 aimed at strengthening the country’s municipal structures. One of the challenges the Niger is facing in this context is how to ensure that in addition to being given authority for certain aspects of local government, municipalities are also provided with the funds they need to carry out these tasks.

Germany is assisting the Niger’s municipalities in developing local governance structures in a variety of ways. For instance, development plans have been drawn up for projects in selected municipalities. All sectors of society were involved in drawing up these plans.

At the national level, Germany is advising the Niger’s government on the drafting of a decentralisation strategy. Germany is also involved in the development of a training centre for municipal employees.

One key task for the Niger government is to set up an instrument for sharing revenue nationally. Germany is supporting ANFICT, the agency for financing local and regional authorities. The job of this authority is to administer various support budgets centrally and to ensure that spending is transparent and that local communities have sufficient funding.

The various tools of German development cooperation are deployed in such a way that they are mutually complementary. The bilateral investment fund for decentralised authorities, FICOD (Fonds d’Investissements des Collectivités décentralisées), managed by KfW Development Bank, provides municipalities with the funding to improve economic, social and public infrastructure. Local government representatives are given advice and training by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) to enable them to draw up their own local development plans, which can then be used as the basis for applying for financial support from the Fund. Funding requests can be made, for example, to finance the building of schools, repairs to health centres and bus stations, the setting-up of markets and the building of access routes connecting villages to trunk roads.

Millet is one of the main staples in the Niger.
Agriculture and food security

Protecting natural resources

Deforestation, overgrazing and overcultivation in the Niger mean that more and more land is being depleted of vital nutrients and becoming infertile. The country is already regularly suffering droughts because of changes in normal rainfall patterns, a situation which is likely to be further exacerbated by the effects of climate change.

Germany is supporting its partner country the Niger in protecting natural resources and in restoring land that has been depleted so that it can once more be used for agriculture, forestry and grazing. Traditional and modern methods are applied in order to stop soil erosion and to make better use of rainwater. Germany’s focus is on the regions of Tahoua, Agadez and Tillabéri.

There is also a programme for productive agriculture in which German involvement focuses on small-scale irrigation, which is a priority for the partner government.

In addition to that, training modules for private and public providers of extension services are being developed. These providers learn how to give small farmers proper expert advice about matters such as tillage methods, rotating crops, selecting seeds, fertilisers, pest control and safety at work.

Through the programme, small-scale irrigation systems can be financed and farmers’ investments secured. The programme is also facilitating the construction of storage facilities and the setting-up and expansion of markets.

In order to effectively combat recurring food problems and prevent famine, the BMZ is continuing to support the Niger National Food Crisis Prevention and Management Mechanism (Dispositif National de Prévention et de Gestion des Crises Alimentaires, DNPGCA). This mechanism is designed to ensure that adequate reserves of cereals and seed are set aside throughout the country. In the long term, the only way that food insecurity can be reduced is through structural reforms targeting rural development, land use and food security.

School children in Niamey
Health and basic education

Improving the quality of education, setting up health centres

Germany is supporting the implementation of the Niger government’s programme for the education sector. The assistance being provided includes the construction and equipping of schoolrooms, further training for teachers and administrative staff, and increasing the intake capacities of primary schools. Cooperation partners are also receiving capacity building support in connection with education planning and administration, in particular with regard to managing staff resources.

The aim is to improve access to primary education and the quality and efficiency of primary education in the Niger. Through these activities Germany is contributing towards promoting equitable access to education for girls and boys, helping more children to complete their education, and reducing the differences in educational attainment between urban and rural areas.

The focus in the field of reproductive health is on developing and equipping rural health centres, and on introducing a results-oriented refund scheme for health care services. In view of the seriously high level of population growth, family planning information campaigns are being carried out. Furthermore, in the long term, the maternal and infant mortality rates in the Niger are to be reduced.

Health centre in the Niger

Map of the Niger

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Niger Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Niger Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Niamey, approximately 1.5 million inhabitants Berlin
Surface areaa16180096 1,267,000 sq km (2017) 357,380 sq km (2017)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 187 of 188 (2015) 4 of 188 (2015)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on the Niger

BMZ glossary

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