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Malawi

Fishermen in Ngara, a northern Malawi village about 30 kilometres south of Karonga

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Overview

A small country facing big challenges

Malawi is a land-locked country in Southeast Africa. Compared with some of its regional neighbours, it is a stable, safe and peaceful country. However, this stability is in danger of crumbling away, for the government is unable to satisfy the basic needs of the people of Malawi. This is because the state lacks the money, efficient administrative structures and qualified staff needed to do so. Whilst the government is willing to pursue reforms and advance the country's development, efforts so far have failed to bring about tangible improvements to people's living conditions. Malawi is one of the world's least developed countries (LDCs).

Development cooperation

The primary goal of the development cooperation between Germany and Malawi is to fight poverty and foster sustainable development in Malawi. Cooperation focuses on improving basic education and health and fostering private sector development in rural communities. Thus the aim of development interventions is to directly improve the lives of Malawi's people. There are also interventions designed to enhance the state's capacities and strengthen its resilience.

Scroll down to get detailed information about the situation in Malawi and Germany's development engagement in the country.

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Priority areas of cooperation with Malawi

Development facts and figures from Malawi

Political situation

Reforms still too tenuous

Following thirty years of dictatorship, Malawi has succeeded since 1994 in steering a course of peaceful transition to a multi-party democracy. Initially, the country managed to make considerable development progress. In late 2010, however, while under the increasingly autocratic leadership of President Bingu wa Mutharika, Malawi slipped into a severe crisis. And economic growth, which had been above average for years, declined considerably at that time. Following Mutharika's death, his successor Joyce Banda managed from 2012 to execute a swift political U-turn towards greater democracy and good governance. She also introduced urgently needed economic reforms.

In May 2014, Peter Mutharika, a brother of former president Bingu wa Mutharika, was elected as the country's new head of state and head of government. He carried on the reform process. The implementation of these reforms, however, has not been vigorous enough to steer the country out of its perennial political and economic crisis. It has been a case so far of treating the symptoms rather than changing the actual system.

The presidential elections scheduled for May 2019 will be an important gauge of how transparent and democratic governance has become.

Governance: corruption is widespread

Reforms are very slow to be implemented because state authorities are underfunded and understaffed. The country's development is also hampered by corruption and nepotism. And there is little political will to introduce any real changes in this respect. In the Corruption Perceptions Index compiled by the non-governmental organisation Transparency International for the year 2017, Malawi ranks 122nd out of the 180 countries evaluated.

Malawi has numerous civil society organisations which, as a rule, can go about their business unhindered. They are also involved in political processes on a regular basis. However, moves are being made to place non-governmental organisations under tighter legislative control.

In the south of Malawi, small sums are paid out to extremely poor people as part of a social cash transfer programme.
Social situation

Hunger and poverty a feature of many people's lives

Large sections of the population live in poverty. The average annual per capita income has fallen in recent years – from the equivalent of 470 US dollars in 2011 to 320 US dollars by 2016. (compared with 43,940 US dollars in Germany in 2016).

On the latest United Nations Human Development Index (HDI), Malawi is ranked 171st out of 189 states. Around 70 per cent of the working population is employed in agriculture. However, work in the sector is done using the most basic methods and tools, and yields are often so low that even farming families cannot subsist on them. About one quarter of the population is considered to be undernourished.

In 2015/2016, a drought caused by the El Niño climate phenomenon led to significant crop failures, which in turn triggered a famine. More than 6.5 million of the country's 18 million or so inhabitants were in need of food aid and financial support.

Deficits in education and health

There are huge deficiencies in health care and education in Malawi. The quality of teaching at schools is poor, and some 20 per cent of children – boys and girls – do not complete primary school. More than a third of the adult population lack even basic reading and writing skills.

Infant, child and maternal mortality rates have been reduced in recent years but still remain shockingly high compared with other countries in the region and the rest of the world. Nearly 50 per cent of Malawi’s adults between the ages of 15 and 49 are infected with HIV. Malaria, tuberculosis and respiratory diseases are also widespread.

