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Brazil

Ipanema beach in Rio de Janeiro

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Overview

Land of superlatives

Brazil is the biggest country in South America. In terms of size and population it is the fifth largest country on earth and one of the world’s ten largest economies (ranked 8th in 2017). The country has the greatest wealth of biodiversity anywhere on the planet, the biggest remaining rainforest and the river carrying the most water in the world: the Amazon.

In the areas of peace and security, world trade, and environmental and climate protection, Brazil is an important player in international politics. Brazil builds a bridge between the industrialised countries and the Group of 77 (G-77), an association of developing and emerging countries.

Economic and political situation

After a "golden decade" of growth (2003 to 2013) accompanied by success in reducing poverty, Brazil is currently going through an economic and political crisis. Growth has slumped, Brazil is deeply in debt, unemployment has risen drastically, and gross national income per capita has gone down by about 30 per cent since 2013.

In recent years, widespread corruption involving leading personalities from the worlds of politics and business has come to light. In 2016, president Dilma Rousseff was removed from office in highly controversial court proceedings. Since then, Michel Temer has been at the helm of a liberal conservative government which is attempting to reform the pension system and the labour market, and stabilise the national budget.

Although there is no sign of a turnaround yet, Brazil’s long-term economic potential is huge. The country is rich in natural resources and has a large, well-trained workforce.

Development cooperation

Brazil is one of the BMZ’s global development partners and is seen by the German government as having considerable influence globally. Collaboration with Brazil was placed on a new footing in recent years with the introduction of what is known as "Cooperation for Sustainable Development". This shift takes into account the country’s level of development as well as its greater global and regional importance. Germany and Brazil agreed to focus their cooperation on two of the biggest global challenges: climate protection and conservation of biodiversity. That is why the two sides decided to make conserving tropical forests and promoting renewable energies and energy efficiency the priority areas of their cooperation.

Scroll down to get detailed information about the situation in Brazil and Germany's development engagement in the country.

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Priority areas of cooperation with Brazil

Development facts and figures from Brazil

Children on a playground in the Favela Mangueira in Rio de Janeiro
Social and economic situation

Great development progress and persistent challenges

Under the governments of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003 to 2010) and Dilma Rousseff (2010 to 2016), Brazil made remarkable social progress. Since 2003, more than 15 million new jobs have been created, minimum wages and pensions have increased continuously and, between 1992 and 2012, gross national income per capita quadrupled.

Brazil launched the world’s biggest poverty reduction programme and a large-scale social housing programme. In addition, large parts of the country were connected to the power grid and a reform of land rights was pushed through.

As a result, between 1992 and 2014, extreme poverty was brought down from 20.8 per cent of the population to 3.7 per cent of the population. In 2015, the number of poor people rose again slightly, and there are still stark regional differences. Income disparities in the country are huge.

Brazil has some of the highest rates of violence and murder in the world, particularly in the megacities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Drug- and gang-related crime are part of daily life in those cities, especially for many of the young people who live in them.

Slash-and-burn in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso
Environment and climate

Reconciling ecological, social and economic interests

The vast majority of the Amazon rainforest lies in Brazil. As a water and carbon reservoir, it plays a central role for the global climate and for economic development in South America.

Brazil is one of the biggest coffee, sugar, meat and soy producers in the world and needs vast expanses of land to grow these products. As a result, extensive tracts of land have been and are being deforested – sometimes illegally – in order to acquire new land for farming or grazing.

Striking a balance between ecological, social and economic interests is one of the most important tasks of Cooperation for Sustainable Development.

Energy

Brazil has considerable potential for scaling up wind and solar energy. The country needs a stable energy supply and efficient power distribution for its economic development.

Climate action

Brazil was one of the first countries to ratify the Paris Agreement and made a commitment to cut greenhouse gas emissions 37 per cent by 2025 compared to 2005 levels and 43 per cent by 2030. The country is planning to increase the share of renewable energy in its energy mix and to improve energy efficiency. Moreover, emissions from land use and deforestation of the rainforest are to be reduced.

German development cooperation with Brazil

Due to its size and economic strength, and as a member of the BRICS association (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) and of the G20, Brazil plays a very important role internationally and is thus one of the global development partners of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ).

In 2015, Brazil and Germany launched a strategic partnership, focused on joint efforts for promoting economically, socially and ecologically sustainable development.

