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Madagascar

Baobabs near Morondava, Madagascar

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Overview

Natural paradise in a difficult situation

Madagascar is Africa's largest island state and the fourth largest island in the world. Its isolated situation in the Indian Ocean has allowed a rich diversity of flora and fauna to develop. Many species are endemic, that is, they only occur in Madagascar – and many have yet to be discovered. But large parts of this natural paradise have already been destroyed as a result of human intervention. Whereas the island was once almost entirely covered by rain forest, now only a fraction of it survives.

Decades of mismanagement and poor governance have driven Madagascar to the brink of ruin. Today it is one of the least developed countries in the world. Annual gross national income per capita is 400 US dollars, well below the average for other sub-Saharan African countries. More than three quarters of the people live in extreme poverty.

The situation is further aggravated by the impact of climate change. Cyclones regularly hit Madagascar, and they are becoming more and more destructive. Every time, they claim many lives and cause millions of dollars' worth of damage. As a result of the El Niño climate phenomenon, recurrent droughts are becoming more intensive, regularly leading to crop losses, especially in the country's south. This is resulting in frequent humanitarian emergencies. In spring 2017, as many as 1.4 million people were facing food insecurity.

Coup and return to democracy

In 2009, a coup d'état triggered a severe political crisis, plunging the country into international isolation for more than four years. Among other things, its membership of the African Union and of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) was suspended.

In 2013, with assistance from international mediators, Madagascar managed to resume a democratic course. Presidential and parliamentary elections were held with support from the United Nations. President Hery Rajaonarimampianina, who has been in office since January 2014, has repeatedly expressed his commitment to reforms. However, the reform process has stalled repeatedly.

At an international donor conference in Paris in December 2016, donors committed 6.4 billion US dollars for Madagascar for the period of 2017 to 2020.

Development cooperation

Just like the European Union and all EU member states, Germany suspended its intergovernmental development cooperation with Madagascar after the coup in March 2009. Pending the restoration of democratic conditions, cooperation was limited to the continuation of projects that did not involve the government and that provided assistance to the people as directly as possible.

Following the elections in Madagascar at the start of 2014, the EU repealed its sanctions and cleared the way for cooperation with the country's new government. Germany, too, resumed its bilateral development cooperation after this and expanded its programmes The focus of cooperation is on environmental and resource protection. Important areas of intervention include the use of renewable energy and agricultural development, as well as adaptation to climate change. There are also significant cooperation activities as part of the special initiative "ONE WORLD – No hunger".

Scroll down to get detailed information about the situation in Madagascar and Germany's development engagement in the country.

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Priority areas of cooperation with Madagascar

Development facts and figures from Madagascar

Policeman in Moramanga, Madagascar
Political situation

Little scope for urgently needed measures

After the coup of 2009, the donor community suspended its support for several years. As a result, there was another serious deterioration in the situation in Madagascar. The government is no longer able to carry out its key tasks. With a tax-to-GDP ratio of 10.8 per cent (2016), there is not enough revenue to finance urgently needed investments in the country's run-down infrastructure or in its education and health systems.

Moreover, more than 95 per cent of government funding remains in the region around the capital, Antananarivo. In the past few years, the government has no longer paid out the grants to municipalities that are envisaged by Malagasy law.

Civil society is not very developed in Madagascar. People have very few opportunities for critically monitoring government policies or for voicing their concerns and demands.

One challenge is the fact that government revenue is not sufficient to lend significant impetus to development or to provide basic services for the people (education, health, infrastructure) nationwide.

Even though the country's central democratic institutions are carrying out their core functions, it is very difficult for outsiders to rise in the political system, and the political system is inefficient. A small economic elite reaps the profits from the country's wealth of natural resources and stands in the way of fundamental reforms. Most tropical timber, gemstones and gold are exported through illegal channels.

Corruption is widespread, the justice system is dysfunctional. In 2016, Madagascar ranked 145th out of 176 countries evaluated on the Corruption Perceptions Index of the non-governmental organisation Transparency International.