A fast-growing population

A huge strain for Malawi’s development is the rapidly expanding population (growth rate in 2016: 2.9 per cent). According to a recent United Nations estimate, the country's population is expected to increase from around 18 million, which it is now, to more than 40 million by 2050. If economic and social conditions in Malawi do not change radically, the current rate of population growth will bring with it disastrous consequences – for instance for the country's social development, environment and food security.

In a village near Bilira (Malawi) two children play with the water pump of a well.
Economic situation

Heavy dependence on the weather and world markets

Malawi is an agricultural nation. Formally, agriculture accounts for only around 28 per cent of the country's gross domestic product. However, since most small farmers only produce enough for their own consumption, actual economic output in the agricultural sector is likely to be much higher. Foreign currency is mainly generated through the export of tobacco and, to a lesser extent, tea, coffee, sugar, cotton and soy beans.

The economy’s heavy dependence on a few unprocessed goods as exports makes it very vulnerable to external influences such as droughts, agricultural pests or price fluctuations on the world market. In addition, Malawi lacks access to the sea, making it reliant for its foreign trade on transit routes through neighbouring countries.

The economy is also held back by the country's inadequate power supply. Little more than ten per cent of the population have access to electricity.

In 2015 and 2016, Malawi's economy grew by 2.8 per cent and 2.5 per cent respectively. These rates are just below the country's population growth rate of almost three per cent. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is predicting that economic output will increase by five per cent in 2018.

Tobacco plantation in Malawi
Landscape in Central Malawi
Environmental situation

The threat posed by climate change

The high rate of population growth means that Malawi faces great problems in terms of food supplies and the provision of social services for its people. Not only that, but the impact it is having on the environment is also cause for concern. For instance, because the growing population is using ever greater amounts of firewood, Malawi has become widely deforested.

In the summer of 2017, the government adopted a new strategy to restore destroyed soils and deforested areas back to their natural state, and to regulate the production and use of charcoal. The ambitious goal under the strategy is to return 4.5 million hectares of land to a fertile state.

In recent years, droughts and floods have worsened in terms of frequency and scale. It must be expected that devastating weather events of this kind will become even more frequent as a result of climate change.

Elephants in Liwonde National Park, Malawi

Development potential

Many people in Malawi show great interest in educational opportunities and demonstrate a considerable capacity for self-help. This is especially true of women working in the informal sector and of civil society organisations. Consequently, both could become important partners for development.

Agriculture, tourism and mining all have the potential to boost economic development. In order to harness this potential, agricultural production, for example, must be modernised and expanded to include new products. And to attract greater numbers of tourists, Malawi must improve its political stability and step up conservation of its natural resources. The country has a great variety of landscapes and has already established a number of conservation areas. Wildlife numbers have increased markedly in recent years.

In the future, the country's mining sector could also contribute to economic development: Malawi has not only uranium deposits – which are currently not worth mining because of the depressed prices for the mineral on the world markets – but also other resources such as rare earths and recoverable oil and gas reserves.

German development cooperation with Malawi

The primary goal of development cooperation with Malawi is poverty reduction. Germany's current activities are focused on supporting the Malawian government's growth and development strategy MGDS III and on implementing programmes that will have a direct benefit for the people of Malawi.

At intergovernmental negotiations in November 2017, the German government pledged to make available to Malawi 78 million euros for development cooperation. Over and above that, Malawi will also receive funding worth up to 31 million euros through the special "One World – No Hunger" initiative. These funds will be used to support innovations in agriculture and improve food security.

The two sides agreed on the following priority areas of cooperation:

  • Primary education
  • Health (including social protection)
  • Private sector development in rural areas

In addition, Germany is supporting the efforts of the Malawian government to improve public financial management. The aim of this support is to improve accountability and transparency, to increase the state’s own revenues and to ensure that financial resources are used efficiently.

  • School class in Malawi
    Primary education

    A focus on teacher training and equipping schools

    Germany is helping the Malawian government upgrade the country's teacher training, in particular in the subjects of maths and teaching techniques, and is also providing support for new classrooms and accommodation for teaching staff.