The two governments agreed that German-Brazilian development cooperation would concentrate on two of the biggest global challenges: climate protection and conservation of biodiversity. Cooperation therefore focuses on the following areas:

  • Conservation and sustainable use of the rainforest
  • Renewable energy and energy efficiency

In view of the country’s own capacity, German support concentrates on reduced-interest loans, in addition to technical advice and financial contributions to Brazilian programmes and funds. To that end, the BMZ made available a total of 332.4 million euros at the end of 2017. Of this, 313 million euros was for Financial Cooperation and 19.4 million euros for Technical Cooperation.

  • Rainforest in Jaraqui, Brazil
    Amazon region

    Conservation and sustainable use of the rainforest

    Together with the Brazilian government, the BMZ forged an international alliance to ensure effective protection of more than 60 million hectares of tropical forest in the Amazon region.

  • Football stadium in Salvador da Bahia equipped with solar panels
    Sustainable power supply

    Promoting renewable energies and energy efficiency

    More than 95 per cent of Brazil’s electricity is generated by means of hydropower. In the past, electricity outages were a frequent occurrence in periods of drought and times of increased energy demand.

Rainforest in Jaraqui, Brazil
Amazon region

Conservation and sustainable use of the rainforest

Between 1992 and 2009, the BMZ made available more than 300 million euros for the G7 "pilot program to conserve the Brazilian rain forest" (PP-G7). Overall, Germany was Brazil’s most important partner during that period and was also the biggest contributor to the World Bank’s "Rain Forest Trust Fund".

Under the pilot programme, significant areas of the Amazon and of the Atlantic coastal forests were declared protected zones, and indigenous zones were established.

Brazil’s Amazon Fund was the first national forest and climate protection fund to be established worldwide. As a result, the country was able to reduce deforestation in the Amazon region by around 70 per cent in the period from 2004 to 2014.

What is the BMZ doing?

Together with the Brazilian government, the BMZ forged an international alliance to ensure effective protection of more than 60 million hectares of tropical forest in the Amazon region. The Amazon Region Protected Areas (ARPA) Programme is the world’s largest programme for the protection of important habitats.

In addition, the BMZ has supported the indigenous tribes’ agency "Fundação Nacional do Índio” (FUNAI) in the work of designating and conserving more than 100 protected indigenous areas with a total surface area of some 44 million hectares. Around twenty per cent of the Amazon region is officially designated as territories belonging to the indigenous population and is legally protected.

Moreover, the BMZ is supporting the implementation of the National Environmental Registry, the Cadastro Ambiental Rural (CAR), as an innovative instrument of governmental environmental regulation. Since 2014, it has been mandatory for all land owners to inform the authorities about the size of properties they are managing. They are required by law to conserve or restore protected areas.

The BMZ continues to support the Amazon Fund of the Brazilian development bank BNDES. Funds are disbursed based on proven achievements in protecting the rainforest. They are invested in measures for reforestation and sustainable development in the Amazon region. Alongside Norway, Germany is the second biggest contributor to the Fund.

Since the absence of clearly defined land ownership often leads to violent conflicts over land in the Amazon region, the BMZ is supporting the regularisation of land tenure. The national programme "Terra Legal" is legalising the use of 55 million hectares of state-owned land in the Amazon region by granting land titles.

Germany also supports Brazil’s approach of harnessing the sustainable use of rainforest resources as an incentive for protecting the rainforest. Investments have been made in various value chains based on products from natural forest management.

See also

Football stadium in Salvador da Bahia equipped with solar panels
Sustainable power supply

Promoting renewable energies and energy efficiency

More than 95 per cent of Brazil’s electricity is generated by means of hydropower. In the past, electricity outages were a frequent occurrence in periods of drought and times of increased energy demand. Despite good conditions in terms of climate and geography, solar and wind energy are not yet widely used in Brazil.

Improving energy efficiency is another goal of the Brazilian government. Germany is supporting the Brazilian government and the private sector in increasing energy efficiency in the field of urban mobility and thus reducing emissions of pollutants that harm the climate.

What is the BMZ doing?

The BMZ finances advisory services, expert exchange in Germany and joint research projects and, through KfW Development Bank, makes available development and promotional loans for developing alternative energy sources. Pilot projects are to be used to raise awareness of new technologies and make sure they are more widely used.

The Ministry of Mines and affiliated ministries, the Secretariat for Energy Planning and Development and the regulatory authority are being advised on how to put in place the technical conditions necessary for the use of renewables. Among other things, the auction rules for the construction of wind power plants have been improved.

Together with the Brazilian development bank BNDES, a financing programme has been launched that creates incentives for investing in climate-friendly wind energy. Ten wind farms with a total capacity of 500 megawatts have been financed – equivalent to roughly 15 per cent of the total installed capacity in Brazil.