Queue at a public water dispenser in Schlange in Antananarivo, the capital of Madagascar
Social situation

More than three quarters of the population are extremely poor

Madagascar is one of the least developed countries in the world. In the Human Development Index (HDI 2015), Madagascar is ranked 158th out of 188 countries.

More than three quarters of the population are living in extreme poverty. The share of poor people is particularly high in rural areas. One third of the people are considered to be malnourished. Among under-five-year-olds, nearly one in two children is affected by chronic malnutrition. Almost half of the people have no access to safe drinking water, and only 12 per cent have adequate sanitation. In the vanilla plantations and in the quarries, tens of thousands of children are working under what are sometimes slavery-like conditions.

An intercity bus in Madagascar
Economic situation

Hope for stabilisation

When Madagascar gained independence from the colonial power of France in 1960, the island state was one of the middle-income countries. From 1972 onwards, the country was oriented towards socialism and large companies were nationalised. Madagascar closed itself off from the Western world and the country's economic and social decline began.

Increasing economic growth rates over the last five years are giving rise to hope that the situation is going to stabilise. In 2016, economic growth in Madagascar was about 4.2 per cent. According to figures from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the growth rate in 2018 is expected to reach 5.3 per cent.

Madagascar's economy is dominated by agriculture. The sector provides a living for three quarters of the population but accounts for only around one quarter of gross domestic product. Most agricultural land is used for subsistence farming.

Major challenges include soil erosion and extremely low agricultural productivity, which are being exacerbated by climate change. In the 1970s, Madagascar was an exporter of rice, but now rice production is so low that it is not even sufficient to meet domestic demand.

There is also an urgent need to expand power supplies. Nationwide, only some 17 per cent of the people are connected to the power grid. In rural areas, that rate is even lower, just under 11 per cent. The government has launched the first steps towards reforming the energy sector.

Young people in Bevilany, a settlement which produces charcoal in southeastern Madagascar
Environmental situation

The challenge of protecting the environment

One of the biggest challenges facing the country is protecting the environment. Madagascar is endowed with a unique biodiversity. Protection of the environment is a national objective under the country's constitution, the idea being that sustainable use and management of the rain forests should, at the same time, help to protect biodiversity and improve the living conditions of the people.

However, rapid population growth, widespread poverty and inappropriate traditional farming methods are threatening the country's natural resources. More and more areas of rain forest are chopped down or cleared by slash-and-burn to obtain firewood, create new farmland or extract luxury timber.

Madagascar: A lemur with an offspring

Development potential

Madagascar's natural beauty and diversity are among its greatest assets.

Tourism is already an important economic factor and can be further developed – on a sustainable basis. Eco-tourism in particular is a potential new source of income for the people.

Research into and the use of medicinal and healing plants also offer opportunities. However, this is only an option if the remaining rain forest remains intact and is protected on a sustainable basis.

Mining is another engine for growth. Madagascar has rich deposits of titanium, nickel, bauxite and graphite. However, this development potential can only be tapped if the political situation is stable.

German development cooperation with Madagascar

Germany suspended its intergovernmental development cooperation with Madagascar from 2009 until 2014. During the government talks with Madagascar in December 2016, Germany committed funds amounting to 59.6 million euros to its partner country.

The two countries' cooperation focuses on the protection of biodiversity and on the sustainable use of natural resources. Cooperation programmes address the areas of environmental and resource protection, renewable energy, and agriculture. Moreover, a programme for pro-poor municipal development and decentralisation was launched in response to the dramatic levels of poverty.

Under its special "ONE WORLD – No Hunger" initiative, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) supports Madagascar through projects related to sustainable fisheries and aquaculture and to land policy. Support is also being provided to public-private partnerships and strategic alliances with the private sector, for instance in support of smallholders producing vanilla and fruit.