  • A mother has come to the doctor with her baby, who is now examining the child.
    Health

    Health care and social protection for all

    Germany wants to support Malawi in its efforts to set up a country-wide health service which provides good and affordable health care. A further aim of development cooperation is to provide better social protection for people living in extreme poverty.

  • Groundnut farmer in Malawi
    Private sector development in rural areas

    Creating jobs and incomes

    The aim of the German engagement in this priority area is to create employment and income opportunities in rural areas, and to improve people's nutrition. The central focus is on optimising selected value chains.

School class in Malawi
Primary education

A focus on teacher training and equipping schools

The government of Malawi abolished school fees for primary education in 1994. Since then the number of children attending school has undergone a marked increase – nearly all children are now being enrolled in school. However, the quality of teaching has deteriorated. There is a shortage of classrooms, teaching aids, learning aids and qualified teachers. On average, each teacher has to instruct 70 pupils, and 116 pupils have to share a classroom.

Germany is helping the Malawian government upgrade the country's teacher training, in particular in the subjects of maths and teaching techniques. As part of this effort, curricula are being overhauled and new teaching materials developed. Germany is also providing support for new classrooms and accommodation for teaching staff. Another project is designed to improve the food on offer at schools.

A mother has come to the doctor with her baby, who is now examining the child.
Health

Health care and social protection for all

In recent years, Malawi has succeeded in reducing the mortality rate amongst mothers and children, the high birth rate and the incidence of HIV infections. Despite this progress, however, the country's health services continue to exhibit major shortcomings. Many people, in particular in rural areas, have no access at all to basic health services. This is not just due to a lack of money, but also to the inappropriate distribution of funds as well as poor management and a lack of personnel at all levels.

Through its development cooperation, Germany wants to support Malawi in its efforts to set up a country-wide health service which provides good and affordable health care, in particular in the areas of family planning and of sexual and reproductive health. To achieve this, the quality of health care services and the training of medical staff are being improved. Germany is also supporting efforts to give a greater role to non-governmental actors, such as church-based health care providers.

A further aim of development cooperation is to provide better social protection for people living in extreme poverty. To this end, Germany is supporting the establishment of an effective social security system. It is involved, among other things, in helping Malawi to implement a social transfer programme, under which deprived households regularly receive payments from the government so that they can afford basic supplies and services. An impact study has shown that the programme is having positive effects on the health, diet and educational attainment of the target group, thereby increasing their chances of being able to earn their own living in future.

Groundnut farmer in Malawi
Private sector development in rural areas

Creating jobs and incomes

Private sector development in rural regions has been a priority area of development cooperation between Germany and Malawi since 2014. The aim is to create employment and income opportunities in rural areas, and to improve people's nutrition. The measures are designed so that they support women and young adults in particular.

The central focus is on optimising selected value chains (such as those involving cassava, groundnuts, soybeans, sunflowers, tourism and environmentally sound building materials) – for example, by improving the production and processing of local products in order to make them more marketable both at home and abroad. To achieve this, collaborative projects are being fostered where the private sector teams up with small farmers who have so far not been able to produce any surplus or had access to markets for their produce. Small and medium-sized enterprises, and their lobby or interest groups, are also being helped on.

Furthermore, funding from the "One World – No Hunger" initiative is being used to finance an "innovation centre for the agriculture and food sector" in Malawi. The services offered by the centre include agricultural education and training as well as extension services.

In addition, Germany is also supporting measures to improve the nutritional situation of pregnant women, mothers and infants, and to give small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises access to loans which they can use to procure seeds, fertilisers and agricultural machinery. A further project is aimed at improving the availability of fish and fish products and at enhancing income opportunities from sustainable aquaculture.

Map of Malawi

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

A fisherman in the northern Malawian village of Ngara is mending a net.

Development facts and figures

  Malawi Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Malawi Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Lilongwe, approximately 1.1 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 118,480 sq km (2017) 357,380 sq km (2017)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 171 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Malawi

BMZ glossary

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