In the run-up to the 2014 World Cup, football stadiums such as the Mineirão stadium in Belo Horizonte were equipped with solar panels as flagship projects. Furthermore, on the company premises of the state-owned power utility Eletrosul in Florianópolis, a solar plant was set up.

In Rio de Janeiro, solar-thermal plants have been installed in a social housing complex. Installing such power plants is now a mandatory component under the national funding programme for social housing ("Minha Casa Minha Vida").

Currently, through development cooperation, Germany is supporting Brazil with regard to the technical preparation and implementation of the first industrial solar power plant in the northeast of the country. Moreover, vocational training schemes in the area of solar energy are being developed in suitable vocational training centres, and NGO advocacy and information campaigns are being supported.

Triangular cooperation

New forms of cooperation

Brazil is an important partner of the BMZ when it comes to promoting development programmes in third countries, i.e. as part of triangular cooperation. Such programmes focus on exchanges of experience between an emerging economy, an industrialised country and a developing country.

For instance, Germany and Brazil are jointly supporting programmes in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean – in the areas of photovoltaics, agriculture and health (HIV/AIDS), among others.

Map of Brazil

This map does not necessarily reflect the official position of the German government in terms of international law.

Development facts and figures

  Brazil Data for Germany
Country namea16180138 Federative Republic of Brazil Federal Republic of Germany
Capitala16180110 Brasilia, 450,000 inhabitants, Federal District approx. 2.4 million inhabitants Berlin, 3.7 million inhabitants
Surface areaa16180096 8,515,770 sq km (2017) 357,380 sq km (2017)
Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)a16180124 79 of 189 (2017) 5 of 189 (2017)
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.SRF.TOTL.K2

Surface area

Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/

Ranking Human Development Index (HDI)

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes a Human Development Report once a year. The Human Development Index (HDI) contained in the Report records average figures for a country in fundamentally important fields of human development. These include, for example, life expectancy at birth, level of education and per capita income. From a large number of such individual indicators a ranking is calculated. Using this ranking it is possible to establish the average development status of a particular country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS

Population living in rural areas (% of total)

Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html

Volume of German development cooperation

Funds for development cooperation (Technical and Financial Cooperation) committed by the Federal Republic of Germany under intergovernmental agreements.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.CD

Total amount of ODA received

Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS

Amount of ODA received per capita

Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients; and is calculated by dividing net ODA received by the midyear population estimate. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS

Undernutrition

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC

Population living below the national poverty line (% of total)

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY

Population living in absolute poverty (% of total)

The percentage of the population living on less than 1.90 US dollars a day at 2011 international prices. The World Bank last changed the definition of this poverty line in October 2015. Previously, it was defined as the percentage of the population living on less than 1.25 US dollars a day at 2005 international prices. Five countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Jordan and Laos) still use this older definition.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.CMPT.ZS

Children who complete primary school (% of total)

Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

When using this method of calculation the result may be greater than 100 per cent for some countries. This just means that the number of children completing their primary school education in that particular school year was higher than the number of children who were of official school leaving age.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR

Proportion of school age children attending primary school

Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS

Literacy rate

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS

Public spending on education

Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS

Number of pupils per teacher at primary school level

Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.IMM.IDPT

Immunization, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) (% of children ages 12-23 months)

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTC.ZS

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ANVC.ZS

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT

Number of mothers who die during pregnancy or childbirth (per 100,000 live births)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

HIV/AIDS prevalence among the 15-49 age group

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.PUBL.ZS

Public health spending as a percentage of gross domestic product

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.PAVE.ZS

Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS

Individuals using the Internet (% of population)

Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.PCAR.P3

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver).

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS

Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.ACSN

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS

Land under cultivation (% of total land area)

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS

Land classified as conservation areas (% of total land area)

Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.ZS

Forested land (% of total land area)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

Level of carbon emissions per capita (in tons)

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC

Power consumption per inhabitant

Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS

Jobs in agriculture (% of total)

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS

Energy imports (% of total energy consumption)

Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.0714.ZS

Child labour (% of children aged 7 to 14)

Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. Dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.DOD.DECT.CD

Total foreign debt

Total external debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.ATLS.CD

GNI (current US$)

GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD

GNI per capita (current US$)

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.EXP.GNFS.ZS

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.IMP.GNFS.ZS

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG

Inflation

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.TDS.DECT.EX.ZS

Debt service as percentage of exports of goods and services and net income from abroad

Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.TOTL.ZS

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.SRV.TETC.ZS

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

GDP growth (annual %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources

Further information

A selection of links with further development-related background information on Brazil

BMZ glossary

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