  • Villagers from Ankirikiriky in southern Madagascar are replanting deforested land in return for food rations from the World Food Programme.
    Environment

    Environmental and resource protection

    Madagascar's population is expected to double over the next 30 years. This means that pressure on natural resources will grow, and there will be major challenges with regard to food security for the people and with regard to the country's social and economic development.

  • Mobile solar panels are used to power small electrical items in areas where there is no access to electricity in Madagascar
    Renewable energy

    Electricity for three quarters of the population

    Madagascar's new energy policy envisages power supplies for nearly three quarters of the population by 2030. The share of renewable energy is to be 85 per cent. There is great potential in the areas of hydropower and solar power, but also in the fields of wind and biomass energy.

  • Madame Filao inspects her castor oil plants.
    Agriculture

    Adaptation to climate change

    In 2016, Madagascar and Germany agreed that they would work together in the field of rural development. The focus is on adapting specific agricultural value chains to climate change.

  • Zebu market in Ambalavao
    Decentralisation

    Municipal development

    The BMZ supports the Government of Madagascar in its efforts to decentralise the governance system. The purpose of the two sides' cooperation is to improve the environment for local self-government.

Villagers from Ankirikiriky in southern Madagascar are replanting deforested land in return for food rations from the World Food Programme.
Environment

Environmental and resource protection

Madagascar's population is expected to double over the next 30 years. This means that pressure on natural resources will grow, and there will be major challenges with regard to food security for the people and with regard to the country's social and economic development. Madagascar is also one of the countries that are most severely affected by global climate change. It is frequently hit by cyclones, which destroy harvests and cause considerable damage to the country's infrastructure.

Improving people's living conditions through the sustainable use of natural resources is therefore at the heart of development cooperation between Germany and Madagascar.

Germany is helping the Government of Madagascar to reform its environmental and forestry policies and further expand the network of national parks. Among other things, Germany is assisting local user groups in taking on responsibility for the management of protected areas, and it is supporting the development of value chains in the areas of tourism, honey, and timber for construction purposes. Farmers are taught how to prevent erosion and use organic farming methods, and they receive support with regard to the sustainable reforestation of timberland. Advice is also being provided to municipal and regional authorities on land use planning.

Mobile solar panels are used to power small electrical items in areas where there is no access to electricity in Madagascar
Renewable energy

Electricity for three quarters of the population

The new energy policy which Madagascar adopted in 2015 envisages power supplies for nearly three quarters of the population by 2030.

The share of renewable energy is to be 85 per cent. There is great potential in the areas of hydropower and solar power, but also in the fields of wind and biomass energy.

At the national level, Germany provides advice to the Ministry of Energy and other government actors with regard to drafting an energy strategy, developing financing mechanisms, and setting up monitoring systems.

At the regional level, Germany is assisting players with planning the expansion of power supply with the participation of the people.</p>

And at the local level, Germany supports the planning, granting of permits, installation and operation of small-scale hydropower stations and power networks operated by private companies.

Madame Filao inspects her castor oil plants.
Agriculture

Adaptation to climate change

In 2016, Madagascar and Germany agreed that they would work together in the field of rural development. The focus is on adapting specific agricultural value chains to climate change. In order to be able to switch to sustainable farming methods and increase their productivity, farmers are to be given access to climate-resilient seeds, extension services and training, and loans and climate risk insurance.

Castor oil plant farmer at work
Zebu market in Ambalavao
Decentralisation

Municipal development

The BMZ supports the Government of Madagascar in its efforts to decentralise the governance system. The purpose of the two sides' cooperation is to improve the environment for local self-government, ensure adequate levels of budget resources for municipalities, and enhance the reach and quality of municipal services. Among other things, the project therefore assists municipalities in increasing their revenue and in building their capacity through training.

Map of Madagascar

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Madagascar Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Republic of Madagascar Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Antananarivo, approximately 2 million inhabitants Berlin
Surface areaa16180096 587,295 sq km (2017) 357,380 sq km (2017)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 158 of 188 (2015) 4 of 188 (2015)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

Here you can find selected links to websites with more information on development policy in Madagascar.

BMZ glossary

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